HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA-A11 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Inbred BALB CPeptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Mice, Inbred C57BLTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Melanoma-Specific Antigens: Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.HLA-B18 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*18 allele family.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HLA-DP beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.

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The identification of novel antigens presented by tumors and recognized by T cells has been a bottleneck in the development of effective cancer immunotherapies. It has primarily been carried out using approaches that are based upon the transfection of COS-7 or HEK293 cells with cDNA library pools. In this study, a conventional cDNA library screening approach was used to identify the antigens recognized by therapeutic TIL 2359 and 2591. Screening of an autologous cDNA library prepared from Mel 2359 led to the identification of two nonmutated antigens, SERPINE2 and DUSP12, as HLA-A*0205-restricted targets of TIL 2359. On the other hand, TIL 2591 recognized several previously described epitopes, including HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes of MART-1, tyrosinase, and NA17-A, as well as an HLA-A*01-restricted epitope of tyrosinase. Similarly, screening of an autologous cDNA library prepared from Mel 2591 led to the ...

*  The Role of Mammalian Actin Binding Protein 1 in Coupling BCR Signaling and Antigen Transport Functions

The B cell receptor (BCR) serves as both signal-transducer and antigen-transporter. Binding of antigens to the BCR induces signaling cascades and antigen-processing and presentation, two essential cellular events for B cell activation. BCR-initiated signaling increases BCR-mediated antigen-processing efficiency by increasing the rate and specificity of antigen transport. Previous studies showed a critical role for the actin cytoskeleton in these two processes. Here I found that actin-binding protein 1 (Abp1/HIP-55/SH3P7) functioned as an actin-binding adaptor protein, coupling BCR signaling and antigen-processing pathways with the actin cytoskeleton. Gene knockout of Abp1 and over-expression of the SH3 domain of Abp1 inhibited BCR-mediated antigen internalization, consequently reducing the rate of antigen transport to processing compartments and the efficiency of BCR-mediated antigen-processing and presentation. BCR activation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Abp1 and translocation of ...

*  In vitro Antigen-presentation Assay for Self- and Microbial-derived Antigens -BIO-PROTOCOL

Antigen presenting cells (APC) are able to process and present to T cells antigens from different origins. This mechanism is highly regulated, in particular by Patter Recognition Receptor (PRR) signals. Here, I detail a protocol designed to assess in vitro the capacity of APC to present antigens derived from bacteria, apoptotic and infected apoptotic cells.

*  Simultaneous detection of two different cell surface antigens by electron microscopy by means of multivalent hibrid antibody...

Autori: E. Mandache, Gabriela Mota, Moldoveanu E., I. Moraru, V. Ghetie. Editorial: Journal of Immunological Methods, 42, p.355-365, 1981.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: multivalent hibrid antibody. ...

*  Current Trends in Histocompatibility

www.MOLUNA.de Current Trends in Histocompatibility [4203655] - I. Serology and Genetics.- 1 Studies of HLA-DR Antigens by Complement Fixation.- 2 Serological and Cellular Recognition of Human Histocompatibility Antigens.- 3 Are D and DR Two Distinct Entities?.- 4 Genetic Organization, Tissue Expression, and Functional Role of Murine Ia Antigens.- 5 Expression of Syngeneic and Allogeneic H-2 Antigens on
https://moluna.de/buch/4203655-current trends in histocompatibility/

*  Iranian Lurs Genetic Diversity: An Anthropological View Based on HLA Class II Profiles

Background: HLA genes are highly polymorphic and certain alleles are frequent only in specific populations. Therefore, HLA is a unique tool for studying the genetic relationship between different populations. Iranians are ethnically diverse people and one of the major ethnic groups in Iran is Lur population inhabiting along the central and southern parts of Zagros Chain Mountain. Objectives: Genetic relationship among three Lur subpopulations was investigated based on HLA class II profiles. Methods: HLA typing was performed using PCR/RFLP and PCR/SSP methods in 154 individuals from three Lur subpopulation living in Luristan, Kohkiloyeh/ Boyerahmad, and Chahar-Mahal/ Bakhtiari. Results: The most common DRB1 allele in Lurs of Luristan and Kohkiloyeh/ Boyerahmad was *1103=4 while DRB1*0701 was the most common allele in Bakhtiaris. DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0301 were the most frequent alleles and DRB1*1103=04-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 was the predominant ...

*  Recherche uO Research: Serological identification and characterization of new HLA class I and non-HLA antigens.

This report embarks on an investigation of the ethnic diversity, using alloantisera, of three groups of HLA class I antigens, namely A2, A11, and C-locus antigens, and to define antigens that might be restricted to certain ethnic populations. As transplantation therapy has been widely accepted as the choice of treatment for patients with severe haematological disorders, such as acute leukemia, it is essential to match MHC antigens of unrelated donor and recipient pairs to avoid graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease and to reduce administration of immune suppressants. Results obtained from this study indicate that HLA-A2 consists of at least four variants as measured by isoelectric focusing assay. However, only three serological variants are demonstrated by alloantisera. Results further confirmed that two variants of HLA-A11 exist, as measured by serology and isoelectric focusing. The ...

*  HLA DR抗体(PerCP)[GRB-1]|Abcam中国|Anti-HLA DR抗体(PerCP)[GRB-1]

PerCP偶联HLA DR抗体[GRB-1](ab91333)可与人样本反应并经Flow Cyt实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈,实验条件参看说明书。中国75%以上现货。

*  February 2016

1. Maternal T-Cell Engraftment Interferes With Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency. Liu C, Duffy B, Bednarski JJ, Calhoun C, Lay L, Rundblad B, Payton JE, Mohan…

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Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen (SERA5) is a promising asexual blood stage malaria candidate vaccine. However, there is a paucity of information about natural immune responses to SERA5 in children from malaria-endemic regions. We undertook a hospital-based case-control study of severe malaria in Apac District, Northern Uganda, in children 6-59 months of age. The commonest symptoms observed in children with severe malaria (SM) were respiratory distress (53.4%) and prostration (40.4%) followed by circulatory collapse (7.4%), severe anemia (Hb | 5 g/dL, 7.0%), and seizures (2.6%). None of the SM children had impaired consciousness, coma, or cerebral malaria. We measured serum IgG antibodies using a recombinant construct of SERA5 (SE36) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. High titers of IgG anti-SE36 were associated with protection against severe malaria in children under 5 years old.

*  Medical Sciences | Free Full-Text | In Vitro Efficient Expansion of Tumor Cells Deriving from Different Types of Human Tumor...

