Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.United StatesQuality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Decision Making, Computer-Assisted: Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Great BritainPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.EuropeReferral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.GermanyPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Critical Pathways: Schedules of medical and nursing procedures, including diagnostic tests, medications, and consultations designed to effect an efficient, coordinated program of treatment. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.EnglandCardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Patient Care Management: Generating, planning, organizing, and administering medical and nursing care and services for patients.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)JapanOccupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.ItalyCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Adrenal Cortex HormonesProcess Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.SwitzerlandPhysical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.TokyoPrimary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Evidence-Based Nursing: A way of providing nursing care that is guided by the integration of the best available scientific knowledge with nursing expertise. This approach requires nurses to critically assess relevant scientific data or research evidence, and to implement high-quality interventions for their nursing practice.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

*  Society guideline links: Hypothyroidism

We will update these links periodically; newer versions of some guidelines may be available on each society's website. Some ... This topic includes links to society and government-sponsored guidelines from selected countries and regions around the world. ... Society guideline links: Hypothyroidism. Deputy Editor. Jean E Mulder, MD. Jean E Mulder, MD ... We will update these links periodically; newer versions of some guidelines may be available on each society's website. Some ...
https://uptodate.com/contents/society-guideline-links-hypothyroidism

*  Editorial Guidelines | SAS

Editorial Guidelines for referring to SAS and its products. ... Editorial Guidelines. Referring to SAS and its products or ... Guidelines for using SAS Institute trademarks. We encourage you to use SAS trademarks when you write about SAS products and ... In order to maintain the value of our trademarks, we ask that you adhere to a few simple guidelines. Please refer to this list ...
https://sas.com/ja_jp/legal/editorial-guidelines.html

*  Society guideline links: Enuresis in children

We will update these links periodically; newer versions of some guidelines may be available on each society's website. Some ... This topic includes links to society and government-sponsored guidelines from selected countries and regions around the world. ... Links to related guidelines are provided separately. (See 'Society guideline links: Urinary incontinence in children'.) ... Society guideline links: Enuresis in children. Deputy Editor. Mary M Torchia, MD. Mary M Torchia, MD ...
https://uptodate.com/contents/society-guideline-links-enuresis-in-children

*  Autism | Guidance and guideline topic | NICE

Autism
https://nice.org.uk/guidance/conditions-and-diseases/mental-health-and-behavioural-conditions/autism

*  Thesis Preparation Guidelines

Specific guidelines for the Ph.D. dissertation are provided by the Graduate Board of the Johns Hopkins University. ... The final approved thesis (see Thesis Defense Guidelines) must be submitted to and approved by the university's Thesis Office ...
hopkinsmedicine.org/pharmacology_molecular_sciences/grad_program/current_students/thesis_preparation.html

*  Guideline Articles | Haematologica

European Myeloma Network Guidelines for the Management of Multiple Myeloma-related Complications Evangelos Terpos, Martina ...
haematologica.org/content/guideline-articles

*  Mammography Guidelines Jolt Medical Field

The new guidelines on breast cancer screening have instantly ignited an emotionally charged firestorm among physicians across ... Guidelines Often Change. The task force advice, meanwhile, offers an example of how the practice of medicine is not set in ... New Mammography Guidelines Jolt Medical Field. Doctors Predict By-product of Screening Debate: More Talk With Patients About ... How the new guidelines will affect private employer coverage is unclear, according to benefits consulting firm Mercer. "It is ...
webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20091120/mammography-guidelines-jolt-medical-field

*  First Canadian Bell palsy guideline | EurekAlert! Science News

The guideline, published in CMAJ, is based on the growing body of recent evidence on the condition. ... The first Canadian guideline for Bell palsy, facial weakness or paralysis caused by facial nerve damage, is aimed at helping ... Some recommendations in the US guideline focus on diagnostics, whereas the Canadian guideline focuses primarily on treatment. ... First Canadian Bell palsy guideline. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Journal. Canadian Medical Association Journal. ...
https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-06/cmaj-fcb061114.php

*  Chronic heart failure nice guidelines

... development of this guideline. They are detailed in the full guideline (see Section 5). 5 Full guideline The National Institute ... Appendix C: The Guideline Review Panel The Guideline Review Panel is an independent panel that oversees the development of the ... Thescope of this guideline was established at the start of thedevelopment of this guideline, following a period of consultation ... The members of the Guideline Review Panel for this guideline were as follows. Dr Bernard Higgins (Chair) Consultant Chest ...
https://slideshare.net/SohaibGilani/chronic-heart-failure-nice-guidelines

