Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Gonadal Dysgenesis, Mixed: A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.Gonadoblastoma: A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XX: The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration.Dermatoglyphics: The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Thyroid Dysgenesis: Defective development of the THYROID GLAND. This concept includes thyroid agenesis (aplasia), hypoplasia, or an ectopic gland. Clinical signs usually are those of CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Frasier Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue: Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Clitoris: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor: An orphan nuclear receptor that is implicated in regulation of steroidogenic pathways. It is unlike most orphan nuclear receptors in that it appears to lack an essential DNA-binding domain and instead acts as a transcriptional co-repressor. Mutations in the gene Dax-1 cause congenital adrenal hypoplasia.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Agenesis of Corpus Callosum: Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Dibutyl Phthalate: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Oophoritis: Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.

*  PSMC3IP - Homologous-pairing protein 2 homolog - Homo sapiens (Human) - PSMC3IP gene & protein

XX gonadal dysgenesis. The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base. More...PharmGKBi. PA143485584. ... "XX ovarian dysgenesis is caused by a PSMC3IP/HOP2 mutation that abolishes coactivation of estrogen-driven transcription.". ... "XX ovarian dysgenesis is caused by a PSMC3IP/HOP2 mutation that abolishes coactivation of estrogen-driven transcription.". ... "XX ovarian dysgenesis is caused by a PSMC3IP/HOP2 mutation that abolishes coactivation of estrogen-driven transcription.". ...

*  Psmc3ip MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1098610 - proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase 3, interacting protein

46 XX gonadal dysgenesis DOID:14450. MESH:D023961. NCI:C120197. OMIM:233300. OMIM:278850. OMIM:300833. OMIM:400045. OMIM:611812 ...

*  Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XX | CTD

Gonadal Dysgenesis, Hypergonadotropic, XX Type, Short Stature, and Recurrent Metabolic Acidosis Gonadal dysgenesis XX type ... XX 8.. Diseases ← Endocrine System Diseases ← Gonadal Disorders ← Disorders of Sex Development ← Gonadal DysgenesisGonadal ... XX , Gonadal Dysgenesis, XX Type , Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XX , Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46, XX ... XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive ...

*  Fshr MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:95583 - follicle stimulating hormone receptor

46 XX gonadal dysgenesis DOID:14450. MESH:D023961. NCI:C120197. OMIM:233300. OMIM:278850. OMIM:300833. OMIM:400045. OMIM:611812 ...

*  Delayed puberty and Face infection - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

XX Gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid. 3. Actinomycetales infection. 4. Addison's Disease. 5. Adrenal hypoplasia congenital, ...

*  Ear bruise and Women's health symptoms - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

XX Gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid. 9. 46,XX chromosome 7 deletion p13-p21. 10. 46,XX testicular disorder of sex ...

*  Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Development Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations

Dysgerminoma and gonadal dysgenesis in a 46,XX female with no evidence of Y chromosomal DNA. Gynecol Oncol. 1995 Jun. 57(3):423 ... XX Maleness and XX true hermaphroditism in SRY-negative monozygotic twins: additional evidence for a common origin. J Clin ... The role of the sex determining region of the X chromosome (SRY) in the etiology of 46XX true hermaphroditism. Hum Genet. 1992 ... The role of sexual related Y gene detection in the diagnosis of patients with gonadal dysgenesis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2001 Feb. ...

*  Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Development: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

Dysgerminoma and gonadal dysgenesis in a 46,XX female with no evidence of Y chromosomal DNA. Gynecol Oncol. 1995 Jun. 57(3):423 ... XX Maleness and XX true hermaphroditism in SRY-negative monozygotic twins: additional evidence for a common origin. J Clin ... The role of the sex determining region of the X chromosome (SRY) in the etiology of 46XX true hermaphroditism. Hum Genet. 1992 ... The role of sexual related Y gene detection in the diagnosis of patients with gonadal dysgenesis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2001 Feb. ...