Obtaining human tumor cell lines from fresh tumors is essential to advance our understanding of antitumor immune surveillance mechanisms and to develop new ex vivo strategies to generate an efficient anti-tumor response. The present study delineates a simple and rapid method for efficiently establishing primary cultures starting from tumor samples of different types, while maintaining the immuno-histochemical characteristics of the original tumor. We compared two different strategies to disaggregate tumor specimens. After short or long term in vitro expansion, cells analyzed for the presence of malignant cells demonstrated their neoplastic origin. Considering that tumor cells may be isolated in a closed system with high efficiency, we propose this methodology for the ex vivo expansion of tumor cells to be used to evaluate suitable new drugs or to generate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or vaccines.

*  Clonotypic structures involved in antigen-specific human T cell function. Relationship to the T3 molecular complex. | JEM

Monoclonal antibodies were produced against a human cytotoxic T cell clone, CT8III (specificity: HLA-A3), with the view of defining clonally restricted (clonotypic) surface molecules involved in its antigen recognition function. Two individual antibodies, termed anti-Ti1A and anti-Ti1B, reacted exclusively with the CT8III clone when tested on a panel of 80 additional clones from the same donor, resting or activated T cells, B cells, macrophages, thymocytes, or other hematopoietic cells. More importantly, the two antibodies inhibited cell-mediated killing and antigen-specific proliferation of the CT8III clone but did not affect the functions of any other clone tested. This inhibition was not secondary to generalized abrogation of the CT8III clone's function, because interleukin 2 responsiveness was enhanced. To examine the relationship of the structures defined by anti-clonotypic antibodies with known T cell surface molecules, antibody-induced modulation studies and competitive binding assays ...

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The fundamental goal of cancer immunotherapy is the induction of a tumor-specific cytotoxic immune response. The current paradigm of antitumor immunity implies a sequence of events in which antigen-presenting cells from the tissue site of a tumor carry tumor antigen to local draining lymph nodes and promote the education and expansion of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (34). Effector cells leave the lymph node and then traffic to the site(s) of the tumor where they carry out their functions and control tumor growth. This process may be augmented by the local presentation of antigen and further activation and proliferation of T cells within the local microenvironment.. With regard to malignant melanoma, several groups have documented immunotherapy protocols that successfully augment the development and activation of melanoma antigen-specific CD8+ effector T cells. Clinical responses, however, have been infrequent, suggesting that antigen recognition by itself is not sufficient ...

*  Administration of EBV Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes to Recipients of Mismatched-Related or Phenotypically Similar Unrelated...

This study investigated CMD-003 in recipients of mismatched-related or phenotypically similar unrelated donor marrow grafts for epstein barr virus

*  Mathematical Modelling of the Spatio-temporal Response of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes to a Solid Tumour Mark A.J. Chaplain...

Chemical ChemicalCarcinogen Radiation Viruses Carcinogens interact with cell components (nucleus) Genetic mutations result (e.g. p53) Normal cell becomes a transformed cell Key difference from normal cell: uncontrolled proliferation Small cluster of malignant cells may still be destroyed Normal/Transformed Cell

*  Characterization of Binding Epitopes of CA125 Monoclonal Antibodies - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske...

The most used cancer serum biomarker is the CA125 immunoassay for ovarian cancer that detects the mucin glycoprotein MUC16. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) including OC125 and M11 are used in CA125 assays. However, despite considerable efforts, our knowledge of the molecular characteristics of the recognized epitopes and the role played by glycosylation has remained elusive. Here a comprehensive set of recombinant MUG 16 tandem repeats (TRs) expressed in glycoengineered mammalian cells and E. coil, together with overlapping peptides, was used to probe antigen-binding epitopes. We present a complete analysis of N- and O-glycosylation sites of a MUC16 TR expressed in CHO cells and demonstrate that neither N- nor O-glycosylation appear to substantially influence binding of OC125 and M11 mAbs. A series of successive N- and C-terminal truncations of a MUC16 TR construct expressed in E. coli narrowed down the epitopes for OC125 and M11 to a segment containing parts of two consecutive SEA domains ...

*  "Epitope characterization of sero-specific monoclonal antibody to Clost" by Cindi R Corbett, Erin Ballegeer et al.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that can contaminate foods and are a public health concern. Anti-BoNT antibodies have been described that are capable of detecting BoNTs; however there still exists a need for accurate and sensitive detection capabilities for BoNTs. Herein, we describe the characterization of a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated to the non-toxic receptor-binding domain of BoNT/A (H(C)50/A) developed using a high-throughput screening approach. In two independent hybridoma fusions, two groups of four IgG MAbs were developed against recombinant H(C)50/A. Of these eight, only a single MAb, F90G5-3, bound to the whole BoNT/A protein and was characterized further. The F90G5-3 MAb slightly prolonged time to death in an in vivo mouse bioassay and was mapped by pepscan to a peptide epitope in the N-terminal subdomain of H(C)50/A (H(CN)25/A) comprising amino acid residues (985)WTLQDTQEIKQRVVF(999), an epitope that is highly immunoreactive in humans.

*  Anti-Zebrafish Gut Absorptive Cell Epitopes抗体[FIS 4E8/1]

Zebrafish Gut Absorptive Cell Epitopes小鼠单克隆抗体[FIS 4E8/1](ab73643)可与斑马鱼样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。

*  MHC-NP Example

Choose one of the radio buttons below to select protein sequence(s) containing MHC-NP epitopes described in the literature with defined MHC restrictions for which predictions are available. These sequences will be transferred to the MHC-NP predictions when clicking the "Submit" button. These test-datasets are meant to demonstrate the functionality of the tools and are by no means considered equivalent to a formal performance evaluation ...

*  HLA-DR抗体[EPR3692]|Abcam中国|Anti-HLA-DR抗体[EPR3692]

HLA-DR兔单克隆抗体[EPR3692](ab92511)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。

*  SOCS2 regulates T helper type 2 differentiation and the generation of type 2 allergic responses.

The incidence of allergy and asthma in developed countries is on the increase and this trend looks likely to continue. CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2) cells are major drivers of these diseases and their commitment is controlled by cytokines such as interleukin 4, which are in turn regulated by the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. We report that SOCS2?/? CD4+ T cells show markedly enhanced Th2 differentiation. SOCS2?/? mice, as well as RAG-1?/? mice transferred with SOCS2?/? CD4+ T cells, exhibit elevated type 2 responses after helminth antigen challenge. Moreover, in in vivo models of atopic dermatitis and allergen-induced airway inflammation, SOCS2?/? mice show significantly elevated IgE, eosinophilia, type 2 responses, and inflammatory pathology relative to wild-type mice. Finally, after T cell activation, markedly enhanced STAT6 and STAT5 phosphorylation is observed in SOCS2?/? T cells, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation is blunted. Thus, we provide the first evidence that SOCS2 plays an ...

*  Efficient Identification of Novel Hla-A*0201-Presented Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes in the Widely Expressed Tumor Antigen...

