Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Angiomatosis: A condition with multiple tumor-like lesions caused either by congenital or developmental malformations of BLOOD VESSELS, or reactive vascular proliferations, such as in bacillary angiomatosis. Angiomatosis is considered non-neoplastic.

*  Face swelling and Male breast enlargement - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
Face swelling and Male breast enlargement and Gynecomastia (6 causes). *Face swelling and Male breast enlargement and Body ...
*  Gynecomastia Surgery - Doç. Dr. İbrahim Aşkar Estetik Cerrahi Uzmanı
Gynecomastia Surgery. Gynecomastia Surgery (Gynecomastia Repair). Gynecomastia is the breast enlargement of men which leads to ... Gynecomastia could be treated only with surgical intervention. According to the patient's status, local or general anaesthesia ...
*  Gynecomastia - Wikipedia
Gynecomastia is the most common benign disorder of the male breast tissue. New cases of gynecomastia are common in three age ... The cause of gynecomastia is unknown in around 25% of cases. Drugs are estimated to cause 10-25% of cases of gynecomastia. ... Gynecomastia can also occur once normal nutrition is restarted (this is known as refeeding gynecomastia). A small proportion of ... Gynecomastia is common. Physiologic gynecomastia develops in up to 70% of adolescent boys. Newborns and adolescent males often ...
*  Gynecomastia | Boston Children's Hospital
Learn more about Gynecomastia symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments from experts at Boston Children's, ranked best Children's ... In most boys, gynecomastia goes away on its own with no treatment. If it doesn't go away, however, Children's Hospital Boston ... Gynecomastia is a condition in which above-average amounts of breast tissue form in males. ...
*  Gynecomastia | Styleforum
If you have gynecomastia, exercise will not diminish the size of the breast tissue, and the tissue does not usually resolve ... If you are not sure whether you have gynecomastia or not, you should see a physician. As an MD (endocrinolgist no less), I ... Second, I believe I recall that one of the leading causes of unilateral gynecomastia is smoking dope. Â Use that knowledge as ... Are you sure that it is gynecomastia? This typically refers to palpable breast tissue in a male and shouldn't be confused with ...
*  Gynecomastia (enlarged male breast tissue) - Mayo Clinic
Gynecomastia (enlarged male breast tissue). With gynecomastia, tissue inside the breast glands grows. This can cause female- ...
*  Gynecomastia facts, information, pictures | articles about Gynecomastia
Make research projects and school reports about Gynecomastia easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Gynecomastia Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Gynecomastia. Definition. Gyne refers to ... The progress of gynecomastia is determined by its cause.. Resources. BOOKS Wilson, Jean D. "Endocrine Disorders of the Breast ... Gynecomastia is strictly a male disease and is any growth of the adipose (fatty) and glandular tissue in a male breast. Not all ...
*  Aromatization/Gynecomastia
Ask a Medical Question - Can letrozole cure gynecomastia - JustAnswer - 'Letrozole may be effective in preventing and reversing ... Tamoxifen, Raloxifene Prove Effective In Pre-Pubertal Gynecomastia - Doctor's Guide, 7/12/01 ... 8/24/12 - 'tamoxifen reduced the risk of both gynecomastia and breast pain at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment compared to ... gynecomastia, exacerbation of sleep apnea, and in some patients, acne' ...
*  Best Reduction for the Treatment of Gynecomastia - InfoBarrel
p style='margin-bottom: 0cm;' align='justify',Gynecomastia is a situation that often leads to a number of problems cropping up ... Gynecomastia is a situation that often leads to a number of problems cropping up for the men. Men feels short within and are ... Gynecomastia is considered to be a well known symptom of the breast, testicle or the lung cancer. So the surgery is only ... The men undergoing the process of breast reduction for the treatment of Gynecomastia are supposed to go for a number of medical ...
*  Plastic Surgery for Gynecomastia: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem
Gynecomastia is derived from the Greek terms gynec (feminine) and mastos (breast). The literal translation, male breasts, ... Awareness of gynecomastia needs to progress in order to inform the men and boys with gynecomastia and their physicians what can ... Gynecomastia can be classified based on etiology. Idiopathic gynecomastia accounts for over 85% of cases that require surgical ... Galen introduced the term gynecomastia in the second century AD. He defined gynecomastia as an unnatural increase in the breast ...
*  PPT - Gynecomastia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3336596
Gynecomastia. Question. 24 year-old male presents to PCP for painless enlargement of breasts for past six months Gradual onset ... Prevalence of gynecomastia from multiple population studies Braunstein. Gynecomastia. In: Diseases of the Breast. Harris, ... Nydick M. "Gynecomastia in adolescent boys." JAMA 1961; 178:449-454 *Pearlman, G. "Gynecomastia, An Update." The ... Braunstein, Glenn."Gynecomastia". NEJM 1993;328:490-95 *Braunstein, Glenn."Aromatase and Gynecomastia". Endocrine-Related ...
*  What is Gynecomastia? | Gynecomastia
True gynecomastia results from growth of the glandular, or breast tissue. ... Gynecomastia is enlargement of the glandular tissue of the male breast. It may occur during infancy and puberty in normally- ... What are the causes of Gynecomastia? Gynecomastia is the inflammation of the breast tissue in the men or boys. ... What are the Symptoms of Gynecomastia Signs and symptoms of gynecomastia, also known as "man boobs" include swollen breast ...
*  Teen Gynecomastia |
Teen gynecomastia (sometimes referred to as 'Puffy Nipples') is swelling of the breast tissue in young males and is caused by ... Adolescent Gynecomastia. Adolescent Gynecomastia. What is it?. Adolescent gynecomastia (sometimes referred to as "Puffy Nipples ... What causes adolescent gynecomastia?. A decrease in the amount of testosterone compared with estrogen can trigger gynecomastia ... This is known as persistent pubertal gynecomastia or adolescent gynecomastia. In such cases, the tissue becomes firm and ...
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List of 281 causes for Face swelling and Gynecomastia, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and ... Gynecomastia:*Causes: Gynecomastia *Introduction: Gynecomastia *Gynecomastia: Add a 3rd symptom *Gynecomastia: Remove a symptom ... Face swelling and Gynecomastia. *Face swelling AND Gynecomastia - Causes of All Symptoms *Face swelling OR Gynecomastia - 281 ... Face swelling and Gynecomastia and Skin symptoms (6 causes). *Face swelling and Gynecomastia and Male breast enlargement (6 ...
*  Cosmetic Surgery & Gynecomastia with Dr Blau
Sticky: Gynecomastia Before/After Slideshow Started by huge285, 02-12-2009 03:45 AM 2 Pages •. 1 2 ... Gynecomastia Procedures Increase as More Men Consider Plastic Surgery Started by SallyAnne, 12-01-2010 10:36 PM ... Mordcai Blau: A Review of Some High Profile Gynecomastia Patients Started by huge285, 12-30-2010 04:55 AM ... Sticky: Watch Gynecomastia Video: You and Me! Started by huge285, 02-12-2009 03:41 AM ...
*  Gynecomastia - North Kansas City Hospital, Kansas City, MO
Gynecomastia. Skip to the navigation. Topic Overview. What is gynecomastia?. Gynecomastia is overdevelopment of the male breast ... What causes gynecomastia?. In newborns, gynecomastia is caused by estrogen from the mother. Breast buds are common in baby boys ... How is gynecomastia diagnosed?. Gynecomastia can usually be diagnosed from a physical exam and medical history. In most cases, ... In teen boys, gynecomastia is caused by the hormonal changes of puberty. Gynecomastia occurs in many boys during early puberty ...
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Make an appointment today for gynecomastia in Beverly Hills. Our team is here to help you improve your confidence and social ... Gynecomastia Surgery. Gynecomastia is a condition in which male breasts are enlarged. This may be a result of hormonal changes ... What does gynecomastia surgery entail?. Gynecomastia may be characterized by excess fat tissue, excess glandular tissue, or ... Gynecomastia Surgery Recovery. As with all surgical procedures, there is a recovery process after gynecomastia surgery to ...
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(1/127) High frequency of germ-line BRCA2 mutations among Hungarian male breast cancer patients without family history.

