HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Dimethyl sulfoxideTretinoinMinimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemiaGranulocyte: framed|Eosinophilic granulocytePhorbol 12,13-dibutyrateMyeloid leukemiaChildhood leukemia: Childhood leukemia is a type of leukemia, usually acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and a type of childhood cancer. The cure rate of childhood leukemia is generally higher than adult leukemia, approaching 90%, although some side effects of treatment last into adulthood.
(1/3362) Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma.
Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC. (+info)
(2/3362) Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity.
We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells. (+info)
(3/3362) Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells.
The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor. (+info)
(4/3362) A photodynamic pathway to apoptosis and necrosis induced by dimethyl tetrahydroxyhelianthrone and hypericin in leukaemic cells: possible relevance to photodynamic therapy.
The mechanism of cell death induction by dimethyl tetrahydroxyhelianthrone (DTHe), a new second-generation photodynamic sensitizer, is analysed in human leukaemic cell lines in comparison with the structurally related hypericin. DTHe has a broad range of light spectrum absorption that enables effective utilization of polychromatic light. Photosensitization of HL-60 cells with low doses of DTHe (0.65 microM DTHe and 7.2 J cm(-2) light energy) induced rapid apoptosis of > or =90% of the cells. At doses > or =2 microM, dying cells assumed morphological necrosis with perinucleolar condensation of chromatin in HL-60 and K-562 cell lines. Although nuclear fragmentation that is characteristic to apoptosis was prevented, DNA digestion to oligonucleosomes proceeded unhindered. Such incomplete apoptosis was more prevalent with the related analogue hypericin throughout most doses of photosensitization. Despite hypericin being a stronger photosensitizer, DTHe exhibited advantageous phototoxic properties to tumour cells, initiating apoptosis at concentrations about threefold lower than hypericin. Photosensitization of the cells induced dissociation of the nuclear envelope, releasing lamins into the cytosol. DTHe also differed from hypericin in effects exerted on the nuclear lamina, causing release of an 86-kDa lamin protein into the cytosol that was unique to DTHe. Within the nucleus, nuclear envelope lamin B underwent covalent polymerization, which did not affect apoptotic nuclear fragmentation at low doses of DTHe. At higher doses, polymerization may have been extensive enough to prevent nuclear collapse. Hut-78, CD4+ cells were resistant to the photodynamically activated apoptotic pathway. Beyond the tolerated levels of photodynamic damage, these cells died exclusively via necrosis. Hut-78 cells overexpress Bcl-X(L) as well as a truncated Bcl-X(L)tr isoform that could contribute to the observed resistance to apoptosis. (+info)
(5/3362) Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor expression by acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an EGF family member expressed by numerous cell types that binds to EGF receptor 1 (HER-1) or 4 (HER-4) inducing mitogenic and/or chemotactic activities. Membrane-bound HB-EGF retains growth activity and adhesion capabilities and the unique property of being the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). The interest in studying HB-EGF in acute leukemia stems from these mitogenic, chemotactic, and receptor functions. We analyzed the expression of HB-EGF in L428, Raji, Jurkat, Karpas 299, L540, 2C8, HL-60, U937, THP-1, ML-3, and K562 cell lines and in primary blasts from 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot and by the evaluation of sensitivity to DT. The release of functional HB-EGF was assessed by evaluation of its proliferative effects on the HB-EGF-sensitive Balb/c 3T3 cell line. HB-EGF was expressed by all myeloid and T, but not B (L428, Raji), lymphoid cell lines tested, as well as by the majority (8 of 12) of ex vivo AML blasts. Cell lines (except for the K562 cell line) and AML blasts expressing HB-EGF mRNA underwent apoptotic death following exposure to DT, thus demonstrating the presence of the HB-EGF molecule on their membrane. Leukemic cells also released a fully functional HB-EGF molecule that was mitogenic for the Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Factors relevant to the biology of leukemic growth, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3, and especially all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), upregulated HB-EGF mRNA in HL-60 or ML-3 cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced HB-EGF mRNA and acquisition of sensitivity to DT in one previously HB-EGF-negative leukemia case. Moreover, the U937 and Karpas 299 cell lines expressed HER-4 mRNA. This work shows that HB-EGF is a growth factor produced by primary leukemic cells and regulated by ATRA, 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3, and GM-CSF. (+info)
(6/3362) Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins.