In a systematic search for new CTL epitopes in known protein sequences with tumor restricted expression, the strategy of in vitro stimulation of CTLs with predicted epitopes (also coined "reverse immunology") has successfully led to the identification of several epitopes (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25), but has met with many failures and is generally inefficient (our unpublished results and references (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)). The current study reports the identification of four novel HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes in PRAME (PRA100-108, PRA142-151, PRA300-309, and PRA425-433) by an improved multistep epitope prediction procedure. Using in vitro proteasome-mediated digestion pattern analysis, the four epitopes were chosen for CTL inductions and shown to be naturally presented. In addition, we show that CTL clones with high sensitivity for high affinity binding peptide PRA47-56, which was not produced in vitro by proteasome-mediated digestion (Fig. 2), were unable to lyse PRAME and ...

*  Intra- and Interspecies Analyses of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Gene Family Reveal Independent Evolution in Primates and...

Various rodent and primate DNAs exhibit a stronger intra- than interspecies cross-hybridization with probes derived from the N-terminal domain exons of human and rat carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like genes. Southern analyses also reveal that the human and rat CEA gene families are of similar complexity. We counted at least 10 different genes per human haploid genome. In the rat, approximately seven to nine different N-terminal domain exons that presumably represent different genes appear to be present. We were able to assign the corresponding genomic restriction endonuclease fragments to already isolated CEA gene family members of both human and rat. Highly similar subgroups, as found within the human CEA gene family, seem to be absent from the rat genome. Hybridization with an intron probe from the human nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) gene and analysis of DNA sequence data indicate the conservation of noncoding regions among CEA-like genes within primates, implicating that whole ...

*  Impact on survival of intensive follow up after curative resection for colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis...

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence from clinical trials of follow up of patients after curative resection for colorectal cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of intensive compared with control follow up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality at five years (primary outcome). Rates of recurrence of intraluminal, local, and metastatic disease and metachronous (second colorectal primary) cancers (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: Five trials, which included 1342 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Intensive follow up was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality (combined risk ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94, P=0.007). The effect was most pronounced in the four extramural detection trials that used computed tomography and frequent measurements of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (risk ratio 0.73, 0.60 to 0.89, P=0.002). Intensive follow up was associated with significantly earlier detection of all recurrences (difference in ...

*  Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Polyclonal (CEA P) by Immunohistochemistry

Formalin fix (10 percent neutral buffered formalin) and paraffin embed specimen (cells must be prepared into a cellblock). Protect paraffin block and/or slides from excessive heat. Transport tissue block or 5 unstained (3- to 5-micron thick sections), positively charged slides in a tissue transport kit (ARUP supply #47808). Available online through eSupply using ARUP Connect™ or contact ARUP Client Services at (800) 522-2787. (Min: 2 slides). If sending precut slides, do not oven bake ...

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The therapeutic efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FUra; 0.6 mg/day × 5 days) + leucovorin (LV; 1.8 mg/day × 5 days) and of 131I-labeled MN-14 anticarcinoembryonic antigen IgG (275 µCi single dose) was evaluated in size-matched (0.3-0.7 cm3) s.c. LoVo, HT-29, DLD-1, HCT-15, LS174T, and MOSER, GW-39, and WidR human colonic tumors. These lines express varying amounts of carcinoembryonic antigen and exhibit varying degrees of in vitro responsiveness to 5-FUra. Unlike radioimmunotherapy (RAIT), multiple cycles of chemotherapy were feasible over a 3-week period. However, no therapeutic advantage to a second cycle of 5-FUra/LV administration was found. Therefore, it is reasonable to compare single cycles of both treatment modalities. RAIT was statistically more effective in 5 of 8 tumor lines (LoVo, LS174T, MOSER, WidR, and GW-39). In 1 other line (DLD-1), RAIT was marginally more efficacious, but tumors responded well to both therapies. The lack of a statistical difference between the 2 modalities of ...

*  Plus it

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family is a very divergent group of glycoproteins, which has at least 29 members. CEAs play a role in a number of normal and pathological processes. In the CEA subgroup, CEA (CEACAM5) and CEACAM6 are overexpressed in a wide variety of epithelial malignancies. Elevated blood levels of CEA are associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Currently, CEA is widely used as a tumor marker for the clinical management of CRC. Animal studies showed that CEA enhances the process of metastasis. CEA has also been reported to increase resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy and the anoikis, a form of apoptosis caused by detachment from cell matrix. In the last decade, several models have been put forward on the mechanism by which CEA inhibits apoptosis in CRC and increases CRC metastatic potential. However, due to the discrepancies between different reports, there is no clear understanding of the primary functions of CEA. Aims: In this study we ...

*  Plus it

Effective immunotherapeutic treatment of various cancers may require combinational approaches to induce specific immunity to the tumor as well as inhibition of immune check-points. We have developed a viral gene delivery platform to immunize against numerous tumor associated antigens (TAA) such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), HER2/neu and HPV 16. We investigated the therapeutic benefit of the immunotherapeutics alone and in combination with check-point inhibitors such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1) blockade and LAG3 blockade in murine tumor models. As single agents, immunization with the viral delivery platform encoding the TAA induced target-specific cell-mediated immunity and anti-tumor responses in the respective model. When the immunotherapies were combined with immune checkpoint blockade, an increased level of anti-tumor activity against was observed in addition to an improvement in survival. Tumor microenvironment analysis immunized mice revealed an increase in CD8+ ...

*  Atomic structure of a T cell receptor binding to a peptide-MHC complex (1996) | British Society for Immunology

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*  T-cell receptor. Causes, symptoms, treatment T-cell receptor

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*  Flow Cytometric Analysis of T Cell Receptor Signal Transduction | Science Signaling

Intracellular assays of signal transduction in T cells stimulated by antigen in vivo have been limited by requirements for large numbers of highly purified cells to perform conventional biochemical techniques. Here, we describe a technique using flow cytometry to study signaling events in T cells after antigen recognition in the body.. ...


Principal Investigator:SAKIYAMA Shoji,宇山 正, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Thoracic surgery

*  New simplified molecular design for functional T cell receptor

We have produced a chimeric single-chain T cell receptor (TcR) that combines the specific antibody recognition function and TcR/CD3 signaling properties within the same polypeptide chain. This hybrid molecule consisted of a single-chain antibody combining site that was connected over a short spacer to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic region of CD3. When expressed on TcR- or TcR+ T cell hybridomas it could mediate recognition of relevent target cells and subsequent production of lymphokines; i.e. it could functionally replace the TcR/CD3 complex. Therefore, the single-chain TcR model presented here represents an interesting and useful means for the creation of T cells with new specificities. ...

*  Frontiers | Using Global Analysis to Extend the Accuracy and Precision of Binding Measurements with T cell Receptors and Their...