To determine the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to the pathogenesis of male breast cancer in Hungary, the country with the highest male breast cancer mortality rates in continental Europe, a series of 18 male breast cancer patients and three patients with gynecomastia was analyzed for germ-line mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although no germ-line BRCA1 mutation was observed, 6 of the 18 male breast cancer cases (33%) carried truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Unexpectedly, none of them reported a family history for breast/ovarian cancer. Four of six truncating mutations were novel, and two mutations were recurrent. Four patients (22%) had a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in at least one first- or second-degree relative; however, no BRCA2 mutation was identified among them. No mutation was identified in either of the genes in the gynecomastias. These results provide evidence for a strong genetic component of male breast cancer in Hungary.  (+info)

(2/127) The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Aldosterone is important in the pathophysiology of heart failure. In a doubleblind study, we enrolled 1663 patients who had severe heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of no more than 35 percent and who were being treated with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, a loop diuretic, and in most cases digoxin. A total of 822 patients were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of spironolactone daily, and 841 to receive placebo. The primary end point was death from all causes. RESULTS: The trial was discontinued early, after a mean follow-up period of 24 months, because an interim analysis determined that spironolactone was efficacious. There were 386 deaths in the placebo group (46 percent) and 284 in the spironolactone group (35 percent; relative risk of death, 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.82; P<0.001). This 30 percent reduction in the risk of death among patients in the spironolactone group was attributed to a lower risk of both death from progressive heart failure and sudden death from cardiac causes. The frequency of hospitalization for worsening heart failure was 35 percent lower in the spironolactone group than in the placebo group (relative risk of hospitalization, 0.65; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.77; P<0.001). In addition, patients who received spironolactone had a significant improvement in the symptoms of heart failure, as assessed on the basis of the New York Heart Association functional class (P<0.001). Gynecomastia or breast pain was reported in 10 percent of men who were treated with spironolactone, as compared with 1 percent of men in the placebo group (P<0.001). The incidence of serious hyperkalemia was minimal in both groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of aldosterone receptors by spironolactone, in addition to standard therapy, substantially reduces the risk of both morbidity and death among patients with severe heart failure.  (+info)

(3/127) Gynecomastia and mammary gland adenocarcinoma in a Nubian buck.

A 6-year-old Nubian buck was presented for bilateral mammary gland enlargement. Gynecomastia and mastitis were diagnosed, and bilateral mastectomy was performed. Histological examination showed mammary adenocarcinoma, active lactation, hyperplasia, and abscessation. Karyotyping showed a normal male. Clinical, therapeutic, etiologic, and epidemiologic aspects of gynecomastia and mammary gland adenocarcinoma are discussed.  (+info)

(4/127) Gynaecomastia as a presenting feature of thyrotoxicosis.

The association between gynaecomastia and thyrotoxicosis is well recognised. However, the reported frequency of the association is variable, partly depending upon the defining criteria used. Here we report two patients with thyrotoxicosis in whom gynaecomastia was the presenting feature. Both patients had other contributing factors, which are assumed to have predisposed to gynaecomastia. In both patients, the gynaecomastia resolved with successful treatment of the thyrotoxicosis. When gynaecomastia is a presenting, or prominent feature of thyrotoxicosis, the possibility of additional underlying pathology should be considered.  (+info)

(5/127) Aromatase and gynecomastia.