5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) plays a pivotal role in cellular leukotriene synthesis. To identify proteins interacting with human 5LO, we used a two-hybrid approach to screen a human lung cDNA library. From a total of 1.5 x 10(7) yeast transformants, nine independent clones representing three different proteins were isolated and found to specifically interact with 5LO. Four 1.7- to 1.8-kb clones represented a 16-kDa protein named coactosin-like protein for its significant homology with coactosin, a protein found to be associated with actin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Coactosin-like protein thus may provide a link between 5LO and the cytoskeleton. Two other yeast clones of 1.5 kb encoded transforming growth factor (TGF) type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 partial cDNA. TGF type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 recently has been reported to associate with the activated form of the TGF beta receptor I and may be involved in the TGF beta-induced up-regulation of 5LO expression and activity observed in HL-60 and Mono Mac 6 cells. Finally, three identical 2.1-kb clones contained the partial cDNA of a human protein with high homology to a hypothetical helicase K12H4. 8 from Caenorhabditis elegans and consequently was named DeltaK12H4. 8 homologue. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a RNase III motif and a double-stranded RNA binding domain, indicative of a protein of nuclear origin. The identification of these 5LO-interacting proteins provides additional approaches to studies of the cellular functions of 5LO. (+info)
(7/3362) Bcl-2 alters the balance between apoptosis and necrosis, but does not prevent cell death induced by oxidized low density lipoproteins.
Oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) participate in atherosclerosis plaque formation, rupture, and subsequent thrombosis. Because oxLDL are toxic to cultured cells and Bcl-2 protein prevents apoptosis, the present work aimed to study whether Bcl-2 may counterbalance the toxicity of oxLDL. Two experimental model systems were used in which Bcl-2 levels were modulated: 1) lymphocytes in which the (high) basal level of Bcl-2 was reduced by antisense oligonucleotides; 2) HL60 and HL60/B (transduced by Bcl-2) expressing low and high Bcl-2 levels, respectively. In cells expressing relatively high Bcl-2 levels (lymphocytes and HL60/B), oxLDL induced mainly primary necrosis. In cells expressing low Bcl-2 levels (antisense-treated lymphocytes, HL60 and ECV-304 endothelial cells), the rate of oxLDL-induced apoptosis was higher than that of primary necrosis. OxLDL evoked a sustained calcium rise, which is a common trigger to necrosis and apoptosis since both types of cell death were blocked by the calcium chelator EGTA. Conversely, a sustained calcium influx elicited by the calcium ionophore A23187 induced necrosis in cells expressing high Bcl-2 levels and apoptosis in cells expressing low Bcl-2 levels. This suggests that Bcl-2 acts downstream from the calcium peak and inhibits only the apoptotic pathway, not the necrosis pathway, thus explaining the apparent shift from oxLDL-induced apoptosis toward necrosis when Bcl-2 is overexpressed. (+info)
(8/3362) Effects of novel RAR- and RXR-selective retinoids on myeloid leukemic proliferation and differentiation in vitro.
Retinoids such as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) have an important role in many aspects of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. They exert their effects by binding to retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and/or retinoid X receptors (RXRs). We studied the effects of novel retinoids on proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 and NB4 myeloid leukemic cells, as well as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells from patients. RXR-selective SR11345 (Retinoid C) had little ability to inhibit the clonal growth and to induce the differentiation of either HL-60 or NB4 cells. However, SR11276 (Retinoid E), which activated both the RAR and RXR classes, and SR11278 (Retinoid D), which activated the RAR subtypes alpha, beta, and gamma, could inhibit clonal growth of both cell types, as well as leukemic cells from APL patients. The combination of ATRA and either SR11276 or SR11278 additively inhibited APL cell proliferation. SR11302 (Retinoid A), with reported anti-AP-1 activity and no activation of RARs and RXR and SR11363 (Retinoid B), which selectively activated RARbeta and gamma, were inactive. The clonal proliferation of both HL-60 and NB4 cells that were pulse-exposed to 10(-9) mol/L ATRA, SR11276, SR11278, or SR11345 for 3 days, washed, and plated in methylcellulose culture were inhibited by 0%, 51%, 21%, and 1% for HL-60 cells and 43%, 41%, 35%, and 1% for NB4, respectively, compared with nontreated control cells. When the HL-60 cells were pulse-exposed to 10(-9) mol/L of either SR11278 or SR11276, plus 10(-9) mol/L ATRA for 3 days, colony numbers were reduced by 46% and 64%, respectively. Induction of leukemic cell differentiation as determined by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay showed that the combination of 10(-7) mol/L of either SR11278 or SR11276 with 10(-7) mol/L ATRA had additive effects on HL-60 cells, NB4 cells, and fresh APL cells. Induction of CD11b expression on both HL-60 and NB4 cells occurs during their differentiation. Expression of this antigen was synergistically augmented by the combination of either 10(-7) to 10(-8) mol/L SR11278 or 10(-7) to 10(-9) mol/L SR11276 with 10(-9) mol/L ATRA compared with either analog alone in HL-60 cells. Expression of the novel myeloid specific transcription factor C/EBPepsilon was increased by SR11278 and SR11276 in both the HL-60 and NB4 cell lines. We conclude that retinoids or combination of retinoids with specificities for both RAR and RXR may markedly enhance the ability of ATRA to inhibit clonal growth and induce differentiation of HL-60 and NB4 leukemic cells. This occurs in the absence of continuous contact with retinoids. (+info)