*  Practice Guidelines & Reports - ACOG

Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to ...
https://acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Practice-Guidelines-and-Reports-Search

*  HTML 4.0 Guidelines for Mobile Access

This guidelines can be used for this purpose. It can be referred as recommended guidelines for HTML. mobile Internet services ... 3. Guidelines for Mobile Access. This section describes the detail of the HTML. 4.0 guidelines for mobile access. ... Accessibility Guidelines, should be taken into account. In general, WAI. Accessiblity Guidelines are also useful for mobile ... Thus, the following guidelines assume to use HTML. 4.0 Strict. 3.1. Styles. Usual mobile devices have small size of screens, ...
w3.org/TR/1999/NOTE-html40-mobile-19990315/

*  WIC Nutrition Program Expands Income Guidelines

According to the new income guidelines for WIC, beginning on July 1, 2013, a family of four could earn $43,568 annually and ... According to the new income guidelines for WIC, beginning on July 1, 2013, a family of four could earn $43,568 annually and ... A complete list of income guidelines is available on the MFHS website. ... Nutrition Program has expanded income guidelines allowing more families to participate in the free nutrition education program. ...
prweb.com/releases/2013wic/incomeguideline/prweb10846606.htm

*  Hypertension Guidelines | Hypertension

Hypertension Guidelines. More Challenges Highlighted by Europe. Garry L.R. Jennings, Rhian M. Touyz ...
hyper.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/08/19/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02034.short?rss=1

*  New Air Force Religion Guidelines

The new guidelines were applauded by Tom Minnery, vice president for government and policy for Focus on the Family, a ... The revised guidelines say nothing should be understood to limit the substance of voluntary discussions of religion where it is ... The guidelines were described as interim, with no date set for their ratification. They were endorsed by The National ... The original guidelines were created after allegations that evangelical Christians at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs ...
military.com/NewsContent/0,13319,87641,00.html

*  Basic Guidelines

...
icimod.org/?q=13811

*  Skin conditions | Guidance and guideline topic | NICE

Browse guidance by topic
https://nice.org.uk/guidance/conditions-and-diseases/skin-conditions

*  New Lyme Disease Guideline

The guideline was published May 23, 2007, in the online edition of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of ... However, the guideline states that longer-term use of antibiotics does not improve outcomes in people with chronic symptoms who ... To develop the guideline, the authors analyzed all available scientific studies, finding that using antibiotics for two to four ... "While other guidelines exist to help diagnose and treat general Lyme disease, there continues to be considerable controversy ...
thedoctorwillseeyounow.com/content/infections/art2483.html

*  American Urological Association - Guidelines

The AUA's Clinical Practice Guidelines provide evidence-based guidance with an explicit clinical scope and purpose. AUA also ... The AUA's Clinical Practice Guidelines provide evidence-based guidance with an explicit clinical scope and purpose. AUA also ... New Guidelines. Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. Renal Mass. Stress Urinary Incontinence ( ... When using a desktop computer, use the filters on the left to find Guidelines and Policies by type or topic area. You can also ...
auanet.org/guidelines?q=&ContentType=Clinical_Guidelines|&filters=770|791|787|

*  Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 (working draft)

1.1 How the Guidelines are organized. *1.2 Checkpoint priorities *1.3 Conformance to these Guidelines *2. Guidelines *1. ... This document includes guidelines which are general principles of accessible design. Each guideline includes:. *The guideline ... 2. Guidelines. Guideline 1. Support accessible authoring practices. Methods for ensuring accessible markup vary with different ... The checkpoint definitions in each guideline specify requirements for authoring tools to follow the guideline. Each checkpoint ...
w3.org/WAI/AU/WAI-AUTOOLS-19991008/

*  American Heart Association CPR Guidelines | eHow

The old guidelines put forth by the American Heart Association for CPR indicated that the rescuer should attempt to determine ... Newer guidelines set forth by the American Heart Association stipulate that anyone without formal CPR training should skip ...
ehow.com/way_5344629_american-heart-association-cpr-guidelines.html

*  Ventilation guidelines for minnesota commercial kitchens

MN CKV Guidelines fourth Edition Revised June 2010 3 * 3. IntroductionThe purpose of these guidelines is to provide some ... Ventilation guidelines for minnesota commercial kitchens * 1. Minnesota Commercial Kitchen Ventilation GuidelinesVe n t i l a t ... Because kitchens vary widely in both their design andusage, it is not possible to present a single set of guidelines that will ... 4. Preface These revised guidelines, 4th edition, were developed by the Ventilation Committee of the Inter-Agency Review ...
https://slideshare.net/osamabekhit/ventilation-guidelines-for-minnesota-commercial-kitchens