*  Blepharophimosis, Epicanthus Inversus, and Ptosis, Type 1 disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

20. mental retardation, x-linked 101 9.6. BMP15 DIAPH2 FOXL2 NR5A1 21. combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 5 9.0. ... 46. FOXL2 NM_023067.3(FOXL2): c.662_689del28 (p.Ala221Glyfs) deletion. Pathogenic. rs1057516170 GRCh38. Chromosome 3, 138946034 ... 20. FOXL2 NM_023067.3(FOXL2): c.142_173del32insGCGCT (p.Lys48_Ser58delinsAlaLeu) indel. Pathogenic. rs672601357 GRCh37. ... Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharophimosis, Epicanthus Inversus, and Ptosis, Type 1: ...

*  FSH receptor | Glycoprotein hormone receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

XX gonadal dysgenesis [Orphanet: ORPHA243] [Disease Ontology: DOID:14450]. Disease Ontology:. DOID:14450. ... Comments: In gonadal cells, the receptor primarily activates Gs. However, other G proteins and signaling pathways have been ... Two polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, p.N307A and p.N680S, have been suggested to alter gonadal responsiveness to ... This receptor variant has been identified in humans suffering from hypergonadotropic ovarian dysgenesis (ODG).. ...

*  Featured Stories | The Addi and Cassi Fund - Niemann Pick Type C - Part 2

Gonadal dysgenesis Turner type, Gonadal dysgenesis XY type associated anomalies, Gonadal dysgenesis XX type, Goniodysgenesis ... Corpus callosum dysgenesis cleft spasm, Corpus callosum dysgenesis hypopituitarism, Corpus callosum dysgenesis X-linked ... Renal tubular dysgenesis, Renal tubulopathy diabetes mellitus and cerebellar ataxia due to duplication of mitochondrial DNA, ... Twenty-nail dystrophy, Twin twin transfusion syndrome, Tylosis, Type 1 plasminogen deficiency, Typhoid fever, Typhus, Tyrosine- ...

*  Identify three causes of chromosomal disorders - Answers on HealthTap

Instead of the normal 46 xx or 46 xy. Changes in chr. Structure can be inherited or accidental, during formation of germ cells ... Hermaphroditism can also occur in 46 xx individuals with a fragment of a y chromosome. ... hermaprodite 46 xx/xy mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 47 xyy & 48 xxyy syndromes. ...

*  What are the most common sex chromosome disorders? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap

Hermaphroditism can also occur in 46 xx individuals with a fragment of a y chromosome. Would you like to video or text chat ... Hermaphroditism can also occur in 46 xx individuals with a fragment of a y chromosome. ... hermaprodite 46 xx/xy mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 47 xyy & 48 xxyy syndromes. ... hermaprodite 46 xx/xy mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 47 xyy & 48 xxyy syndromes. ...

*  Hormonal Imbalances Treatment Delhi Causes India Men Women Symptoms Female Diagnosis Investigation Specialist Why tests...

Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome 45, X, Mosaicism, Pure gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XX, 46,XX (Swyer syndrome), Ovarian ... XX, 46,XX (Swyer syndrome), Ovarian enzymatic deficiency as 17a-Hydroxylase deficiency, 17, 20-Lyase deficiency, Premature ... Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome 45, X, Mosaicism, Pure gonadal dysgenesis, 46, ... enzymatic deficiency as 17a-Hydroxylase deficiency, 17, 20-Lyase deficiency, Premature Ovarian failure : Idiopathic premature ...

*  Chapter 349. Disorders of Sex Development | Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e | AccessPharmacy | McGraw-Hill...

Complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (e.g., SRY, SOX9, SF1, WT1, DHH) ... XX/46,XY (chimerism/mosaicism). Disorders of gonadal (testis) development. ... Sex development can be divided into three major components: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex. T, testosterone; ... The major determinants of sex development can be divided into three major components: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex (sex ...

*  Case Reports - Reviews sub-cluster 70

... which is referred to as a borderline case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis. We report a 20-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea, ... XX/69,XXY chimeric hermaphrodite. This case highlights the typical features (large placenta, intrauterine growth retardation, ... This article describes a case of nodular fasciitis with the karyotype 47,XY,+4/46,XY,add(15)(p11.2), t(16;16)(p13.3;p11.2). The ... virilization and a few Turner stigmata, who revealed rare mosaicism of 45,X/46,X dic ... ...

