Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Sertoli Cell Tumor: Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors: Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyOvarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Parovarian Cyst: A cyst (CYSTS) near the OVARY, derived from anomalies of the FALLOPIAN TUBES or the BROAD LIGAMENT. The paramesonephric type consists of ciliated cells similar to the oviduct epithelium. The mesonephric type consisted of an epithelium with minimally surface structures. They can be found on the thin oviduct (paratubal cysts) or near its fimbriated end (hydatid of Morgagni).Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Hemoperitoneum: Accumulations of blood in the PERITONEAL CAVITY due to internal HEMORRHAGE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Granular Cell Tumor: Unusual tumor affecting any site of the body, but most often encountered in the head and neck. Considerable debate has surrounded the histogenesis of this neoplasm; however, it is considered to be a myoblastoma of, usually, a benign nature. It affects women more often than men. When it develops beneath the epidermis or mucous membrane, it can lead to proliferation of the squamous cells and mimic squamous cell carcinoma.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

*  Abstract 605: The clinical outcome of patients with FOXL2 402C-|G mutation positive adult-type Granulosa Cell Tumor of the...

... circulating tumor cells, tumor derived extracellular vesicles and cell-free circulating tumor DNA ... circulating tumor cells, tumor derived extracellular vesicles and cell-free circulating tumor DNA ... circulating tumor cells, tumor derived extracellular vesicles and cell-free circulating tumor DNA ... The clinical outcome of patients with FOXL2 402C-,G mutation positive adult-type Granulosa Cell Tumor of the ovary - a ...

*  Combined comparative genomic hybridization and transcriptomic analyses of ovarian granulosa cell tumors point to novel...

Ovarian granulosa cell tumor Driver genes CGH Transcriptomics Background. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most ... Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1180-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Psyrri A. Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev. 2008;34:1-12.View ArticlePubMed ... Adult ovarian granulosa cell tumor transcriptomics: prevalence of FOXL2 target genes misregulation gives insights into the ...

*  Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary after long-term use of tamoxifen and toremifene - Tanaka - 2012 - Journal of Obstetrics and...

Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary after long-term use of tamoxifen and toremifene. Authors. *. Tomohito Tanaka,. Corresponding ... Anne Hammer, Finn F. Lauszus, Astrid C. Petersen, Ovarian granulosa cell tumor and increased risk of breast cancer, Acta ... This report presents a case of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary after the long-term use of tamoxifen and toremifene. ... The patient was found to have a stage Ic granulosa cell tumor of the ovary despite undergoing annual gynecologic examinations. ...

*  Insights into Veterinary Endocrinology: Top Endocrine Publications of 2010: The Canine and Feline Reproductive Endocrinology

These range from the investigations of the pituitary-ovarian axis in dogs with a functional granulosa cell tumor (1) to studies ... Alterations of the pituitary-ovarian axis in dogs with a functional granulosa cell tumor. Theriogenology 2010;73:11-19. ...

*  JAIRO | A recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary 25 years after the initial diagnosis: A case report

Introduction Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare functional sex-cord-stromal ovarian neoplasms characterized by low ma ... A recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary 25 years after the initial diagnosis: A case reportA recurrent granulosa cell ... and the biopsy specimen was histologically proven to be a recurrent granulosa cell tumor. The patient was successfully treated ... Introduction Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare functional sex-cord-stromal ovarian neoplasms characterized by low ...

*  Matched Tumor/ Normal Human Ovary Tissue Lysates (Granulosa cell carcinoma) - T5-044-N2 |

Matched Tumor/ Normal Human Ovary Tissue Lysates (Granulosa cell carcinoma), 0.1 mg. ... Granulosa cell carcinoma) Search for all "Matched Tumor/ Normal Human Ovary Tissue Lysates (Granulosa cell carcinoma)" ... Properties for Matched Tumor/ Normal Human Ovary Tissue Lysates (Granulosa cell carcinoma). Product Category. Lysates. ... Home » Lysates » Matched Tumor/ Normal Human Ovary Tissue Lysates (Granulosa cell carcinoma) ...

