HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Genes, tat: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Gene Products, vif: Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fusion Proteins, gag-pol: Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes, vpr: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

*  Diagnosis of HIV-1 Infection in Children Younger Than 18 Months in the United States | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS ...

HIV-2 is most prevalent in west Africa. Therefore, most HIV infections in the United States are HIV-1 infections, but HIV-2 ... For HIV-2 diagnostic assays (as well as combined HIV-1 and HIV-2 assays) approved by the FDA, see www.fda.gov/cber/products/ ... Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States, 2004. Available at: www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports ... Global HIV prevalence and distribution. The estimated numbers of HIV-1-infected individuals in North America, western Europe, ...
pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/120/6/e1547.full

*  The CDK inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced by FcγR activation and restricts HIV-1 replication in human macrophages |...

The CDK inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced by FcγR activation and restricts HIV-1 replication in human macrophages. ... Interaction of p21 with PIC associated HIV-1 proteins was not detected either by yeast-two-hybrid or by coimmunoprecipitation ... Remarkably, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p21 rescued the defect of HIV-1 replication in FcγR-activated macrophages and also ... Analysis of the expression of cellular factors associated to HIV-1 reverse transcription/pre-integration complexes showed that ...
https://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4690-6-S2-P11

*  Study to Evaluate Safety and Toxicity of Polyphenon E (EGCG) in HIV-1-Infected Individuals - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Positive HIV rapid test or ELISA and Western Blot; HIV RNA PCR,10,000 copies/ml; positive HIV DNA PCR; neutralizable HIV p 24 ... HIV-1 RNA ,1,000 copies/mL at Screening.. *In the opinion of the investigator, subject has a stable CD4+ T lymphocyte count ... HIV-1 infection ultimately results in impaired specific immune function by virtue of the initial binding of the HIV-1 virion ... HIV. safety. toxicity. pharmacokinetics. Polyphenon E. EGCG. green tea. CD4. viral load. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01433289?term=" August 31, 2011":" September 30, 2011"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=5

*  tat - Protein Tat - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1) - tat gene & protein

In the cytoplasm, Tat is thought to act as a translational activator of HIV-1 mRNAs. ... HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast ... In the cytoplasm, Tat is thought to act as a translational activator of HIV-1 mRNAs.UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated ... Interacts (when acetylated) with human CDK13, thereby increasing HIV-1 mRNA splicing and promoting the production of the doubly ...
uniprot.org/uniprot/P04326

*  Optimizing Pediatric HIV-1 Treatment, Nairobi, Kenya - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Comparison of developmental milestone attainment in early treated HIV-infected infants versus HIV-unexposed infants: a ... Population: HIV-1 infected infants (,13 months) newly initiating HAART and HIV-1 infected infants already receiving HAART who ... HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... Given the high mortality associated with infant HIV-1 and the fact that surrogate markers are poorly predictive of mortality ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00428116?order=406

*  Publications | College of Health Sciences (CHS)

And Correlates Of Pediatric HIV Disclosure In An HIV Treatment Program In Kenya. Click to View Abstract Disclosure to HIV- ... The main study outcomes are rates of maternal enrollment in HIV care and treatment, infant HIV testing uptake, and HIV-free ... Strategies To Improve HIV Test Acceptance And Uptake Of Interventions In PMCT Sites. Click to View Abstract HIV testing in the ... HIV-EU, or HIV- infants. However, HIV infection was associated with a subsequent decline in NK cells as a percentage of total ...
chs.uonbi.ac.ke/uon_publications/author/2844

*  "Retinoid-induced repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cor" by Joseph Walter Maciaszek, Salvatore J. Coniglio et...

Analysis of HIV-1 LTR deletion mutants demonstrated that retinoids were able to repress activation of HIV-1 expression by both ... Retinol, as well as all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid, also repressed HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed ... A cis-acting sequence required for retinoid-mediated repression of HIV-1 transcription was localized between nucleotides -51 ... HIV-1), progression to AIDS following HIV-1 infection, and AIDS-associated mortality are all inversely correlated with serum ...
escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_sp/798/

*  Human immunodeficiency virus - S'pore LGBT encyclopedia

Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV ... Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. ... subtype.[3] Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. ... 1][2] a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic ...
sporelgbtpedia.shoutwiki.com/wiki/HIV

*  A Study of TMC278 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Patients, Who Are Not Treated With Antiretroviral Medicines -...