In cellular immunity, clonally distributed T cell receptors (TCRs) engage complexes of peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (pMHCs). In the interactions of TCRs with pMHCs, regions of restricted and variable diversity align in a structurally complex fashion. Many studies have used mutagenesis to attempt to understand the

*  JAIRO | 分子イメージングが拓く免疫細胞の時空間的制御機構 ─T細胞シグナルユニット「TCRマイクロクラスター」の発見─

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*  "Major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and the control of v" by Randy R. Brutkiewicz and Raymond M. Welsh

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*  Purification of soluble HLA class I complexes from human serum or plasma delivers high quality immune-peptidomes required for...

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*  Plus it

Introduction: Neutrophil elastase (NE) is an inflammatory mediator that is taken up by breast cancer cells. We have previously shown that NE uptake increases susceptibility to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) targeting the tumor antigens PR1 and cyclin E. We investigated whether NE uptake alters adaptive immunity by affecting MHC class I antigen presentation and T cell inhibitory molecules.. Methods: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were maintained in standard media ± NE. Healthy donor HLA-A2+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to generate antigen specific CTL by pulsing dendritic cells with E75, a HER2-derived epitope we are currently investigating as a vaccine in clinical trials. Calcein-AM cytotoxicity assays evaluated E75-specific lysis. Flow cytometry was used to show NE uptake, HLA-A2, pan-HLA class I (HLA-ABC) and PD-L1 surface expression. Western blot analysis was used to show total MHC class I heavy ...

*  Complementary Dendritic Cell-activating Function of CD8+ and CD4+ T Cells | JEM

Current models of the immune response recognize MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells as effector cells against intracellular pathogens, reserving T helper function for MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells, that activate DCs, instructing them to induce effector functions in CD8+ T cells (3-5). The present demonstration that human MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells contribute to DC activation, and induce Th1-promoting phenotype in DCs, indicates a novel role for human CD8+ T cells as "helper cells" during the induction of Th1-polarized inflammatory-type responses, and a role for DCs as effective carriers of such "reverse" (CD8+ to CD4+) helper signals.. While a large body of data supports the role of DCs in providing naive Th cells with the signals that drive immune responses to Th1- or Th2-direction (29-31), it is unclear how DCs distinguish between the different classes of pathogens that require Th1- versus Th2-type responses. One previously proposed mechanism rests on the ability of some ...

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*  Speaking of Passing....What is the minimum passing grade in your NURSING classes? - pg.4 | allnurses

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*  Pretend Patient | allnurses

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*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - A rat monoclonal antibody that catalyses the hydrolysis of a nitrophenyl-beta-lactam.

A rat monoclonal antibody that catalyses the hydrolysis of a nitrophenyl-beta-lactam We report the first example of a monoclonal antibody-catalysed hydrolysis of a P-lactam where the antibodies were generated by a simple transition-state analogue. A rat monoclonal antibody (1/91c/4d/26) generated by using an acyclic 4- nitrophenylphosphate immunogen catalysed the hydrolysis of corresponding 4-nitrophenyl carbonates but, more importantly. also catalysed the hydrolysis of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-azetidinone at pH 8 with k(cat) = 8.7 x 10(-6) s(-1) and K-M = 35 muM. This is the first example of a rat monoclonal catalytic antibody. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.. ...

*  Anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody - Genentech - AdisInsight

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*  CD27 Mouse anti-Human, Clone: O323, eBioscience™ 25μg; Unlabeled CD27 Mouse anti-Human, Clone: O323, eBioscience™

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*  CD163 Mouse anti-Human, PE, Clone: eBioGHI/61 (GHI/61), eBioscience™ 100 tests; PE CD163 Mouse anti-Human, PE, Clone: eBioGHI...

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*  Anti-Plant Actin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (3T3) becomes the latest addition to the Abbkine family | Share Market News Live

Abbkine Scientific Co. Ltd is known for making quality life science products and tools and it recently announced the official launch of its new antibody - the Anti-Plant Actin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (3T3).. The antibody otherwise known as AT3G12110 antibody is a Plant Actin Antibody, which is an essential component of cell cytoskeleton. The substance also plays a critical role in the streaming of cytoplasmic, determination of cell shape, cell division and extension growth.. The product is available in a liquid solution and hosted by mouse hence, Plant Actin Mouse mAb. The antibody is also a Recombinant Protein immunogen, with plant reactivity. The antibody like many of its other counterparts is affinity-purified from mouse ascites using specific immunogen by affinity-chromatography.. The Anti-Plant Actin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (3T3) is made solely for research purpose and not intended for clinical or human use. It can also be stored for as long as one year at -20°C from date of ...

*  Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) (Proliferation Marker) Antibody - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone BU20a ] IHC-P, IF, FC - Buy Now! ...

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*  Anti Human FSH Beta 2 Antibody, clone INN-hFSH-60 - Mouse Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody IHC-P, IHC-F, E - Buy Now! |Abgent

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*  Cytokeratin, Multi (Epithelial Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM583 ] WB, IHC-P,...

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*  Monoclonal antibody B43 Genistein-conjugate - AdisInsight

Monoclonal antibody B43-Gen is a conjugate of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monoclonal antibody B43 which has high affinity for CD19, a B

*  CD11a Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: M17/4, eBioscience™ 100μg; FITC CD11a Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: M17/4, eBioscience™

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*  IL-33R (ST2) Rat anti-Mouse, PE, Clone: RMST2-2, eBioscience™ 25μg; PE IL-33R (ST2) Rat anti-Mouse, PE, Clone: RMST2-2,...

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*  CD117 (c-kit) Rat anti-Mouse, APC, Clone: 2B8, eBioscience™ 50μg; APC CD117 (c-kit) Rat anti-Mouse, APC, Clone: 2B8,...

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*  CD63 Rat anti-Mouse, PE-Cy7, Clone: NVG-2, eBioscience™ 100μg; PE-Cy7 CD63 Rat anti-Mouse, PE-Cy7, Clone: NVG-2, eBioscience™

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*  CD90.2 (Thy-1.2) Rat anti-Mouse, Clone: 30-H12, eBioscience™ 500μg; Unlabeled CD90.2 (Thy-1.2) Rat anti-Mouse, Clone: 30-H12,...

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*  Ly-6G (Gr-1) Rat anti-Mouse, APC, Clone: RB6-8C5, eBioscience™ 100μg; APC Ly-6G (Gr-1) Rat anti-Mouse, APC, Clone: RB6-8C5,...

Ly-6G (Gr-1) Rat anti-Mouse, APC, Clone: RB6-8C5, eBioscience™ 100μg; APC Ly-6G (Gr-1) Rat anti-Mouse, APC, Clone: RB6-8C5, eBioscience™ Primary...