*  Articles by Kimberly K. Vesco, MD : Obstetrics & Gynecology

Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: Extensive Late Recurrence After Initial Occult Microscopic Disease. Vesco, Kimberly K.; ...

*  Layman's Medical Dictionary - G

granulosa cell tumor A type of slow-growing, malignant tumor that usually affects the ovary. ... graft-versus-tumor An immune response to a person's tumor cells by immune cells present in a donor's transplanted tissue, such ... The most frequent type of germ-cell tumor in the brain. germline mutation A gene change in the body's reproductive cells (egg ... gastrointestinal stromal tumor GIST. A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It ...

*  Enrollment on the Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN) of the Children s Oncology Group - Tabular View -

Theca cell - granulosa cell tumor, lymphoproliferative disease, ganglioneuroma, myeloproliferative disease, Langerhan s Cell ... give permission for CCRN to contact the diagnostic laboratory to obtain specific information about the tumor or cancer cells. ... to collect information about children with cancer and other conditions that are benign but involve abnormal cell growth in ... granulosa cell tumor, lymphoproliferative disease, ganglioneuroma,. myeloproliferative disease, Langerhan s Cell histiocytosis ... for the Enrollment on the Official COG Registry&rank=1

*  International Classification of Diseases for Oncology

A granulosa cell tumor occurring in the ovary and testis. In females it occurs predominantly in the first three decades of life ... It is characterized by the presence of cystic spaces lined by granulosa cells and cells resembling theca cells. Metastases have ... It is characterized by the presence of cystic spaces lined by granulosa cells and cells resembling theca cells. Metastases have ... A granulosa cell tumor occurring in the ovary and testis. In females it occurs predominantly in the first three decades of life ...

*  Precocious Pseudopuberty: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Granulosa cell tumor is the next most common feminizing neoplasm of the ovary. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors that develop in ... Ovarian granulosa cell tumors: Early recognition and diagnosis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors leads to improved cure rates ... The most common tumor associated with isosexual precocity is the benign ovarian follicular cyst. The cells lining the cysts are ... Sex-cord tumors may have characteristics of both granulosa and Sertoli cells. ...

*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Local action of inhibin dimmer and α-monomer (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10671514)

Publications] Hiroi H.: 'An Earlier Menopause as Clinical Manifestation of Granulosa-Cell Tumor : A Case Report'J Obstet ... 2) Ovarian cells : Granulosa cells from DES-primed immature rats and oocyte-granulosa-theca cell complex from immature mice ... 1) Pituitary cells : The regulation of PRL secretion by activin from a rat pituitary cell line with type-I and type-II activin ... Therefore these cells seem to be suitable in order to study the action of inhibin dimmer and α-monomer. (3) Placental cells : A ...

*  EURORAD - Radiologic Teaching Files

Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: functional MRI Genital (Female) Imaging. Clinical Cases ...

*  Chromosomes / Translocations - Translocations - chromosome 22

... also granulosa cell tumor (Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1999;112:46) t(22;22)(q13;q11). ...

*  Scrotal swelling | definition of scrotal swelling by Medical dictionary

Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Adult Type. Physical examination demonstrated left scrotal swelling and tenderness.. Isolated ... 1. transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not due to cell proliferation. ... swelling

*  Tumor Search Results

Granulosa cell. None (spontaneous). BALB inbred 0. Summary Ovary - Granulosa cell tumor - granulosa cell. Ovary - Granulosa ... cell. None (spontaneous). BALB/cByJ inbred 0. Summary Ovary - Luteal cell tumor. Ovary - Luteal cell. None (spontaneous). BALB/ ... Faceted Tumor Search PDX Model Search Cancer QTL Viewer Submit Pathology Images Tumor Frequency Grid Dynamic Tumor Frequency ... 11 unique tumor instances representing 14 tumor frequency records returned. Tumor Name. Organ Affected. Treatment Type. Agents ...