An imbalance between estrogen action relative to androgen action at the breast tissue level results in gynecomastia. Enhancement of aromatization of androgens to estrogens is important in the pathogenesis of gynecomastia associated with obesity, aging, puberty, liver disease, thyrotoxicosis, 17-oxosteroid reductase deficiency. Klinefelter's syndrome, and neoplasms of the testes, adrenals and liver. A primary aromatase excess syndrome with exuberant gynecomastia had been found both sporadically and in a familial setting. Although aromatase inhibition would appear to be an important class of drugs to treat gynecomastia, relatively little published data with these drugs exist and most concern the use of delta1-testolactone, which reduces the size of the breast glandular tissue, but does not completely ameliorate the problem. Studies with the newer generation of more potent aromatase inhibitors need to be carried out.  (+info)

(6/127) Abnormal regulation of the oestrogen receptor in benign breast lesions.

BACKGROUND: In normal breast tissue the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the proliferation associated antigen Ki67 are negatively associated, indicating that ER+ cells are non-dividing, or that the receptor is downregulated as cells enter cycle. This relation is completely or partially lost in many ER+ breast cancers and in in situ proliferations associated with an increased cancer risk, where coexpression of the two markers is often found. AIMS: To determine whether similar changes can be identified in other risk associated breast lesions. PATIENTS/METHODS: Paraffin wax blocks from 12 cases of lactational change, 21 apocrine metaplasias, 22 duct ectasias, 20 sclerosing adenosis, 20 fibroadenomas, 19 phyllodes tumours, 20 radial scars, 21 papillomas (15 solitary and six multiple), 15 gynaecomastias, and nine postmortem male breast tissues were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of ER and dual labelling immunofluorescence was used to detect cells expressing both ER and Ki67. RESULTS: Increased numbers of ER+ cells were seen in sclerosing adenosis, radial scars, papillomas, fibroadenomas, and phyllodes tumours but not in apocrine cysts (where no ER+ cells were detected) or duct ectasia (where normal numbers were found). As in the normal breast, the proportion of ER+ cells increased with age in all lesions with the exception of fibroadenomas. Coexpression of ER and Ki67 was found in an increased proportion of cells of all risk associated lesions studied. ER+ cells were less likely to be dividing than ER- cells in all cases, although this was significant only for sclerosing adenosis. The data on sclerosing adenosis, radial scars, papillomas, and fibroadenomas are comparable with those reported previously in hyperplasia of usual type, whereas those in duct ectasia are similar to those of the normal breast. The findings in all lesions, however, differed from those in ductal carcinoma in situ, where proportions of ER+ and ER+/Ki67+ cells are higher and the relation between ER+ cell numbers and age is lost. Thus, the nature and degree of dysregulation of ER in benign breast lesions is broadly in accordance with the degree of risk of developing breast cancer with which they are associated. In gynaecomastia, the proportions of ER+ and ER+/Ki67+ cells were comparable with those seen in benign female breast lesions, but changes with age were not observed. However, the changes in gynaecomastia were similar to those seen in normal male breast. CONCLUSION: These findings are in keeping with the contention that the dissociation of ER and Ki67 expression is a very early change in the pathway to many breast cancers. However, this change might only have preneoplastic importance in the hormonal milieu of the female breast.  (+info)

(7/127) Application of cytology in diagnosing benign changes and breast cancers.

On the basis of cytology performed in a group of 386 women and 14 men admitted to the Breast Disease Outpatient Unit in the area of Sucha Beskidzka, a structure of changes in breast benign and malignant neoplasms was defined. The diagnostic value of cytology based on FNB and a secretion from mammary glands were evaluated. Expression of p53 and nm23 protein expression in the cells of the most common cancers was studied for prognostic values. The study demonstrated 81% of benign changes and 19% of cancers. With respect to cancers, cytology confirmed its usefulness since the findings were compatible in 94.44% with histopathologic results. Moreover, application of proliferation markers (p53 and nm23) allowed to evaluate the degree of malignancy and prognosis for further neoplastic process.  (+info)

(8/127) Estrogen secreting adrenal adenocarcinoma in an 18-month-old boy: aromatase activity, protein expression, mRNA and utilization of gonadal type promoter.