*  DARZALEX® (daratumumab) Approved by U.S. FDA: First Human Anti-CD38 Monoclonal Antibody Available

HORSHAM, Pa., Nov. 16, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- DARZALEX® (daratumumab) Approved by U.S. FDA: First Human Anti-CD38 Monoclonal Antibody Available for the...

*  CD24 Rat anti-Mouse, eFluor 450, Clone: M1/69, eBioscience™ 100μg; eFluor 450 CD24 Rat anti-Mouse, eFluor 450, Clone: M1/69,...

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*  Plus it

Flow cytometric analysis. Dual-color flow cytometric analysis was done on T-cell lines by using the following antibody combinations: anti-CD56-FITC/anti-CD8-PE, anti-CD8-FITC/anti-CD45RA-PE, anti-CD8-FITC/anti-CD27-PE, and anti-CD8-FITC/anti-CD28 PE. Antibodies were all purchased from BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA). Staining was conducted simultaneously for 1 hour at 4°C; cells were then washed thrice with cold Ca2+- and Mg2+-free PBS, resuspended in the same buffer, and immediately analyzed using a FACScan and the CELLQuest program (BD Biosciences). Data were gathered from 10,000 live cells, stored, and used to generate results.. The procedure for analysis of dendritic cells was similar to the one described above. The following antibody combinations were used: anti-MHC-class II-FITC/anti-CD80-PE, anti-CD58-FITC/anti-CD54-PE, anti-MHC class I-FITC/anti-MHC class II-PE, and anti-IgG1-FITC/anti-IgG2a-PE (isotype controls). Antibodies to MHC class I and class II were purchased from Serotec (Oxford, ...

*  Plus it

Background: Several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with demonstrated clinical anti-cancer activities have been engineered as fully human IgG1 entities to also encompass their potential to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human tumor cells. MSB0010718C is a fully human IgG1 MAb targeting the co-regulatory protein Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), and is thus distinct from other MAbs targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis currently being evaluated in clinical trials. One possibility is that an anti-PD-L1 antibody capable of inducing ADCC may negatively affect PD-L1 expressing immune cell subtypes. This work is intended to determine if there is any validity to this concern. Methods: The clinical activity of MSB0010718C, observed in several tumor types in ongoing clinical studies such as NCT01772004, has been and will be reported elsewhere. In the studies reported here, MSB0010718C is shown to mediate ADCC of several types of human tumor cell lines (e.g., breast, lung, bladder ...

*  Current Trends in Monoclonal Antibody Development and Manufacturing, Buch - ReadRate

Current Trends in Monoclonal Antibody Development and Manufacturing und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.

*  PARD6B Antibody (monoclonal) (M01) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant PARD6B. WB, IF - Buy...

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*  APOA2 Antibody (monoclonal) (M01) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant APOA2. WB, IHC, E - Buy...

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*  ACTN4 Antibody (monoclonal) (M01) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant ACTN4. WB, IHC, IF, E - Buy...

ACTN4 Antibody (monoclonal) (M01), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant ACTN4. validated in WB, IHC, IF, E (AT1033a), Abgent

*  TXNDC3 Antibody (monoclonal) (M01) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant TXNDC3. WB - Buy Now! ...

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*  Inducing adaptive immunity as a way to improve anti-tumor monoclonal antibody therapy

In the past 15 years, eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for cancer therapy by the Food and Drug Administration. It is an additional therapeutic option besides the conventional treatments of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. However, cancer is still one of the most common causes of death, causing 13% ... read more of all deaths in the world. At present, mAbs function as a direct hit therapy for cancer, either by inhibiting tumor growth or by killing the malignant cells. However, often therapy is heterogeneous or relapses occur. The holy grail for immunotherapy for cancer is to induce a memory response. Memory T cells can recognize a tumor after re-encountering and induce anti-tumor immune responses up till years after treatment of the primary tumor. Improving mAbs to enhance the induction of adaptive immunity and generation of memory T cells is very promising. One suggested mAb therapy improvement is a combination with cytotoxic therapies. They induce apoptosis of tumor ...

*  BD IMag Anti-Mouse CD90.2 (Thy1.2) Particles-DM 2 x 109 cells from BD Biosciences Pharmingen

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*  Anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody - Wallace Laboratories - AdisInsight

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) may play a role in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia. Anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody may therefore

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - A first-in-human study of the anti-alpha 5 beta 1 integrin monoclonal antibody PF...

A first-in-human clinical trial of a fully human, Fc-engineered IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting integrin alpha 5 beta 1 was conducted to evaluate tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and preliminary anti-tumor activity. Escalating doses of PF-04605412 were given IV on day 1, 28 and every 2 weeks thereafter to patients with advanced solid tumors until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Sequential dose cohorts were evaluated based on a modified 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. The starting dose was 7.5 mg based on preclinical data. Thirty-three patients were enrolled to six dose levels (7.5, 11.25, 16.9, 34, 68 and 136 mg). Twenty-three patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint (determination of the maximum tolerated dose). Five patients required permanent drug discontinuation due to acute infusion-related reactions, which occurred as grade 3 events in two patients. PK analysis indicated that the targeted drug exposure based on preclinical ...

*  KRT19 / CK19 / Cytokeratin 19 Antibody (clone A53-B/A2) - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P, ICC, E, IP - Buy Now! |Abgent

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*  Anti-beta Catenin antibody [E247] Review (14935) | Abcam

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*  CEACAM1 / CD66a Antibody, Mouse MAb | SinoBiological

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*  KIM-1 / TIM1 / HACVR1 Antibody, Mouse MAb | SinoBiological

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*  Antigen Antibody Interactions, 1st Edition by Charles DeLisi (auth.) - Portal Books

If N* is small, as will undoubtedly be the case for IgM, fluctuations from its mean may have to be considered. To express the first of these effects more formally. let N (r ± 8/2) be the number p of antibodies bound per RBC at r N (r ± 8/2) = N* + P ± 8/2. 11 53 Therefore 8 varies inversely as the gradient at rp. With time fixed, one generally expects smaller gradients at larger distances. Consequently, there will be greater uncertainty in the radii of large plaques. Stochastic effects on the number of antibodies bound at a fixed distance may be discussed approximately by assuming that complement is added at a time when the concentration of diffusing antibodies is near its steady state value. Consider the diffusion of antibodies from a circular well of radius a. into a twodimensional gel containing haptenated RBCs with which the antibodies interact specifically and reversibly. Let rand t measure. respectively. the distance from the center of the well and the length of time which elapsed since ...

*  Mouse Anti-Presenilin 2 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone APS 26 from GeneTex

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*  Mouse IgG2b [PLPV219] - Isotype Control (ab91366)

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*  Rapid Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Using Repetitive Immunizations, Multiple Sites

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*  HEK-293 Cells Immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) isotype control | ABIN2181277

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*  BioMag® SelectaPure anti-Human CD45 | Polysciences, Inc.