*  Granulosa-Theca Cell Tumors Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care, Inpatient & Outpatient Medications, Transfer

... with epithelial cell tumors (>70%) comprising the largest group of tumors. Germ cell tumors occur less frequently (20%), while ... Gyriform pattern of adult granulosa cell tumor. Undulating single-file rows of granulosa cells (200X). Image courtesy of James ... cell viability and apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cell tumor cells. PLoS One. 2014. 9(1):e85545. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Review of the granulosa-theca cell tumors from the emil Novak ovarian tumor registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Feb. 180(2 Pt 1 ...

*  Gallengangskarzinom bei einer Kuh - Zurich Open Repository and Archive

Diarrhoe, Gallengangskarzinom, Granulosazelltumor, Kuh, Ovar, bile ductule carcinoma, cow, diarrhea, granulosa cell tumor, ... The cause of the tumor remained unclear. Diarrhea might have been the consequence of a portal hypertension due to the tumor. ... The cause of the tumor remained unclear. Diarrhea might have been the consequence of a portal hypertension due to the tumor. ... The pathological examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of the ovarian tumor. The genesis of the ovarian tumor may be ...

*  Leiomyoma -

"Case report of a cervical lipoleiomyoma with an incidentally discovered ovarian granulosa cell tumor - imaging and minimal- ... Leiomyoma is the most common benign mesenchymal tumor of esophagus and second most common benign tumor of the small bowel (with ... A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%). They can occur in ... Associated with papillary variant of renal cell carcinoma and multiple cutaneous leiomyoma. Defect is in the fumarate hydratase ...

*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell

High-resolution Genetic Map of X-linked Juvenile-type Granulosa Cell Tumor Susceptibility Genes in Mouse Cancer Research. Dec, ... 2003 , Pubmed ID: 14678975 SWR/Bm (SWR) female mice spontaneously develop early-onset ovarian granulosa cell (GC) tumors that ... NOC overexpression enhances adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells but negatively regulates osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. NOC and a ... The mesenchymal stem cell is the marrow precursor for adipocytes as well as osteoblasts, and PPARG is an essential ...

*  A Case of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Struma Ovarii and Review of the Literature

... such as granulosa cell tumor, Brenner tumor, papillary serous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Granulosa tumor or Brenner ... Macroscopically, the tumor is typically brown or green-brown, predominantly solid and gelatinous. The thyroid nature of this ... T. Kondo, S. Ezzat, and S. L. Asa, "Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia," Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. ... Malignancy in struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian germ cell tumour. Because of its rarity, the diagnosis and management of ...

*  usmle: Pathology Tricky Questions asked in saudi medical council examination

B. Granulosa cell tumor. C. Mature cystic teratoma. D. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. E. Serous cystadenocarcinoma. Explanation: ... Granulosa cell tumors (choice B) originate from ovarian stroma and consist of variable mixtures of granulosa. cells and theca ... B. Mantle cell lymphoma. C. Multiple myeloma. D. Small cell lymphoma. E. Small cleaved cell lymphoma. Explanation:. The correct ... Its presumed cell of origin is the lobular cell. The most typical. histologic characteristic is the presence of cancer cells ...

*  NR4A1 Proteins

... receptor NR4A1 as a potential early response gene in FGF2 signaling and regulation of sprouty in bovine ovarian granulosa cells ... Overall, our results showed that NR4A3 (show NR4A3 Proteins) possesses robust tumor suppressor functions of similar impact to ... we demonstrate that endogenous Nur77 protein expression can serve as a reporter of T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor specific ... Transcript analysis of four different aggressive lymphoma cell lines overexpressing either NR4A3 (show NR4A3 Proteins) or NR4A1 ...