We examined clinical, endocrinological and molecular biological aspects of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma in an 18-month-old male to clarify the pathogenesis of this condition. An 18-month-old boy was referred for evaluation of progressive bilateral gynecomastia and appearance of pubic hair. The patient had elevated plasma estradiol (349 pg/ml) and testosterone (260 ng/dl) levels that completely suppressed FSH and LH levels, and was subsequently diagnosed with an adrenal tumor on the right side. After removal of a 300-g adenocarcinoma, gynecomastia regressed and essentially normal hormone levels were restored. Aromatase activity in the tumor tissue determined by the 3H-water method was 71.0-104.4 pmol/min/mg protein. High levels of aromatase protein and mRNA in the tumor tissue were also demonstrated, while neither aromatase activity nor protein was detected in normal adrenal glands. To investigate the regulation of aromatase expression in the adrenal carcinoma, we examined the usage of alternate promoters responsible for aromatase gene transcription. In the present case, the amounts of aromatase mRNA utilizing gonadal types of exon 1c (1.3) and 1d (II) were significantly higher than those that using other exon 1s. This result suggested that the utilization of a gonadal-type exon 1 might be involved in the over-production of aromatase in estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma.  (+info)

  • Klinefelter
  • The pathologic causes of gynecomastia are diverse and may include Klinefelter syndrome, certain cancers, endocrine disorders, metabolic dysfunction, various medications, or may occur due to a natural decline in testosterone production. (
  • Klinefelter syndrome - A condition in a male characterized by having an extra X (female) chromosome and suffering from infertility and gynecomastia. (
  • under the supervision of Fuller Albright he described a group of nine men with "gynecomastia, aspermatogenesis without aleydigism, and increased excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone", the first description of what would be called the Klinefelter syndrome. (
  • this quote needs a citation] Klinefelter comments on gynecomastia: A few years after the syndrome was described, Heller and Nelson reported that the gynecomastia was not a necessary part of the syndrome, though it occurred in about 75% of the patients. (
  • aromatase
  • A small proportion of male gynecomastia cases may be seen with rare inherited disorders such as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and the very rare aromatase excess syndrome. (
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, in contrast to GnRH analogues (which also alleviate bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia), tamoxifen poses minimal risk of accelerated bone loss and osteoporosis. (
  • rarely
  • However, uniquely among DHT derivatives, oxymetholone is nonetheless associated with relatively high estrogenicity, and is known to have the potential to produce estrogenic side effects such as gynecomastia (rarely) and water retention. (
  • It is only rarely and in severe and extreme cases of gynecomastia that the proportions of the male breasts become so marked that they are comparable to those of women. (
  • syndrome
  • The title, "A Syndrome Characterized by Gynecomastia, Aspermatogenesis without Aleydigism, and Increased Excretion of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone," was so long that the syndrome came to be known by my name, though it was really just another of Dr. Albright's diseases. (
  • Tamoxifen
  • A systematic review of NSAA-induced gynecomastia and breast tenderness concluded that tamoxifen (10-20 mg/day) and radiotherapy could effectively manage the side effect without relevant adverse effects, though with tamoxifen showing superior effectiveness. (
  • adolescent boys
  • A study carried out at Boston Children's Hospital and reported in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery found that gynecomastia negatively affects self-esteem as well as other areas of emotional health in adolescent boys. (
  • disease
  • For more serious gynecomastia, the underlying disease will require evaluation, if it is not already well understood. (
  • If it is caused by medicine or disease, stopping the medicine or treating the disease will often cure the gynecomastia. (
  • X linked hypogonadism gynecomastia mental retardation is listed as a " rare disease " by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • boys
  • After initial presentation, boys are frequently advised to ignore the gynecomastia and are told that it will go away. (
  • Accordingly, research has found that girls with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who are treated with GH experience accelerated breast growth and that boys with GHD treated with GH sometimes experience gynecomastia. (