*  45,x/46,xy Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

... xy mixed gonadal dysgenesis, is related to gonadal dysgenesis and mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and has symptoms including ... Diseases in the Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis family:. 45,x/46,xy Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis ... xy Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis:. id. Title. Authors. Year. 1. 45,X/46,XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis: A case of successful sperm ... xy Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis:. 56 32 (show top 50) (show all 61) id. Description. HPO Frequency. Orphanet Frequency. HPO Source ...

*  The Infant with Ambiguous Genitalia - Renal and Urology News

45X/46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis. *. 45, X (Turner syndrome). *. 47, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) ... XX and 46,XY disorders of sex development". Clin Endocrinol. vol. 82. 2015. pp. 159-64. ... 46XX/46XY chimeric. If you are able to confirm that the patient has ambiguous genitalia, what treatment should be initiated?. 1 ... Rey, RA, Belville, C, Nihoul-Fékété, C. "Evaluation of gonadal function in 107 intersex patients by means of serum ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Disorders of Sex Development

XX, or a mixture (referred to as "mosaic"). *Pure gonadal dysgenesis - a female child who has a 46, XY karyotype, ... The term male (gonads are testes) or female (gonads are ovaries) pseudohermaphrodite refers to the gonadal sex (the gender of ... XX, 46, XY, or a mixture (referred to as "mosaic") ... Gonadal dysgenesis - children who have: *An undeveloped gonad. ... Humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell of their bodies, or 23 pairs. The 23rd pair determines our gender; females have two X ...

*  illusory tenant: August 2011

... and gave birth to a 46XY daughter with complete gonadal dysgenesis." - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;93(1):182-9. Most of ... Second, she could have had a bone marrow transplant from a 46XX donor, and after 5-7 years, most of her cells would be 46XX too ... Six hundred and twenty-eight billing entries for work lawyer didn't do. "You were able to get away with that repeatedly because ... Meanwhile Scott Fitzgerald can blow twenty-seven grand in a few days.. Additionally, wrote the Seventh Circuit, "[t]he district ...

*  Pathology Outlines - Gonadoblastoma

... usually gonadal dysgenesis with Y chromosome (i.e. XY gonadal dysgenesis, XO-XY mosaicism, not XX gonadal dysgenesis); 25% risk ... Gonadal differentiation starts after 5 weeks of gestation and depends on sex chromosome of fetus *Errors in this complex ... Flat abdominal radiograph may reveal gonadal calcification, a classic pathologic finding in gonadoblastoma ... 80% are phenotypic women, 20% are phenotypic men with undescended testicles and female internal secondary organs *50% have ...

*  Dysgenesis synonyms, dysgenesis antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for dysgenesis. 2 words related to dysgenesis: infertility, sterility. What are synonyms for dysgenesis? ... The other form of gonadal dysgenesis occurs in which an entire chromosome is missing; the most common is Turner's syndrome.. ... or gonadal dysgenesis or Turner Syndrome, both of which cause shortness and delay maturation.. The illusory "level playing ... in the case of pure gonadal dysgenesis (34) and Turner's syndrome (35,36) streak gonads (37) and in a woman with a Rokitansky- ...

*  A.E.Brain: 2011/03 - 2011/04

XY daughter with complete gonadal dysgenesis. So is determining chromosomes useless? No, it can be a valuable clue with certain ... Males are XY; females are XX. Er... usually. Not always. Fully 1 in 300 men don't have 46XY chromosomes. 1 in 450 are 47XXY. 1 ... Surgery has improved a lot over twenty years ago." See my previous post about my little thought experiment. Having a clitoris ... Conclusions: The findings suggest that, throughout life, gonadal hormones remain essential for maintaining aspects of sex- ...

*  Cushing's & Cancer: August 2009

Gonadal dysgenesis *Androgen insensitivity syndromes *Hypogonadism *Gonadotropin deficiency *Kallmann syndrome *Klinefelter ... 20) Johns Hopkins (20) video (20) aldosterone (19) brain (19) buffalo hump (19) somatostatin (19) IPSS (18) doctor (18) ectopic ... He died last November at the age of just 46. His untimely death really brought home to Donal and me just what we are up against ... It took three attempts before I was able to stay in the machine for the required 20 minutes. ...