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antiretroviral. Antiviral. ARV. TMC278. Efavirenz. Combivir. Truvada. Zidovudine. ... Anti-HIV Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors. ... HIV Infections. Immune System Diseases. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. ... Known or suspected acute (primary) HIV-1 infection. *Any current or history of adrenal disorder, and an acute hepatitis A, B, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00110305?order=88

*  "Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc." by Muhammad Mukhtar, Zahida Parveen et al.

2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics ... HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program ( ... HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program ( ... 2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics ...
jdc.jefferson.edu/medfp/47/

*  Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals make autoantibodies that bind to CD43 on normal thymic lymphocytes. |...

The anti-CD43 antibodies were related to HIV-1 infection in that no patients with other chronic viral infections or systemic ... These results demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is specifically associated with the production of autoantibodies that bind to a ... HIV-1)-infected and -noninfected individuals were screened for antibodies that could bind to native T cell differentiation ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals make autoantibodies that bind to CD43 on normal thymic lymphocytes.. B ...
jem.rupress.org/content/172/4/1151

*  A Highly Conserved Residue in HIV-1 Nef Alpha Helix 2 Modulates Protein Expression | mSphere

HIV-1 accessory proteins-ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment. Cell Host Microbe 3:388-398. doi:10.1016/j.chom. ... HIV-1 Nef: a multifaceted modulator of T cell receptor signaling. Cell Commun Signal 10:39. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-10-39. ... HIV-1 Nef induces proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:1806-1815. doi:10.1097/01. ... A Highly Conserved Residue in HIV-1 Nef Alpha Helix 2 Modulates Protein Expression. Aaron L. Johnson, Brennan S. Dirk, Mathieu ...
msphere.asm.org/content/1/6/e00288-16

*  CNS (Central Nervous System) Viral Dynamics and Cellular Immunity During AIDS - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV-infected subjects who are at least 18 years of age, with no ART in the previous 3 months, and with plasma HIV-1 RNA ,20,000 ... HIV-infected subjects who are at least 18 years of age, with no ART in the previous 3 months, and with plasma HIV-1 RNA ,20,000 ... HIV-infected subjects who are at least 18 years of age, with no ART in the previous 3 months, and with plasma HIV-1 RNA ,20,000 ... HIV-infected subjects who are at least 18 years of age, with no ART in the previous 3 months, and with plasma HIV-1 RNA ,20,000 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00583167?order=603

*  Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test

Product: Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test. Applicant: Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, NJ. PMA number: BP950005, ... Summary - Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test (Supplement 4). (PDF - 2.3MB) ... Suppl 4 Letter PDF - Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test. (PDF - 461KB) ... HIV-1) RNA in human plasma; intended for use in conjunction with clinical presentation and other laboratory markers of disease ...
https://fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/BloodBloodProducts/ApprovedProducts/PremarketApprovalsPMAs/ucm091626.htm

*  Passive sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants and adaptation in new hosts. - Radcliffe Department...

Selection on the HIV-1 env gene at transmission favors neutralization-sensitive variants, but it is not known to what degree ... As HIV-1 infections are seeded by unique donor-adapted viral variants, each episode is a highly individual antigenic challenge ... Using four episodes of HIV-1 transmission in which the donors and recipients were both sampled very close to the time of ... Host-specific, idiosyncratic HIV-1 antigenic diversity will seriously tax the efficacy of immunization based on consensus ...
https://rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/28051

*  SGDB | Show Synthetic Gene ID: 156

This codon-optimized HIV-1 gag-pol gene was constructed with codons frequently used by highly expressed human genes. The ... Continuous high-titer HIV-1 vector production. Abstract. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based vectors are ... Infection of cells with HIV-1 can result in stable virus production; cell clones that produce up to 1,000 ng/ml secreted p24 ... Here we report that expression of HIV-1 Gag-Pol by a murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector allows constitutive, long-term, high- ...
umbc.edu/codon/sgdb/show_records.php?rgid=156

*  Clinical Study of TUTI-16 in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV negative healthy subjects or HIV-1 seropositive subjects on effective ART for ,2 months (undetectable HIV plasma viremia), ... HIV Infections Biological: TUTI-16 (0.2mg) Biological: TUTI-16 (1.0 mg) Phase 1 Phase 2 ... HIV-1 Tat protein, a virally encoded toxin, is secreted by HIV-1 infected cells and acts on uninfected cells, rendering them ... HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01144026?term=" June 09, 2010":" July 09, 2010"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=14

*  "Biological analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 envelope" by Paul J. Peters, Jayanta Bhattacharya et al.

HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Lymph Nodes; Macrophages; Molecular Sequence Data; Peptide Fragments; Phenotype; Polymerase ... AIDS Dementia Complex; Amino Acid Sequence; Antigens, CD4; Brain; Cell Fusion; Cells, Cultured; Gene Products, env; HIV ... Biological analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 envelopes amplified from brain and lymph node tissues of AIDS ... "Biological analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 envelopes amplified from brain and lymph node tissues of AIDS ...
escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1523/

*  Increased Breadth and Depth of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Responses against HIV-1-B Nef by Inclusion of Epitope Variant Sequences

For all these strategies, a concern remains: how does HIV-1 diversity impact epitope recognition by the immune system? We ... IFN-γ ELISpot assays were performed using freshly isolated PBMC from 26 HIV-1-infected persons. Three hundred and fifty ... targeting of HIV-1 subtype B Nef using 944 peptides (10-mers overlapping by nine amino acids (AA)) that corresponded to ... Different vaccine approaches cope with HIV-1 diversity, ranging from centralized1-4 to variability-encompassing5-7 antigens. ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017969

*  Interferon-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum of patients in various stages of HIV-1 infection.

HIV-1) infection, 11 patients with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI), and 49 .. ... Abstract Serum samples of 120 patients in different stages of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( ... There was a correlation between IFN-alpha, but not TNF-alpha, and the occurrence of HIV-1 p24 antigen in serum. These results ... Interferon-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum of patients in various stages of HIV-1 infection.. ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/interferonalpha-and-tumor-necrosis-factoralpha-in-serum-of-patients-in-various-stages-of-hiv1-infection-1401769.html

*  Model for assessment of proficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequencing-based genotypic antiretroviral assays |...

HIV) antiretroviral resistance is increasing. Periodic evaluation of the proficiency of laboratories performing this assay ... Six months later, seven laboratories using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit participated in a separate round, working with both ... Ten laboratories using the genotyping platform, HIV-1 Genotyping System (HGS) v. 1 and software versions 1.1 or 2.0, ... Use of sequencing-based genotyping as a diagnostic assay for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral resistance is ...
https://rti.org/publication/model-assessment-proficiency-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-sequencing-based-0

*  Human Immune Responses Toward HIV-1 Envelope Antigens - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Mechanism of HIV-1 envelope processing B cell and T cell activities [ Time Frame: 5 years ]. The outcome measures will be ... Group 2 (HIV positive) only Exclusion Criteria:. *Participant is enrolled in other clinical trials that include any blood ... Jude HIV-1 vaccine study participants will be contacted by phone by study investigators or their designees to assess interest ... Groups 2 will be HIV-1-infected. The first visit of individuals in groups 2 will involve the collection of 120 ml of blood as ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01344941?order=340

*  HIV-1/2

This page contains HIV-1/2 tests with supporting documents ... ABBOTT HIVAB HIV-1/HIV-2 (rDNA) EIA. Abbott Laboratories. *. ... ADVIA Centaur HIV 1/O/2 Enhanced ReadyPack Reagents. Bayer HealthCare. *. Chembio HIV 1/2 STAT-PAK Assay. Chembio Diagnostic ... OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. OraSure Technologies. *. ... Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test. Bio-Rad Laboratories. *. ... Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo. Abbott Laboratories. *. ...
https://fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/BloodBloodProducts/ApprovedProducts/LicensedProductsBLAs/BloodDonorScreening/InfectiousDisease/ucm126583.htm

*  HIV-1 - HPCwire

XSEDE Announces Collaboration Opportunities for NSF "Track 1" Systems Proposals * Bulgaria Signs European Declaration on High- ...
https://hpcwire.com/tag/hiv-1/

Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Envelope glycoprotein GP120: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.CCR5 receptor antagonist: CCR5 receptor antagonists are a class of small molecules that antagonize the CCR5 receptor. The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells.Coles PhillipsAdult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.KeliximabPol (HIV): Pol (DNA ymerase) refers to a gene in retroviruses, or the protein produced by that gene.CXC chemokine receptors: CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.Co-option (biology)Nef (protein): coordinates.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Viral infectivity factor: Viral infectivity factor, or Vif, is a protein found in HIV and other retroviruses. Its role is to disrupt the antiviral activity of the human enzyme APOBEC (See also APOBEC3G) by targeting it for ubiquitination and cellular degradation.Vpr: Vpr is a Human immunodeficieny viral gene and protein product.Cro repressor family: In molecular biology, the Cro repressor family of proteins includes the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Host tropism: Host tropism is the name given to a process of tropism that determines which cells can become infected by a given pathogen. Various factors determine the ability of a pathogen to infect a particular cell.Natural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.Cognitive effects of HIVPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Rev (HIV): Rev is a transactivating protein that is essential to the regulation of HIV-1 protein expression. A nuclear localization signal is encoded in the rev gene, which allows the Rev protein to be localized to the nucleus, where it is involved in the export of unspliced and incompletely spliced mRNAs.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.CyclophilinNevirapineReaction coordinateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.APOBEC4: C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC4 gene.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Genetic variation: right|thumbThermal cyclerCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.

(1/23412) Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

(2/23412) Structural basis for the specificity of the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription.

Initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription requires specific recognition of the viral genome, tRNA3Lys, which acts as primer, and reverse transcriptase (RT). The specificity of this ternary complex is mediated by intricate interactions between HIV-1 RNA and tRNA3Lys, but remains poorly understood at the three-dimensional level. We used chemical probing to gain insight into the three-dimensional structure of the viral RNA-tRNA3Lys complex, and enzymatic footprinting to delineate regions interacting with RT. These and previous experimental data were used to derive a three-dimensional model of the initiation complex. The viral RNA and tRNA3Lys form a compact structure in which the two RNAs fold into distinct structural domains. The extended interactions between these molecules are not directly recognized by RT. Rather, they favor RT binding by preventing steric clashes between the nucleic acids and the polymerase and inducing a viral RNA-tRNA3Lys conformation which fits perfectly into the nucleic acid binding cleft of RT. Recognition of the 3' end of tRNA3Lys and of the first template nucleotides by RT is favored by a kink in the template strand promoted by the short junctions present in the previously established secondary structure.  (+info)

(3/23412) High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector.

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

(4/23412) Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE).

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

(5/23412) Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

(6/23412) Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism.

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

(7/23412) Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain.

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

(8/23412) HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection.

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)



infection


  • The objectives of this technical report are to describe methods of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in children younger than 18 months in the United States and to review important issues that must be considered by clinicians who care for infants and young children born to HIV-1-infected women. (aappublications.org)
  • With such testing, the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection (as well as the presumptive exclusion of HIV-1 infection) can be established within the first several weeks of life among nonbreastfed infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Important factors that must be considered when selecting HIV-1 diagnostic assays for pediatric patients and when choosing the timing of such assays include the age of the child, potential timing of infection of the child, whether the infection status of the child's mother is known or unknown, the antiretroviral exposure history of the mother and of the child, and characteristics of the virus. (aappublications.org)
  • If any of these test results are positive, repeat testing is recommended to confirm the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. (aappublications.org)
  • A diagnosis of HIV-1 infection can be made on the basis of 2 positive HIV-1 DNA or RNA assay results. (aappublications.org)
  • Alternatively, presumptive exclusion of HIV-1 infection can be based on 1 positive HIV-1 virologic test with at least 2 subsequent negative virologic test results (at least 1 of which is performed at ≥8 weeks of age) or negative HIV-1 antibody test results (at least 1 of which is performed at ≥6 months of age). (aappublications.org)
  • Definitive exclusion of HIV-1 infection is based on 2 negative virologic test results, 1 obtained at ≥1 month of age and 1 obtained at ≥4 months of age, or 2 negative HIV-1 antibody test results from separate specimens obtained at ≥6 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • For both presumptive and definitive exclusion of infection, the child should have no other laboratory (eg, no positive virologic test results) or clinical (eg, no AIDS-defining conditions) evidence of HIV-1 infection. (aappublications.org)
  • Many clinicians confirm the absence of HIV-1 infection with a negative HIV-1 antibody assay result at 12 to 18 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Most children acquire infection with HIV-1 through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the virus. (aappublications.org)
  • Macrophages are major targets of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistently, recover of viral replication in IC-stimulated MDMs, after p21 silencing, was also observed after infection with other primate lentiviruses, including SIVmac and HIV-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rates of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), progression to AIDS following HIV-1 infection, and AIDS-associated mortality are all inversely correlated with serum vitamin A levels (R. D. Semba, W. T. Caiaffa, N. M. H. Graham, S. Cohn, and D. Vlahov, J. Infect. (umassmed.edu)
  • The anti-CD43 antibodies were related to HIV-1 infection in that no patients with other chronic viral infections or systemic lupus erythematosus contained such antibodies in their sera. (rupress.org)
  • These results demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is specifically associated with the production of autoantibodies that bind to a native T cell surface antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Studies have suggested that HLA class I may determine susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but a definitive role for HLA at transmission remains unproven. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using four episodes of HIV-1 transmission in which the donors and recipients were both sampled very close to the time of infection we found that, despite a transmission bottleneck, genetic variants of HIV-1 infection are transmitted in a frequency-dependent manner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interferon-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum of patients in various stages of HIV-1 infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • Abstract Serum samples of 120 patients in different stages of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, 11 patients with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI), and 49 HIV-1 seronegative homosexual men were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), and HIV-1 p24 antigen. (omicsonline.org)
  • These results suggest that IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha are induced by different agents during HIV-1 infection. (omicsonline.org)