*  Submission Guidelines - Midwifery Today

Columns Midwifery Today E-News Article E-Mail Guidelines Photography and Artwork Overall Guidelines Photo Submission Guidelines ... General Guidelines About Midwifery Today Magazine MT Editorial Style Sheet (opens a PDF) Copyright Editorial Midwifery Today ... Overall Guidelines. Please provide images that are 300 dpi or higher in resolution for their print size. Examples: For the ... Photo Submission Guidelines. In general, please do not email photographs or artwork. However, if necessary, send only one ...
https://midwiferytoday.com/magazine/submission-guidelines/

*  Tuberculosis | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

Guideline development process. How we develop NICE guidelines. This guideline updates and replaces tuberculosis: clinical ... Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. ... This guideline covers preventing, identifying and managing latent and active tuberculosis (TB) in children, young people and ... It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions ...
https://nice.org.uk/Guidance/NG33

*  New Blood Pressure Guidelines Raise Controversy

The new guidelines change nothing if you're younger than 60. But if you're 60 or older, the target has moved up: Your goal is ... New Blood Pressure Guidelines Draw Fire. Dissenting medical experts from panel warn that new rules could endanger some people. ... Guidelines from the previous panel in 2003 defined high blood pressure in older adults as 140/90 or above, meaning that's the ... Do you think it's okay to change these guidelines? Join the discussion ...
aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-2014/new-blood-pressure-guidelines-raise-controversy.html

*  New Prostate Screening Guidelines Stress Choice

... Men aged 55 to 69 should discuss PSA blood screen with their doctor, expert ...
webmd.com/prostate-cancer/news/20170411/updated-prostate-cancer-test-guidelines-now-stress-patient-choice

National Clinical Guideline CentreBestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Donald Guthrie (physician)List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Computer Support Services: Computer Support Services, Inc., or CSSI, is an multi-national company providing technology solutions and professional services.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Central Cardiac Audit DatabaseNetherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaClinical decision support system: A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is a health information technology system that is designed to provide physicians and other health professionals with clinical decision support (CDS), that is, assistance with clinical decision-making tasks. A working definition has been proposed by Robert Hayward of the Centre for Health Evidence: "Clinical Decision Support systems link health observations with health knowledge to influence health choices by clinicians for improved health care".Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Disease management (health): Disease management is defined as "a system of coordinated healthcare interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant."Care Continuum Alliance.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Halfdan T. MahlerCancer screeningGA²LENReferral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Aultman Hospital: Aultman Hospital is a non-profit hospital located in Canton, Ohio, United States. It is the largest hospital and the largest employer, with over 5000 employees, in Stark County.BacitracinHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Annals of Pediatric Cardiology: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Pediatric Cardiology Society of India. The journal publishes articles on the subjects of pediatric cardiology, cardiac surgery, cardiac pathology, cardiac anesthesia, pediatric intensive care, and cardiac imaging.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.International Panel on Fissile Materials: The International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM), established in 2006, is a group of independent nuclear experts from 16 countries. It aims to advance international initiatives to “secure and to sharply reduce all stocks of highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium, the key materials in nuclear weapons, and to limit any further production”.Delphi Greenlaw: Delphine "Delphi" Greenlaw is a fictional character on the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street, who was portrayed by Anna Hutchison between 2002 and 2004.World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery: The World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers four times a year in the field of Cardiovascular Disease. The journal's editor is Marshall Jacobs, MD (Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic).British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Value of control: The value of control is a quantitative measure of the value of controlling the outcome of an uncertainty variable. Decision analysis provides a means for calculating the value of both perfect and imperfect control.European Society for Medical Oncology: ==About ESMO==William M. Laffan: William MacKay Laffan (1848–1909) was the publisher and editor of the New York Sun in the final years of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th,Comment on his death in the New York Times, November 20, 1909. Accessed 29 March 2010.Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.David S. Cafiso: David S. Cafiso (born 18 March 1952) is an American biochemist and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products from the United States that is developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). What is HCUP?Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.RDF query language: An RDF query language is a computer language, specifically a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format.Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.Toronto Western Research Institute: The Toronto Western Research Institute (TWRI) is a non-profit academic medical research institute located in Canada’s largest city, Toronto. The TWRI is one the principal research institutes of the University Health Network of academic teaching hospitals associated with the University of Toronto; the TWRI is also one of the largest research institutes in Canada focussing on human neurological disease from both a basic science and clinical research perspective.Paramedic: A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.Australian National BL classAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.GetWellNetwork