HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.United StatesHIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.PrisonersIndiaKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.New York CityLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.AfricaTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.San FranciscoAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Blood DonorsNamibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.BrazilHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mouth DiseasesDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.LondonHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Los AngelesLymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Rape: Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.

*  HIV-1 infection is characterized by profound depletion of CD161+ Th17 cells and gradual decline in regulatory T cells. -...

Th17 and Treg subsets during untreated HIV infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from HIV- ... RESULTS: Peripheral blood Th17 cells were depleted 10-fold in HIV-infected, compared to HIV-uninfected individuals (P , 0.0001 ... However, the relative impact of HIV on Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets remains unclear. CD161 CD4 cells are a ... Profound loss of Th17 cells before the onset of advanced disease contrasted with a gradual decline in absolute Tregs during HIV ...
https://paediatrics.ox.ac.uk/publications/45932

*  Population Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy to Reduce HIV Transmission (PopART) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... and the impact of universal testing with referral for early ART initiation for those with HIV infection. In addition, HPTN 071 ... HIV viral load at 24 months in HIV-infected members of the Population Cohort who initiated HIV care and ART after commencement ... Tested HIV-infected in CHiP home-based testing, or HIV-infected and disclosed that they were previously diagnosed as HIV- ... HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 071 (PopART) will investigate the impact on HIV incidence of universal voluntary HIV ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01900977?order=22

*  Interferon Alpha 2b Intensification in HIV-Positive Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... PEGINTRON injections have been approved to treat hepatitis C infection, including in patients with HIV infection. Earlier ... HIV Infection Drug: Pegylated Interferon Alpha 2b (PEGINTRON) Phase 1 Phase 2 ... Interferon alpha is relatively effective in therapy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and has been used in HIV-1/HCV ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01295515?order=16

*  Acute HIV Infection Observational Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Up to 1300 with either an acute HIV-1 infection, established HIV-1 infection, or without HIV-1 infection will be enrolled. ... HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection and duration of follow-up after HIV exposure. Karolinska Institute Primary HIV Infection ... The study will enroll HIV infected people with acute HIV infection and their sexual partners, people with established HIV ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00296660?order=331

*  Safety and Effectiveness of HIV-1 DNA Plasmid Vaccine and HIV-1 Recombinant Adenoviral Vector Vaccine in HIV-Uninfected,...

HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... HIV-1 infection diagnosed after Day 0 through the Month 48 visit [ Time Frame: Measured through the Month 48 visit ]. *HIV-1 ... HIV vaccines in prior HIV vaccine trial. Participants who can provide documentation that they received a placebo in a prior HIV ... Safety and Effectiveness of HIV-1 DNA Plasmid Vaccine and HIV-1 Recombinant Adenoviral Vector Vaccine in HIV-Uninfected, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00865566?term=NCT00865566&rank=1&show_locs=Y

*  Carotid Artery Thickness in HIV Infected and Uninfected Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV Infections. Atherosclerosis. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... This study will use the IMT test to see if anti-HIV treatment and HIV infection affect a patient's risk of developing ... HIV Protease Inhibitors. Risk Factors. HIV Seronegativity. Anti-HIV Agents. Carotid Artery. Tunica Intima. Atherosclerosis. ... Barbaro G. HIV infection, highly active antiretroviral therapy and the cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Res. 2003 Oct 15;60(1 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00007319?order=9

*  Update from the 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections - TheBody.com

HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for the 21st century held promises for the ... ... Another poster presented a study conducted at USC on 15 HIV-positive women paired with 15 HIV-negative women. Despite the HIV- ... On National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day, Attention Turns to Growing Number of Elders With HIV. Frailty, Nerve Injury and ... Several new potential targets in the treatment of HIV infection were presented; they included chemokine receptors, fusion ...
thebody.com/content/art395.html

*  Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of the VRC01 Antibody in Patients Who Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy During Early Acute HIV...

HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... The study will enroll participants from the RV 254 study who were diagnosed during early acute HIV infection and who have been ... Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may have the potential to treat HIV infection by preventing the spread of the virus. This ... Initiated on ART during acute HIV infection (Fiebig Stage I to III at RV 254 enrollment). ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02664415

*  Carotid Artery Thickness in HIV Infected and Uninfected Adults - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

This study will use the IMT test to see if anti-HIV treatment and HIV infection affect a patient's risk of developing ... Barbaro G. HIV infection, highly active antiretroviral therapy and the cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Res. 2003 Oct 15;60(1 ... Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Hyperlipidaemia in patients with HIV-1 infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy ... Carotid artery intima-media thickness and HIV infection: traditional risk factors overshadow impact of protease inhibitor ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00007319?view=results

*  An International Study to Evaluate Recombinant Interleukin-2 in HIV Positive Patients Taking Anti-retroviral Therapy - Full...

Infection. HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... Anti-HIV therapy has been very successful in treating HIV positive patients and in keeping viral load (level of HIV in the ... HIV infection induces changes in CD4+ T-cell phenotype and depletions within the CD4+ T-cell repertoire that are not ... It is hoped that intervention with rIL-2 therapy in combination with antiretroviral therapy at an early stage of HIV infection ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00004978?term=NCT00004978&show_locs=Y

*  Prevalence of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers and Miners in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan...

HIV Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Incidence of HIV-1 infection in FSWs and mine workers [ Time Frame: Throughout study ]. *Risk factors for HIV-1 infection ... of the total reported HIV infections in Yunnan Province. Even though the incidence of HIV is important in tracking the HIV ... Prevalence of HIV-1 infection and selected STIs [ Time Frame: Throughout study ]. *HIV/STI related knowledge, attitudes, and ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00278499?order=125

*  Therapeutic HIV Vaccine and Interleukin-2 to Increase the Immune System's Response to HIV - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials...

... ultimate control of HIV infection will require the development of effective HIV-specific immunity in HIV infected individuals. ... While the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has contributed to the increasing control of HIV infection and ... Therapeutic HIV Vaccine and Interleukin-2 to Increase the Immune System's Response to HIV. This study has been completed. ... Therapeutic HIV Vaccine and Interleukin-2 to Increase the Immune System's Response to HIV. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00056797

*  Criteria for priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions in Thailand: a discrete choice experiment | BMC Health Services...

A wide array of HIV/AIDS control programmes has been implemented to confront the epidemic since the first wave of infections in ... While the number of new HIV positive cases in Thailand decreases [1-3], HIV/AIDS continues to take a large toll in the country ... UNAIDS/WHO working group on global HIV/AIDS and STI: Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV and AIDS: Core data on epidemiology and ... The National Committee for HIV and AIDS Prevention and Alleviation: The National Plan for Strategic and Integrated HIV and AIDS ...
https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-10-197

*  NATURAL HISTORY-Hepatitis C Virus/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Natural History, Hepatitis C Infection, HIV Infection, HCV/HIV co-infection Ribavirin, Pegylated Interferon, Interferon. ... Enterovirus Infections. Picornaviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Flaviviridae Infections. Interferons. Ribavirin. ... HIV) infection. It is not known whether HCV/HIV co-infected patients receiving combination PEG-IFN/RBV therapy have a similarly ... HIV- infected patients confirmed by HIV-RNA level. *HCV- infected patients confirmed by PCR(polymerase chain reaction) or ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00315432

*  A 'Pre-Enrollment' Protocol for HIV-Infected Adolescents - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... SECONDARY: To describe the nature, stage, and progression of HIV infection in adolescents. ... HIV prevention: factors that predict compliance with testing and counseling procedures. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1994 Oct;94(10): ... Little is known about HIV-infected adolescents as a group and, as a result, small numbers of them are currently enrolled in ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000780?order=643

*  Viral Dynamics of Acute HIV-1 Infection | JEM

Modeling of Acute HIV Infection.. Fig. 2 schematically illustrates the viral dynamics of acute HIV infection and is adapted ... Seven subjects had acute HIV infection, as defined by detectable HIV RNA in the plasma and nonreactive HIV antibody test or ... The dynamics of viral replication in acute HIV infection provide important insights into the initial events of HIV pathogenesis ... Virologic course of primary HIV infection. 3rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 480. (Abstr.) ...
jem.rupress.org/content/190/6/841

*  Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With Asymptomatic HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... This study will follow the clinical and immunologic progression of HIV infection in patients who have low HIV viral load and ... Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With Asymptomatic HIV Infection. This study has been completed. ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether patients who have asymptomatic HIV infection can discontinue antiretroviral ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00050284?order=459

*  On Demand Antiretroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection in Men Who Have Sex With Men - Full Text View -...

HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Frequency of HIV resistance to antiretrovirals in HIV infected subjects [ Time Frame: At a visit as soon as the HIV infection ... exposed to the risk of HIV infection. Indeed recent studies have reported a higher incidence of new HIV infection in MSM as ... Not infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2. *Elevated risk of HIV contamination : anal sexual relations with at least 2 different sexual ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01473472?order=141

*  Safety and Effectiveness of an HIV DNA Vaccine Followed by an HIV Adenoviral Vector Vaccine for Prevention of HIV Infection in...

HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Infection. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus ... Safety and Effectiveness of an HIV DNA Vaccine Followed by an HIV Adenoviral Vector Vaccine for Prevention of HIV Infection in ... Both vaccines code for proteins from HIV subtypes A, B, and C, which together represent 75% to 85% of new HIV infections in the ... by a booster injection of a multiclade adenovirus vaccine against HIV-1 infection in healthy adults at risk for HIV infection ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00498056?term=" June 27, 2007":" July 27, 2007"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=11

*  HIV-HBV Co-Infection and Liver Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV Infections. Liver Diseases. Coinfection. Hepatitis B. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections ... HIV infection impacts on the natural progression of HBV infection, increasing levels of HBV replication and the risk of liver- ... General Co-infection Individuals with HIV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen positive results who are currently ... for their HIV infection.. This study will recruit patients who are co-infected with HIV and HBV, and are currently taking or ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00637429?order=392

*  Blood Levels of Tenofovir Gel in HIV Uninfected Pregnant Women Planning Cesarean Delivery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... cells for HIV infection of the vagina and cervix and the low frequency of local and systemic toxicity observed in a prior HIV ... The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of tenofovir, a microbicide in gel form, in HIV uninfected pregnant women ... Blood Levels of Tenofovir Gel in HIV Uninfected Pregnant Women Planning Cesarean Delivery. This study has been completed. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00540605?term=gynecology&spons=NICHD&rank=19

*  Baby's HIV infection 'cured'

... Could offer insights on how to eradicate it in youngest victims. Published: 03/04/2013 at 12:43 ... REUTERS) - A baby girl in Mississippi who was born with HIV has been cured after very early treatment with standard HIV drugs, ... in a potentially ground-breaking case that could offer insights on how to eradicate HIV infection in its youngest victims. ... but the results could change the way high-risk babies are treated and possibly lead to a cure for children with HIV, the virus ...
wnd.com/2013/03/babys-hiv-infection-cured/

*  HIV infection - User Journals

Treatments and Tools for HIV infection. Find HIV infection information, treatments for HIV infection and HIV infection symptoms ... MedHelp's HIV infection Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Can I get HIV through oral sex? is probably one of the most frequent questions we get asked... ... I am very honored to be a regular contributor on the HIV Prevention Forum here at MH. The ... ...
medhelp.org/aids-hiv?section=user_journals

*  UN: HIV Infections Growing In Russia, Ukraine

HIV incidence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia has been accelerating again since 2008. ... in the number of HIV infections.. WHO says new infections in the region have increased by 250 percent from 2001 to 2010.. And ... the UN says the number of new HIV infections fell to 2.7 million in 2010, down from 3.1 million in 2001. The UN says HIV/ AIDS ... The World Health Organization says new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia increased by 250 percent from 2001 to ...
https://rferl.org/a/aids_russia_ukraine_iran/24407694.html

*  HIV Infection --- United States, 2005 and 2008

Estimated rate* of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection diagnoses among persons aged ≥13 years --- CDC's national HIV ... Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and dependent areas, 2008: HIV surveillance report. Vol 20. Atlanta, ... First, HIV infection diagnoses might reflect both HIV incidence and testing patterns; therefore, a person might receive a ... 13 years who received a diagnosis of HIV infection during 2005 and 2008, CDC analyzed data from the national HIV surveillance ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6001a19.htm?s_cid=su6001a19_w

Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Cognitive effects of HIVControlling Vice: Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883: Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998. It is the story of the strategies that the Minnesota police officers enforced in attempts to regulate prostitution in the late nineteenth century.Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions: The Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions is the primary trade union federation in Zimbabwe. The general secretary of ZCTU is Wellington Chibebe and the president is Lovemore Matombo.Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.Makerere University School of MedicineHistory of syphilis: The history of syphilis has been well studied, but the exact origin of syphilis is unknown. There are two primary hypotheses: one proposes that syphilis was carried to Europe from the Americas by the crew of Christopher Columbus, the other proposes that syphilis previously existed in Europe but went unrecognized.Envelope glycoprotein GP120: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa.Karonga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Intact America: Intact America is a registered non-governmental Intactivist (pro-intact or anti-infant circumcision) organization created in 2008 to advance the view that the circumcision of non-consenting minors is unethical and medically unnecessary, and therefore should be abandoned. They also claim that circumcision reduces sexual sensation in males and that it is a violation of modern bio-ethical standards to forcibly remove erogenous tissue from children.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.CCR5 receptor antagonist: CCR5 receptor antagonists are a class of small molecules that antagonize the CCR5 receptor. The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Tuberculosis managementSubstance-related disorderHinduism in Zambia: Zambia is home to 25,000 Hindus.as reported by Hinduism Today, 2003 Hinduism is the third largest religion in Zambia.Cancer screeningFederal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.BerEp4: BerEp4 is a histologic stain used to aid in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinomaKeliximabList of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study: The Stateville Penitentiary malaria study was a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityKenya Pipeline CompanyThe Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.India–Rwanda relations: Indo-Rwandan relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Rwanda. India is represented in Rwanda through its Honorary Consulate in Kigali.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Resistance mutation: A resistance mutation is a point mutations in virus genes that allow the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingElvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirTuberculosis radiology: Radiology is used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.Natural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.Crack cocaine: Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. It may also be termed rock, work, hard, iron, cavvy, base, but is most commonly known as just crack; the Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

(1/30267) Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

(2/30267) High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector.

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

(3/30267) Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996.

During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community.  (+info)

(4/30267) A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

(5/30267) Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV.

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

(6/30267) Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE).

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

(7/30267) Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.

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(8/30267) Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease.

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)



viral load


  • This study will follow the clinical and immunologic progression of HIV infection in patients who have low HIV viral load and preserved CD4+ cell counts at the time ART is stopped. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate, in HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is 300 to 750 cells/mm3, whether an antiretroviral treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts plus HIV RNA viral load is more effective than a treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts without the use of HIV RNA viral load information. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Prevalence


  • The U.S. HIV prevalence data reported in October 2008 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.1 million adults and adolescents were living with diagnosed or undiagnosed HIV infection in the United States at the end of 2006. (clinicaltrials.gov)

antiretroviral


  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether patients who have asymptomatic HIV infection can discontinue antiretroviral therapy (ART) without adverse clinical, virologic, or immunologic consequences. (clinicaltrials.gov)

AIDS


  • One system using such strategies has already been implemented in North Carolina, and this system will be used in this study run by the Center of HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In 2007, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimated that 33.2 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although a sizeable budget is available for HIV/AIDS control in Thailand, there will never be enough resources to implement every programme for all target groups at full scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As such, there is a need to prioritize HIV/AIDS programmes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, as of yet, there is no evidence on the criteria that should guide the priority setting of HIV/AIDS programmes in Thailand, including their relative importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study has identified criteria for priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions in Thailand, and revealed that different stakeholders have different preferences vis-à-vis these criteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As such, there is a need to prioritize HIV/AIDS programmes within the available budget, and to decide on which programmes will receive funding and which programmes will not. (biomedcentral.com)