*  American Urological Association - Coding Resources and Information

Sertoli Cell Tumor * Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumor * Granulosa Cell Tumor ... Renal Cell Carcinomas * Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma * Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Fuhrman Nuclear Grade ...|306|323|

*  American Urological Association - Guidelines

Sertoli Cell Tumor * Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumor * Granulosa Cell Tumor ... Renal Cell Carcinomas * Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma * Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Fuhrman Nuclear Grade ...|&filters=774|785|783|

Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Bob ChampionOvarian follicle: Ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It also secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle.Large cell: Large cell is a term used in oncology. It does not refer to a particular type of cell; rather it refers to cells that are larger than would be normally expected for that type.DysgerminomaGiant-cell tumor of the tendon sheathGerm cell tumorTheca: A theca (plural thecae) refers to a sheath or a covering.Granular cell tumorCancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Old German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.FOXA2: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF-3B), also known as forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) or transcription factor 3B (TCF-3B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA2 gene.SKI protein: The Ski protein is a nuclear protooncoprotein that is associated with tumors at high cellular concentrations. Ski has been shown to interfere with normal cellular functioning by both directly impeding expression of certain genes inside the nucleus of the cell as well as disrupting signaling proteins that activate genes.GerminomaEquine chorionic gonadotropin: Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares. Most commonly called pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in the past, the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen to induce ovulation in livestock prior to artificial insemination.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.

(1/158) Combined inhibin and CA125 assays in the detection of ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND: The reproductive hormone inhibin has been used as a diagnostic marker of ovarian mucinous and granulosa cell cancers. The aims of this study were to develop a new inhibin immunofluorometric assay (alphaC IFMA) to replace an inhibin RIA as a diagnostic marker of these ovarian cancers and to assess whether the alphaC IFMA in combination with CA125, which detects serous cancers, leads to an improved biochemical diagnosis of all ovarian cancers. METHODS: Serum inhibin concentrations were determined in healthy postmenopausal women (n = 165) and women with ovarian cancers (n = 154), using an inhibin RIA and an alphaC IFMA, which detects inhibin forms containing the alphaC subunit as well as the free alphaC subunit. RESULTS: The alphaC IFMA gave a similar or better discrimination of mucinous (90% vs 71%) and granulosa cell (100% vs 100%) cancers compared with the inhibin RIA. Combination of CA125 and alphaC IFMA values by canonical variate analysis or by multiROC analysis showed that the percentage of all ovarian cancers detected was significantly increased compared with either CA125 or alphaC IFMA alone. CONCLUSIONS: The alphaC IFMA shows a similar or better specificity compared with the RIA, but with increased sensitivity. In combination with CA125, the alphaC IFMA provides an effective dual test for the detection of the majority (90%) of ovarian cancers.  (+info)

(2/158) Allele loss and mutation screen at the Peutz-Jeghers (LKB1) locus (19p13.3) in sporadic ovarian tumours.

Germline mutations in the LKB1 (STK11) gene (chromosome sub-band 19p13.3) cause characteristic hamartomas and pigmentation to develop in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome carries an overall risk of cancer that may be up to 20 times that of the general population and Peutz-Jeghers patients are at increased risk of benign and malignant ovarian tumours, particularly granulosa cell tumours. Loss of heterozygosity (allele loss, LOH) has been reported in about 50% of ovarian cancers on 19p13.3. LKB1 is therefore a candidate tumour suppressor gene for sporadic ovarian tumours. We found allele loss at the marker D19S886 (19p13.3) in 12 of 49 (24%) sporadic ovarian adenocarcinomas. Using SSCP analysis, we screened ten ovarian cancers with LOH, 35 other ovarian cancers and 12 granulosa cell tumours of the ovary for somatic mutations in LKB1. No variants were detected in any of the adenocarcinomas. Two mutations were detected in one of the granulosa cell tumours: a mis-sense mutation affecting the putative 'start' codon (ATG --> ACG, M1T); and a silent change in exon 7 (CTT --> CTA, leucine). Like BRCA1 and BRCA2, therefore, it appears that LKB1 mutations can cause ovarian tumours when present in the germline, but occur rarely in the soma. The allele loss on 19p13.3 in ovarian cancers almost certainly targets a different gene from LKB1.  (+info)

(3/158) Luteinizing hormone induction of ovarian tumors: oligogenic differences between mouse strains dictates tumor disposition.