replication


  • The induction of p21 expression by other stimuli, such as the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 and phorbol myristate acetate, was also associated with a strong inhibition of HIV-1 replication in macrophages, supporting an inhibitory effect of p21 on HIV-1 life cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Remarkably, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p21 rescued the defect of HIV-1 replication in FcγR-activated macrophages and also enhanced HIV-1 replication in unstimulated macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that p21 is a limiting host factor for lentiviral replication in human macrophages that contributes to the FcγR-mediated HIV-1 restriction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that physiological concentrations of vitamin A, as retinol or as its metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid, repressed HIV-1Ba-L replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). (umassmed.edu)
  • and Viglianti, Gregory A., "Retinoid-induced repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core promoter activity inhibits virus replication" (1998). (umassmed.edu)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein, a virally encoded toxin, is secreted by HIV-1 infected cells and acts on uninfected cells, rendering them permissive for HIV-1 replication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV-1 Tat enhances chronic viral replication and induces immune suppression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The findings would be consistent with the hypothesis that IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha are counteracting forces that have important down- and upregulatory effects, respectively, on HIV-1 replication in vivo. (omicsonline.org)

antiretroviral


  • If the mother's HIV-1 serostatus is unknown, rapid HIV-1 antibody testing of the newborn infant to identify HIV-1 exposure is essential so that antiretroviral prophylaxis can be initiated within the first 12 hours of life if test results are positive. (aappublications.org)
  • To evaluate, in HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is 300 to 750 cells/mm3, whether an antiretroviral treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts plus HIV RNA viral load is more effective than a treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts without the use of HIV RNA viral load information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Use of sequencing-based genotyping as a diagnostic assay for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral resistance is increasing. (rti.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the specific effects of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokine production, and oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways in HIV-infected individuals who have not yet received antiretroviral therapy (ART). (fiu.edu)

antibodies


  • Appropriate HIV-1 diagnostic testing for infants and children younger than 18 months differs from that for older children, adolescents, and adults because of passively transferred maternal HIV-1 antibodies, which may be detectable in the child's bloodstream until 18 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -noninfected individuals were screened for antibodies that could bind to native T cell differentiation antigens. (rupress.org)
  • HIV-1 Tat activities can be blocked in vitro and in vivo by anti-Tat antibodies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These antibodies block the function of the HIV-1 Tat protein (toxin), which is essential to the maintenance of chronic HIV-1 viremia. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Humans