antigenic


  • This study will collect data on the mechanism of HIV transmission and the genetic, biologic, antigenic, and structural characteristics of the virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As HIV-1 infections are seeded by unique donor-adapted viral variants, each episode is a highly individual antigenic challenge. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Host-specific, idiosyncratic HIV-1 antigenic diversity will seriously tax the efficacy of immunization based on consensus sequences. (ox.ac.uk)

vaccine


  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity is a major obstacle for the design of a successful vaccine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, TUTI-16 has potential as a therapeutic vaccine for HIV-1 in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)

variants


  • Although transmission of immune escape variants has been reported, the overall extent to which this phenomenon occurs in populations and the degree to which it contributes to HIV-1 viral evolution are unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Selection on the HIV-1 env gene at transmission favors neutralization-sensitive variants, but it is not known to what degree selection acts on the internal HIV-1 proteins to restrict or enhance the transmission of immune escape variants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Comparing populations of acute seroconverters and chronically infected patients, we found no evidence of selection acting to restrict transmission of HIV-1 variants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using four episodes of HIV-1 transmission in which the donors and recipients were both sampled very close to the time of infection we found that, despite a transmission bottleneck, genetic variants of HIV-1 infection are transmitted in a frequency-dependent manner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In preclinical studies, a priming dose and a three week boost in rats induced a high titer antibody response to the eight known distinct epitope variants of HIV-1 Tat protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)

chronic


  • We found that statistical associations previously reported in chronic infection between viral polymorphisms and HLA class I alleles are not present in acute infection, suggesting that the majority of viral polymorphisms in these patients are the result of transmission rather than de novo adaptation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HIV-1 Tat enhances chronic viral replication and induces immune suppression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These antibodies block the function of the HIV-1 Tat protein (toxin), which is essential to the maintenance of chronic HIV-1 viremia. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Participants


  • Group 1 participants will be people with acute HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Group 3 participants will be HIV uninfected people. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At each visit, participants will undergo HIV safe sex counseling and will update their locator information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Two groups will be HIV negative participants and two groups of HIV positive MSM. (clinicaltrials.gov)

prevention


  • A new approach to HIV prevention currently being studied includes the use of topical microbicides, substances that kill microbes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is an urgent need for HIV prevention methods that women can initiate and control themselves. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tenofovir 1% vaginal gel was chosen as a high priority microbicide candidate due to its activity in target cells for HIV infection of the vagina and cervix and the low frequency of local and systemic toxicity observed in a prior HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) trial utilizing tenofovir 1% gel. (clinicaltrials.gov)

differences


  • Data from this study will be used to better understand properties of HIV, including HIV transmission and the differences between acute and established HIV infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)

counts


  • It is hypothesized that among HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is in the range of 300 to 750 cells/mm3, those patients who incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements in their therapeutic decisions will have higher CD4 counts after 48 weeks than patients whose therapeutic decisions do not incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements. (clinicaltrials.gov)

patients


  • However, the consequences of treatment discontinuation in patients with asymptomatic HIV infections are not well understood. (clinicaltrials.gov)

study


  • The purpose of this study is to collect data and body fluid samples from people with acute or established HIV infection and from HIV uninfected people. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study will enroll HIV infected people with acute HIV infection and their sexual partners, people with established HIV infection, and HIV uninfected people. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This protocol represents the second in human study of TUTI-16, and is being conducted to continue to gather safety and human immunogenicity (anti-HIV-1 Tat titers) data of subcutaneously administered TUTI-16. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of tenofovir, a microbicide in gel form, in HIV uninfected pregnant women who are expecting to deliver by cesarean. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess term pregnancy single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir 1% gel in HIV uninfected pregnant women. (clinicaltrials.gov)

transmission


  • and (iv) prevent HIV transmission among children in schools and high-risk population groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies have suggested that HLA class I may determine susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but a definitive role for HLA at transmission remains unproven. (ox.ac.uk)

Group


  • Group 3 will undergo HIV testing at each visit and will receive pre- and post-test counseling. (clinicaltrials.gov)

either


  • Up to 1300 with either an acute HIV-1 infection, established HIV-1 infection, or without HIV-1 infection will be enrolled. (clinicaltrials.gov)