William Lakin Turner: William Lakin Turner (25 February 1867 – 21 October 1936) was an English landscape artist.List of diseases (M): This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "M".Thyroid dysgenesis: Thyroid agenesis (or thyroid dysgenesis) is a cause of congenital hypothyroidism where the thyroid is missing, ectopic, or severely underdeveloped.Confined placental mosaicism: Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) represents a discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta and the cells in the baby. CPM was first described by Kalousek and Dill in 1983.Frasier syndrome: Frasier syndrome is a urogenital anomaly associated with the WT1 (Wilms tumor 1 gene) gene.DysgerminomaVigo Ordnance Plant: The Vigo Ordnance Plant, also known as the Vigo Chemical Plant or simply Vigo Plant, was a U.S.Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Dorsal nerve of clitoris: The dorsal nerve of the clitoris is a nerve in females that branches off the pudendal nerve to innervate the clitoris.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Suresh Jayakar: Suresh Dinakar Jayakar (21 September 1937, Bombay-21 January 1988) was an Indian biologist who pioneered in the use of quantitative approaches in genetics and biology.Gonadotropin-resistant ovary syndrome: Resistant ovary syndrome, previously known as Savage Syndrome, is a cause of ovarian failure that can lead to secondary amenorrhea. "Resistant ovaries" result from a functional disturbance of the gonadotrophin receptors in the ovarian follicles.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis: Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) is a failure of the normal development of the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. It leads to anomalies in the structure of the mature anterior segment, associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and corneal opacity.Agenesis: In medicine, agenesis (Entry "agenesis" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.) refers to the failure of an organ to develop during embryonic growth and development due to the absence of primordial tissue.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.TrimethylboraneHybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Congenital hypothyroidismOrchialgia: Orchialgia is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than 3 months.DNA-binding protein

(1/18) Cytogenetic and molecular study of a premature male infant with 46,XX derived from ICSI: case report.

We investigated the aetiology of the male phenotype in a premature infant derived from ICSI with a 46,XX karyotype. A karyotypically normal couple underwent ICSI because of obstructive azoospermia in the male partner. Sperm were retrieved by testicular sperm extraction (TESE), cryopreserved, and later used for ICSI. The pregnancy after ICSI ended at 20 weeks. A normal-appearing male was delivered but he did not survive. Umbilical cord blood and placenta were sampled and used for molecular and cytogenetic investigation. The 46,XX karyotype from G-banding in this male infant correlated to a balanced female comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) profile in placental tissue. No PCR amplification of SRY on the p arm of the Y chromosome was observed while fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with the SRY probe also could not detect the gene in cord blood or placental tissues. CGH and FISH, with X and Y centromeric probes, failed to detect mosaicism in the trophoblast, stroma and amnion. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation (81%) was found in the chorionic villi. The molecular and cytogenetic studies indicated a 46,XX male infant without the SRY gene or 46,XX/XY mosaicism. The possible mechanism in this SRY-negative XX male by ICSI is discussed.  (+info)

(2/18) Chromosomal instability in two siblings with gonad deficiency: case report.

Non-random de novo autosomal chromosomal rearrangements have not been shown to cause exocrine or gonadal dysfunction. We report on two siblings, a brother and a sister, both with de novo chromosomal rearrangements and gonadal deficiency including premature ovarian failure. They had normal phenotypes without additional manifestations of known chromosomal breakage syndromes (except for the gonadal dysfunction) and normal alpha-fetoprotein dosage level. The association of sperm abnormalities in the brother and ovarian dysfunction in the sister suggested an increased spontaneous chromosomal instability. Since the co-occurrence of chromosomal anomalies and reproductive failures may not be coincidental, we performed repeated chromosomal analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes prior to proposing ICSI for IVF (for the brother). In both sibs, infertility was associated with random and non-random de novo autosomal chromosomal abnormalities. We discuss the possible relationship between these unusual clinical and cytogenetic features and their potential links to ataxia-telangiectasia.  (+info)

(3/18) SRY-negative 46,XX male with normal genitals, complete masculinization and infertility.