  • Therefore, TUTI-16 has potential as a therapeutic vaccine for HIV-1 in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)

assay


  • The assays compared were the Abbott RealTime assay, the Roche Amplicor assay, and the Roche TaqMan version 1 and version 2 assays. (uzh.ch)
  • A pVL of 100 to 125 copies/ml by the TaqMan version 1 and version 2 assays corresponded best to a 50-copies/ml threshold with the Amplicor assay. (uzh.ch)

monocytes


  • Retinol, as well as all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid, also repressed HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed expression up to 200-fold in transfected THP-1 monocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Importantly, HIV-infected individuals and smokers showed a significant increase in oxidative stress compared with HIV negative non-smoker subjects in both plasma and monocytes. (fiu.edu)

infections


  • As HIV-1 infections are seeded by unique donor-adapted viral variants, each episode is a highly individual antigenic challenge. (ox.ac.uk)

proteins


  • Interaction of p21 with PIC associated HIV-1 proteins was not detected either by yeast-two-hybrid or by coimmunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting that p21 affects PIC activities independently of a specific interaction with HIV-1 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selection on the HIV-1 env gene at transmission favors neutralization-sensitive variants, but it is not known to what degree selection acts on the internal HIV-1 proteins to restrict or enhance the transmission of immune escape variants. (ox.ac.uk)

patients


  • Comparing populations of acute seroconverters and chronically infected patients, we found no evidence of selection acting to restrict transmission of HIV-1 variants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is hypothesized that among HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is in the range of 300 to 750 cells/mm3, those patients who incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements in their therapeutic decisions will have higher CD4 counts after 48 weeks than patients whose therapeutic decisions do not incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our results showed an increase in the viral load in the plasma of HIV positive patients who were mild-to-moderate smokers compared to individuals who did not smoke. (fiu.edu)
  • Furthermore, although we did not observe significant changes in the levels of most pro-inflammatory cytokines, the cytokine IL-8 and MCP-1 showed a significant decrease in the plasma of HIV-infected patients and smokers compared with HIV negative non-smokers. (fiu.edu)

variants


  • Passive sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants and adaptation in new hosts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although transmission of immune escape variants has been reported, the overall extent to which this phenomenon occurs in populations and the degree to which it contributes to HIV-1 viral evolution are unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In preclinical studies, a priming dose and a three week boost in rats induced a high titer antibody response to the eight known distinct epitope variants of HIV-1 Tat protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)

type


  • Retinoid-induced repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cor" by Joseph Walter Maciaszek, Salvatore J. Coniglio et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals make autoantibodies that bind to CD43 on normal thymic lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity is a major obstacle for the design of a successful vaccine. (ox.ac.uk)

diagnostic


  • Virologic assays, including HIV-1 DNA or RNA assays, represent the gold standard for diagnostic testing of infants and children younger than 18 months. (aappublications.org)
  • For HIV-1-exposed infants (identified by positive maternal test results or positive antibody results for the infant shortly after birth), it has been recommended that diagnostic testing with HIV-1 DNA or RNA assays be performed within the first 14 days of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 3 to 6 months of age. (aappublications.org)

human


  • This protocol represents the second in human study of TUTI-16, and is being conducted to continue to gather safety and human immunogenicity (anti-HIV-1 Tat titers) data of subcutaneously administered TUTI-16. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thirty-two human subjects were recruited and assigned to four different cohorts as follows: a) HIV negative non-smokers, b) HIV positive non-smokers, c) HIV negative mild-to-moderate smokers, and d) HIV positive mild-to-moderate smokers. (fiu.edu)

negative


  • or 1 negative HIV-1 antibody test result obtained at ≥6 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • While CYP2A6 was induced in smokers, CYP3A4 was induced in HIV and HIV positive smokers compared with HIV negative non-smokers. (fiu.edu)

activation


  • Analysis of HIV-1 LTR deletion mutants demonstrated that retinoids were able to repress activation of HIV-1 expression by both NF-kappaB and Tat. (umassmed.edu)

Article


  • Is the Subject Area "HIV-1" applicable to this article? (plos.org)

positive


  • Overall, the findings suggest a possible association of oxidative stress and perhaps CYP pathway with smoking-mediated increased viral load in HIV positive individuals. (fiu.edu)

known


  • Mild-to-moderate tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals, and is known to exacerbate HIV pathogenesis. (fiu.edu)

months


  • Six months later, seven laboratories using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit participated in a separate round, working with both panels at the same time. (rti.org)

virus


  • Gp120 è una glicoproteina virale presente nel pericapside del virus HIV. (wikipedia.org)

expression


  • Analysis of the expression of cellular factors associated to HIV-1 reverse transcription/pre-integration complexes showed that IC-stimulation of macrophages induces p21 Cip1/WAF1 , both at mRNA and protein levels. (biomedcentral.com)

time


  • 1 MTCT of HIV-1 can occur in utero, at the time of labor and delivery, and postnatally through breastfeeding. (aappublications.org)