BioMag® anti-Human CD IgG-coated particles are produced by covalently attaching murine monoclonal antibodies to BioMag® particles.

*  BioMag® SelectaPure anti-Human CD56 | Polysciences, Inc.

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*  Research programme: anti-CD59 monoclonal antibodies - ARIUS - AdisInsight

ARIUS Research (Roche) was developing monoclonal antibodies directed against the complement inhibitory protein CD59 for the treatment of cancer. CD59 blocks the

*  Safety and Efficacy of ABT-874, a Fully Human Interleukin 12/23 Monoclonal Antibody, in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe...

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*  Mouse Anti-Gemin 2 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 2E17 from ImmuQuest Ltd.

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The present study was undertaken with a rationale that loss of certain "normal tissue" antigens might have prognostic significance, reflecting inactivation of the corresponding genes during neoplastic progression. An attempt was made to identify such antigens by means of generating monocional antibodies using a tolerization/immunization procedure. A monoclonal antibody generated by immunization of BALB/c mice with normal breast tissue extract, following prior tolerization with mammary carcinoma cells, recognized a cell-surface glycoprotein, luminal epithelial antigen, with an apparent molecular weight of 135,000 (LEA.135). The pattern of expression on LEA.135 was determined by immunohistochemical-staining techniques on frozen and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. LEA.135 was demonstrable on the apical plasma membrane of normal and nonneoplastic epithelial cells in breast and other tissues. Studies have shown that LEA.135 is distinct from receptors for ...

*  ml, 100 µl NeuroD2 Antibody 1 mg, 2 mg from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

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*  anti-IL12 antibody [1-1A4] | GeneTex

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*  Anti-A RAF antibody [EPR16208] (ab200653) | Abcam

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*  Phospho anti-Nephrin (Y1176 + Y1193) antibody [EPTPG1] (ab80299) | Abcam

Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Nephrin (phospho Y1176 + Y1193) antibody [EPTPG1] validated for WB and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 1 publication.

*  Anti-BRG1 antibody [EPR3912] (ab108318) | Abcam

Rabbit recombinant monoclonal BRG1 antibody [EPR3912] validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication.

HLA-A: HLA-A is a group of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that are coded for by the HLA-A locus, which is located at human chromosome 6p21.3.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5HLA B7-DR15-DQ6CTL-mediated cytotoxicityCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.CD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Carcinoembryonic antigen: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth.Kinetic-segregation model of T cell activationAntigen presentation: Antigen presentation describes a vital process of the immune system. Immune cells cannot "see inside" other cells, which may be infected with viruses or bacteria, and thus rely on information conveyed by fragments of intracellular components being presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface.Monoclonal antibody therapyMHC class IIPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.HLA-C: HLA-C belongs to the MHC (human = HLA) class I heavy chain receptors. The C receptor is a heterodimer consisting of a HLA-C mature gene product and β2-microglobulin.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.CD79: CD79 (Cluster of Differentiation 79) is a transmembrane protein that forms a complex with the B-cell receptor (BCR) and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and CD79B (formerly known as Ig-alpha and Ig-beta); these form a heterodimer on the surface of a B cell stabilized by disulfide bonding.Coles PhillipsPerosamineEscheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.ExbivirumabVisilizumabGustav GaudernackJames A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation: The James A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation is a US-based non-profit organization with a mission to fund clinical trials and research studies, and to advance education, awareness, screenings and treatment to eventually eradicate melanoma.HLA-DMIndian blood group system: The Indian blood group system (In) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that is expressed on the surface of blood cells. It is named so because 4% of the population in India possess it.SEA Native Peptide LigationImmunizationKeliximabAcute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.HLA-DQ: HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC Class II.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.H-Y antigen: H-Y antigen is a male tissue specific antigen. Originally thought to trigger the formation of testes, it is now known that it doesn't trigger the formation of testes but may be activated by the formation of the male testes.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.

(1/1082) Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules by salivary gland epithelial cells in patients with Sjogren's syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of B7 costimulatory molecules in the lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland (SG) biopsy tissues and in SG epithelial cell lines derived from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in minor SGs obtained from 11 patients with SS and 10 disease control patients with nonspecific sialadenitis and in cultured SG epithelial cell lines obtained from minor SGs from 15 SS patients and 15 control patients. B7.1 and B7.2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by SG epithelial cell lines was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In biopsy tissues from SS patients, but not control patients, ductal and acinar epithelial cells showed increased expression of both B7.1 and B7.2. Intense spontaneous B7.1 protein expression (as well as HLA-ABC, but not B7.2 or HLA-DR) was also found in 73% of SG epithelial cell lines from SS patients versus 13% of those from control patients (P < 0.01). Interferon-y treatment induced, or up-regulated, B7.1, B7.2, and HLA-DR expression in all SG epithelial cell lines tested. B7.1 and B7.2 expression by SG epithelial cell lines was also verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Human SG epithelia are intrinsically capable of expressing B7 proteins upon activation. In SS patients, the expression of B7 molecules by SG epithelial tissues and by SG epithelial cell lines indicates the activated status of SG epithelial cells in this disorder and, possibly, their capacity for presenting antigens to T cells.  (+info)

(2/1082) Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model.

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

(3/1082) Feasibility of immunotherapy of relapsed leukemia with ex vivo-generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hematopoietic system-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens.

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recurrence of the underlying malignancy is a major cause of treatment failure. Donor-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for patients' minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) play an important role in both graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivities. mHags HA-1 and HA-2 induce HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs in vivo and are exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cells, including leukemic cells and leukemic precursors, but not on fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or liver cells. The chemical nature of the mHags HA-1 and HA-2 is known. We investigated the feasibility of ex vivo generation of mHag HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs from unprimed mHag HA-1- and/or HA-2-negative healthy blood donors. HA-1 and HA-2 synthetic peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to stimulate autologous unprimed CD8(+) T cells. The ex vivo-generated HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs efficiently lyse leukemic cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients. No lytic reactivity was detected against nonhematopoietic cells. Sufficient numbers of the CTLs can be obtained for the adoptive immunotherapy purposes. In conclusion, we present a feasible, novel therapy for the treatment for relapsed leukemia after BMT with a low risk of GVHD.  (+info)

(4/1082) Assessment of immunogenicity of human Melan-A peptide analogues in HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice.