The use of fertility drugs has continued to grow since their introduction in the 1960s. Accompanying this increase has been the speculation that repetitive use of these drugs can cause ovarian tumors or cancer. We recently reported that transgenic mice with chronically elevated luteinizing hormone (LH), an analog of which is commonly used in fertility regimens, develop granulosa cell (GC) tumors. In this report we show that LH induction of these tumors is highly dependent on genetic background. In CF-1 mice, chronically elevated LH invariably causes GC tumors by 5 months of age. However, in hybrid mice generated by crossing CF-1 males with C57BL/6, SJL, or CD-1 females, elevated levels of this same hormone cause a completely different phenotype resembling a luteoma of pregnancy. We also show that three genes likely control these alternative hormonal responses. This clinical correlate of elevated LH reveals remarkably distinct, strain-dependent, ovarian phenotypes. In addition, these results support the rare incidence of GC tumors in the human population, and suggest that the ability of certain fertility drugs to cause ovarian tumors may depend on an individual's genetic predisposition.  (+info)

(4/158) Hemoperitoneum is an initial presentation of recurrent granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.

Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors account for less than 5% of all ovarian carcinoma, of which granulosa cell tumors account for 70%. These tumors have a propensity for indolent growth and late recurrence; they may even occur 25 years after initial treatment. We report a 44-year-old woman with hemoperitoneum (acute abdomen) after initial treatment 10 years earlier for granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. This case re-emphasizes the need for long-term follow-up in patients with stromal cell tumors of the ovary and considers the possibility of recurrence when presented with acute abdomen after conservative treatment.  (+info)

(5/158) Reproductive features in women developing ovarian granulosa cell tumour at a fertile age.

Ovarian granulosa cell tumour (GCT) is a rare malignancy, which has been linked to both infertility and infertility treatment with ovulation inducers. The reproductive features were analysed of 146 women with GCT diagnosed between 1956 and 1996. During the study period no changes were found in the mean age (53 years), menopausal status (59% postmenopausal), parity (32% nulliparous) or tumour size or stage at diagnosis. The clinical features in women with GCT at fertile age were compared with GCT diagnosed later in life and to population-based data. Nulliparity (50%) and history of infertility (22%) were more frequent if the tumour occurred at fertile age (n = 50). Of the 12 infertile cases, seven had anovulatory infertility (58%); 11 occurred during the era of ovulation inducers, but only five had used these drugs (clomiphene citrate in five patients, gonadotrophins in two, and tamoxifen in one patient) and no patient had undergone in-vitro fertilization. Endometrial hyperplasia was associated with GCT at all ages, while endometrial cancer was found solely after the age of 45 years. In conclusion, GCT at fertile age is associated with nulliparity and with a clinical presentation of anovulatory infertility, while GCT later in life is associated with a more normal average fertility pattern and with occurrence of endometrial cancer.  (+info)

(6/158) Virilizing tumors of the ovary: imaging features.

AIM: Virilizing tumors of the ovary are an uncommon cause of a common clinical problem. The reported imaging features of these tumors are based on case reports. The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of imaging characteristics of these tumors based on a larger referral population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case records from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were searched for clinical evidence of virilization as a presentation of an excised sex cord-stromal and steroid cell ovarian tumor. Records and imaging studies on 14 patients with virilizing tumors were found. All available imaging studies (ultrasound studies of the pelvis (11 patients), CT scans of the pelvis (five patients), MRI examinations of the pelvis (two patients), and plain films of the pelvis (four patients) were reviewed by three radiologists independently for ascites, calcification, percent solid portion, echogenicity and attenuation. RESULTS: On CT and/or ultrasound most (69%) of the tumors appeared to be solid or mostly solid. The amount of solid tissue varied with the tumor type, granulosa cell tumors were predominantly cystic. The masses were isoechoic (82%) or hypoechoic (18%). Ascites was an infrequent (23%) finding. Only a minority of these tumors (14%) were calcified on imaging studies. Six tumors were 5.0 cm or less in mean size, and two less than 3.0 cm in size. All cases were stage I tumors at presentation. CONCLUSION: The majority of virilizing tumors of the ovary are typically solid, noncalcified, confined to the ovary at presentation, and not associated with ascites. Variability in appearance depends in part on tumor type. Many are small and may be difficult to recognize as a mass morphologically.  (+info)

(7/158) Gonadal tumors of mice double transgenic for inhibin-alpha promoter-driven simian virus 40 T-antigen and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase are sensitive to ganciclovir treatment.