Previous studies have shown that substitution of single amino acid residues in human Melan-A immunodominant peptides Melan-A27-35 and Melan-A26-35 greatly improved their binding and the stability of peptide/HLA-A*0201 complexes. In particular, one Melan-A peptide analogue was more efficient in the generation of Melan-A peptide-specific and melanoma-reactive CTL than its parental peptide in vitro from human PBL. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immunogenicity of Melan-A natural peptides and their analogues in HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice. We found that two human Melan-A natural peptides, Melan-A26-35 and Melan-A27-35, were relatively weak immunogens, whereas several Melan-A peptide analogues were potent immunogens for in vivo CTL priming. In addition, induced Melan-A peptide-specific mouse CTL cross-recognized natural Melan-A peptides and their analogues. More interestingly, these mouse CTL were also able to lyse human melanoma cell lines in vitro in a HLA-A*0201-restricted, Melan-A-specific manner. Our results indicate that the HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mouse is a useful animal model to perform preclinical testing of potential cancer vaccines, and that Melan-A peptide analogues are attractive candidates for melanoma immunotherapy.  (+info)

(5/1082) HLA alleles determine human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) proviral load and the risk of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.

The risk of disease associated with persistent virus infections such as HIV-I, hepatitis B and C, and human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) is strongly determined by the virus load. However, it is not known whether a persistent class I HLA-restricted antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response reduces viral load and is therefore beneficial or causes tissue damage and contributes to disease pathogenesis. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) patients have a high virus load compared with asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. We hypothesized that HLA alleles control HTLV-I provirus load and thus influence susceptibility to HAM/TSP. Here we show that, after infection with HTLV-I, the class I allele HLA-A*02 halves the odds of HAM/TSP (P < 0.0001), preventing 28% of potential cases of HAM/TSP. Furthermore, HLA-A*02(+) healthy HTLV-I carriers have a proviral load one-third that (P = 0.014) of HLA-A*02(-) HTLV-I carriers. An association of HLA-DRB1*0101 with disease susceptibility also was identified, which doubled the odds of HAM/TSP in the absence of the protective effect of HLA-A*02. These data have implications for other persistent virus infections in which virus load is associated with prognosis and imply that an efficient antiviral CTL response can reduce virus load and so prevent disease in persistent virus infections.  (+info)

(6/1082) The lifespan of major histocompatibility complex class I/peptide complexes determines the efficiency of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/peptide association and stability are determined by specific amino acid interactions between peptide antigens and the MHC groove, and are regarded as a critical feature in ensuring efficient monitoring by T cells. In this investigation we examined the relationship between MHC/peptide stability and the immunostimulatory capacity of MHC/peptide complexes. For this purpose we compared synthetic peptide analogues derived from the immunodominant HLA-A11-presented IVTDFSVIK (IVT) epitope, for their capacity to reactivate IVT-specific memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The analogues differentiated from the wild-type epitope by single amino acid substitution at position 2. All peptides showed similar affinity for HLA-A11 molecules and were recognized by IVT-specific CTL clones, but induced HLA-A11 complexes at the cell surface with different lifespan. This model offered the possibility of comparing the capacity of an immunogenic epitope to stimulate a unique population of T-cell precursors depending on the lifespan of its presentation at the cell surface. We demonstrated that stable HLA-A11/peptide complexes efficiently stimulate IVT-specific CTL responses, while HLA-A11/peptide complexes with short lifespan do not. The precise identification of the role of amino acid residues in the formation of stable MHC/peptide complexes may be relevant for the design of wild-type-derived epitopes with high immunogenicity. These analogues may have important applications in the immunotherapy of infectious diseases and immunogenic tumours.  (+info)

(7/1082) Differences in gene conversion rates among exons between HLA-A and HLA-B loci.

To examine whether gene conversion occurs between two homologous loci of HLA-A and HLA-B, DNA sequences were compared and the differences or the numbers of substitutions per site at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites were calculated in the coding region and in the non-coding region. (1) Totally differences at synonymous sites in introns and coding regions are small as compared with the differences in the 5' flanking region. This indicates that gene conversion should occur between HLA-A and HLA-B loci. (2) In exon2 and exon3, the differences at synonymous sites are smaller than at nonsynonymous sites. This suggests that these exons are subject to positive natural selection, which is consistent with the reports of Hughes and Nei [1,2], because exon2 and exon3 encode alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains of the HLA molecule respectively which include mainly the antigen recognition sites (ARS). (3) in exon4, the difference at the synonymous site is the same as that in the 5' flanking region, which suggests that gene conversion does not frequently occur. The difference in this exon is extremely small at the nonsynonymous sites. This exon encodes the alpha 3 domain which does not have the antigen recognition sites but have an important function in maintaining the structure of the HLA molecule. From the above results, it can be concluded that gene conversion between HLA-A and HLA-B occurs more frequently in the two exons, exon2 and exon3 which have ARS regions. Furthermore, to examine a possibility that the variability of GC content along sequence influences the difference, the GC content was calculated along the sequence.  (+info)

(8/1082) Biosynthesis of HLA-C heavy chains in melanoma cells with multiple defects in the expression of HLA-A, -B, -C molecules.

Recent investigations have shown that malignant transformation may down-regulate the expression of class I HLA molecules, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and members of the antigen-processing machinery. In the present study, we HLA-genotyped and identified at a biochemical level the three (HLA-A25, -B8, -Cw7) class I alleles expressed by the previously described [D'Urso CM et al (1992) J Clin Invest 87: 284-292] beta2m-defective human melanoma FO-1 cell line and tested their ability to interact with calnexin, calreticulin and the TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) complex. All these alleles were found to bind calnexin, but not calreticulin or the poorly expressed TAP complex, both in parental and beta2m-transfected FO-1 cells, demonstrating a complex defect of class I expression in FO-1 cells. In these conditions, Cw7 heavy chains interacted with calnexin more strongly than A25 and B8, and preferentially accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum, in both a calnexin-associated and a calnexin-free form. In addition, they could be transported to the cell surface at low levels even in the absence of beta2m, without undergoing terminal glycosylation. These results establish a parallel between HLA-C and the murine Db and Ld molecules which have been found to be surface expressed and functional in beta2m-defective cells. They also demonstrate distinctive features of HLA-C molecules. We propose that the accumulation of several assembly intermediates of HLA-C might favour the binding of peptide antigens not readily bound by HLA-A and -B molecules in neoplastic cells with suboptimal class I expression.  (+info)

positive HLA-B27 test

  • If there are symptoms or signs of an autoimmune disease, a positive HLA-B27 test may confirm the diagnosis. (drugs.com)
  • A positive HLA-B27 test means that the person tested is at increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases . (labtestsonline.org)


  • An HLA-B27 test may be ordered when a person has acute or chronic pain and inflammation in the spine, neck, chest, eyes, and/or joints , and the healthcare practitioner suspects the cause is an autoimmune disorder that is associated with the presence of HLA-B27. (labtestsonline.org)
  • If the person has symptoms such as chronic pain, inflammation , and/ or degenerative changes to bones (as seen on X-ray), then it supports a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis , reactive arthritis , or another autoimmune disorder that is associated with the presence of HLA-B27. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This does not mean, however, that the person tested does not have the suspected condition since people who do not have the HLA-B27 antigen can also develop these autoimmune diseases. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Detection of more than 1,000 different T-cell specificities in parallel facilitates identification of cancer and autoimmune antigens. (nature.com)


  • With new genetic testing methods, it is now possible to separate HLA-B27 into subtypes. (labtestsonline.org)
  • So far, at least 105 different subtypes have been identified, such as HLA B27*05 and HLA B27*02. (labtestsonline.org)


  • Engagement of the T cell receptor molecules with MHC-antigen complexes presented by B cells ascertains antigen specificity in T cell-dependent help. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ligation of MHC molecules on the surface of B cells, however, has not only been implicated in antigen-specific T-B cell interaction, but has also been linked to the induction of B cell apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An effective and effecient peptide binding prediction approach for a broad set of HLA-DR molecules based on ordered weighted averaging of binding pocket profiles. (ebi.ac.uk)


  • Here, the authors show that the class II molecule HLA-DP 84Gly uses both class I and II mechanisms to constitutively present peptides. (nature.com)


  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins that help the body's immune system tell the difference between its own cells and foreign, harmful substances. (drugs.com)


  • As transplantation therapy has been widely accepted as the choice of treatment for patients with severe haematological disorders, such as acute leukemia, it is essential to match MHC antigens of unrelated donor and recipient pairs to avoid graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease and to reduce administration of immune suppressants. (uottawa.ca)
  • The more "HLA markers" a child and donor share, the greater the chance that a transplant will be successful. (kidshealth.org)
  • A report in the July issue of Archives of Surgery , one of the JAMA/Archives journals says that avoiding HLA-DR mismatching appears to be beneficial in pediatric kidney transplant patients, however the likelihood of finding a matching donor must be considered against the wait time for a possible donation. (medindia.net)
  • Based on the high incidence of rejection and sensitization seen with HLA-DR-mismatched kidneys observed in this series, we advocate expansion of the current artificial boundaries of donor pools to facilitate better matching and outcomes for young recipients. (medindia.net)


  • The protein is called human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27). (drugs.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus infection induces microRNA editing, which leads to decreased HLA-E expression by, and increased NK cell-mediated killing of, infected cells. (nature.com)
  • Tissue typing or HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing. (kidshealth.org)


  • HLA antigen testing is also used to match donated tissue in a person who is getting an organ transplant. (drugs.com)


  • HLA-B27 is a blood test to look for a protein that is found on the surface of white blood cells. (drugs.com)


  • cell surface antigens that regulate host cell responses to transplanted cells] antigen mismatching has been shown to benefit long-term graft survival, it has raised concerns about disadvantaging minority groups, particularly black patients, and pediatric patients, who have severe growth retardation and other problems when dialysis is prolonged before transplantation," the authors write as background information in the article. (medindia.net)
  • To examine the relationship between HLA-DR mismatching and rejection, graft survival and sensitization in pediatric kidney transplant patients, Lan T. Vu, M.D., and colleagues from the University of California at San Francisco, conducted a retrospective cohort study of 178 pediatric patients who underwent primary kidney transplantation with daclizumab induction therapy (to prevent organ rejection) at the University of California, San Francisco between 1997 and 2006. (medindia.net)
  • Additionally, the 1- and 5-year graft survival rates for this study group were 97 percent and 82 percent respectively, and the authors found that the degree of HLA-DRB1 mismatches were not significantly related to graft failure. (medindia.net)
  • In conclusion, this study showed that HLA-DRB1 mismatch was a risk factor for rejection and that rejection was a strong predictor of graft failure and sensitization in children," the authors write. (medindia.net)


  • Recherche uO Research: Serological identification and characterization of new HLA class I and non-HLA antigens. (uottawa.ca)
  • This report embarks on an investigation of the ethnic diversity, using alloantisera, of three groups of HLA class I antigens, namely A2, A11, and C-locus antigens, and to define antigens that might be restricted to certain ethnic populations. (uottawa.ca)


  • Based on the results generated so far the T-Control consortium will achieved the first objective, i.e. to produce a multi antigen specific T-cell product under GMP conditions at 2 different sites and finalisation of the respective clinical trial. (europa.eu)


  • Identification of these two new C-locus antigens reveals that approximately 11% of the population was falsely typed and possess only one or no C-locus antigen. (uottawa.ca)


  • However, HLA-B27 is normally found in a small number of Caucasians and does not always mean you have a disease. (drugs.com)
  • These two 'new' antigens are found in Black, Caucasian, East Indian and Oriental ethnic groups. (uottawa.ca)


  • HLA-B27 is sometimes ordered to help evaluate someone with recurrent uveitis that is not caused by a recognizable disease process. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Healthcare practitioners frequently use the HLA-B27 test result when they suspect ankylosing spondylitis but the disease is in an early stage and the vertebrae in the spine have not yet undergone the characteristic changes that would be seen on X-ray. (labtestsonline.org)
  • If two members of the same family are HLA-B27 positive and one of them develops a disease associated with HLA-B27, then the other person is at an increased risk of developing a similar disease. (labtestsonline.org)


  • Whether or not certain HLA antigens will be present is genetically determined. (labtestsonline.org)


  • A positive test means HLA-B27 is present. (drugs.com)


  • A normal (negative) result means HLA-B27 is absent. (drugs.com)
  • If an HLA-B27 test is negative, then the marker was not detected. (labtestsonline.org)


  • The HLA-B27 test is primarily ordered to help strengthen or confirm a suspected diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) , reactive arthritis , juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) , or sometimes anterior uveitis . (labtestsonline.org)
  • The HLA-B27 test may be ordered as part of a group of tests used to help diagnose and evaluate conditions causing arthritis-like chronic joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation . (labtestsonline.org)


  • Results obtained from this study indicate that HLA-A2 consists of at least four variants as measured by isoelectric focusing assay. (uottawa.ca)
  • This study also reveals two 'new' serologically defined HLA-C locus antigens: HLA-Cw Hunt and HLA-Cw Grace. (uottawa.ca)
  • This single-center study demonstrated that HLA-DRB1 mismatching increased the risk of allograft rejection by approximately 70 percent in children," write the authors. (medindia.net)


  • Results further confirmed that two variants of HLA-A11 exist, as measured by serology and isoelectric focusing. (uottawa.ca)


  • Direct demonstration of increased expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen in colonic adenoca. (biomedsearch.com)


  • Likewise, someone who has the HLA-B27 antigen will not necessarily develop one of these conditions. (labtestsonline.org)


  • Patients with 1- or 2-HLA-DRB1 mismatches had 1.7 times greater odds of rejection than patients with no HLA-DRB1 mismatches. (medindia.net)