We have previously produced transgenic (TG) mice expressing the mouse inhibin alpha-subunit promoter/Simian virus 40 T-antigen (Inhalpha/Tag) fusion gene. The mice develop gonadal somatic cell tumors at the age of 5-7 months; the ovarian tumors originate from granulosa cells, and those of the testes from Leydig cells. In the present study another TG mouse line was produced, expressing under the same inh-alpha promoter the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Inhalpha/TK). Crossbreeding of the two TG mouse lines resulted in double TG mice (Inhalpha/TK-Inhalpha/Tag), which also developed gonadal tumors. The single (Inhalpha/Tag) and double TG (Inhalpha/TK-Inhalpha/Tag) mice, both bearing gonadal tumors, were treated at the age of 5.5-6.5 months with ganciclovir (GCV, 150 mg/kg body weight twice daily i.p.) for 14 days, or with aciclovir (ACV, 300-400 mg/kg body weight per day perorally) for 2 months. During GCV treatment, the total gonadal volume including the tumor, decreased in double TG mice by an average of 40% (P<0.05), while in single TG mice, there was a concomitant increase of 60% in gonadal size (P<0.05). GCV was also found to increase apoptosis in gonads of the double TG mice. Peroral treatment with ACV was less effective, it did not reduce significantly the gonadal volume. We also analyzed the in vitro efficacy of ACV and GCV treatments in transiently HSV-TK-transfected KK-1 murine granulosa tumor cells, originating from a single-positive Inhalpha/Tag mouse. GCV proved to be more effective and more specific than ACV in action. These results prove the principle that targeted expression of the HSV-TK gene in gonadal somatic cell tumors is potentially useful for tumor ablation by antiherpes treatment. The findings provide a lead for further development of somatic gene therapy for gonadal tumors.  (+info)

(8/158) Extraovarian granulosa cell tumor.

A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of postcoital bleeding. Sonography of the abdomen showed a 8.2 x 8.9 cm-sized solid heterogeneous mass occupying the cul-de-sac, which appeared to be in no way connected with the ovary. On exploratory laparotomy, the tumor mass protruded from the posterolateral retroperitoneum of the pelvic cavity and severely replaced the uterus and adnexa with the outer surface being grossly intact. It grossly measured 10 cm in maximal diameter. The histologic features closely resembled those of ovarian granulosa cell tumor. The primary extraovarian granulosa cell tumor is extremely rare such that in the English literature only 7 cases have been reported to date. Of those granulosa cell tumors are especially rare and only two cases have been reported to arise from retroperitoneum. We herein present a case of retroperitoneal granulosa cell tumor with special regard to differential diagnosis from other solid tumors with similar histology.  (+info)


  • Adult-type Granulosa Cell Tumors (AGCTs) are rare ovarian neoplasms comprising of 5% of all ovarian cancers. (
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumors. (


  • Dysgerminoma occurs in both ovaries in 10% of patients and, in a further 10%, there is microscopic tumor in the other ovary. (
  • The patient was found to have a stage Ic granulosa cell tumor of the ovary despite undergoing annual gynecologic examinations. (
  • This report presents a case of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary after the long-term use of tamoxifen and toremifene. (


  • Dysgerminomas, like other seminomatous germ cell tumors, are very sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy . (


  • FOXL2 mutation was analyzed from DNA extracted from FFPE (n = 171), and fresh tumor tissue samples (n = 51). (


  • Here, we have explored this possibility by performing a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of the aforementioned tumor samples in correlation with their transcriptomes. (
  • The CGH was performed using genomic DNA from the tumor samples co-hybridized with an equimolar mix of 10 ethnically-matched (finnish) DNA samples on NimbleGen 12x135K CGH arrays, which 60-mer probes spaced every 13 kb on average. (