XX maleness is a rare syndrome with a frequency of 1 in 20,000-25,000 males. XX males exist in different clinical categories with ambiguous genitalia or partially to fully mature male genitalia, in combination with complete or incomplete masculinization. In this study, we report a case of SRY-negative XX male with complete masculinization but infertility. The patient had fully mature male genitalia with descended but small testes and no signs of undervirilization. PCR analysis for SRY, ZFY, Amelogenin, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc genes, a pair of primers from heterochromatic region and six Y-STRs showed the absence of any Y-chromosome-derived material. Absence of SRY gene was confirmed by three independent PCRs for each of two sets of primers covering an increasing length of the gene. Sequence analysis of the coding regions of SOX9 and DAX1 genes did not reveal any mutation. Real-time PCR assay revealed normal copy number for SOX9 gene. Microsatellite analysis showed no evidence of 17q (SOX9 gene) or 22q duplication. Genotyping with X-STRs ruled out the possibility of any deletion on X chromosome. Development of the male phenotype in the absence of SRY probably resulted from the loss of function mutation in some unknown sex-determining gene, which normally inhibits the male pathway, or from a gain of function mutation in a gene downstream to SRY in male pathway.  (+info)

(4/18) Quality of life in 70 women with disorders of sex development.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and psychosocial well-being in women with disorders of sex development (DSD). DESIGN: An open case-control study. METHODS: Social and psychiatric information was collected via a structured interview from 70 Danish women diagnosed with DSD, 70 controls matched on sex, age, and school education, and six women with isolated genital malformations. Quality of life and mental distress were assessed by 'Quality of Life-Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults' (QoL-AGHDA) and three symptom scales from the 'Hopkins Symptom Checklist' (SCL-90-R; i.e. somatization, depression, and anxiety) respectively. For both measures, higher scores reflected poorer outcomes. RESULTS: Present relationships and having children were less frequent in patients than in controls (P = 0.02 and P < 0.001 respectively). Previous suicidal thoughts (P = 0.002) and a higher frequency of psychological/psychiatric counseling for severe problems (P = 0.06) were more frequently reported in patients than in controls. The mean QoL-AGHDA score was significantly higher in patients than in controls (5.5 vs 2.9; P = 0.002), especially for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) females (P = 0.01) and virilized 46,XX and 46,XY females (P = 0.04). The total SCL score was higher in patients than in controls (mean 23.2 vs 20.0), reaching significance for anxiety (mean 6.3 vs 4.3, P = 0.03) with highest score in CAH (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: An impaired quality of life and more affective distress were observed especially in CAH patients and virilized 46,XX and 46,XY females. This may be caused by trauma from distressing diagnostic procedures, the chronic illnesses per se, and psychosocial consequences of the disorders.  (+info)

(5/18) Sexual function in young women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency.

OBJECTIVE: To assess sexual function in women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency after at least 3 months of a standardized hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort, controlled. SETTING: National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center. PATIENT(S): Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (n = 143) and regularly menstruating controls (n = 70). INTERVENTION(S): Self-administered questionnaires, 100 microg/day E(2) patch, oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg for 12 days each month for patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function Self-Report (DISF-SR). RESULT(S): Women with primary ovarian insufficiency had significantly lower DISF-SR composite scores compared with control women. Their serum total testosterone levels were significantly correlated with DISF-SR composite score, although this accounted for only 4% of the variance in this measure. Patients with testosterone levels below normal tended to have lower DISF-SR composite scores. Of patients with primary ovarian insufficiency, 9 of 127 (7%) scored below the second percentile on the composite sexual function score, compared with 1 of 49 control women (2%). CONCLUSION(S): As assessed by the DISF-SR, sexual function is in the normal range for most young women with 46,XX spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency who are receiving physiologic E(2) replacement. However, as a group, these young women score significantly lower on this sexual function scale than control women.  (+info)

(6/18) Three out of four: a case discussion on ambiguous genitalia.

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(7/18) Women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) have lower perceived social support than control women.

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(8/18) Genetic characterization of two 46,XX males without gonadal ambiguities.

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chromosomal

  • The major determinants of sex development can be divided into three major components: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex (sex determination), and phenotypic sex (sex differentiation) ( Fig. 349-1 ). (mhmedical.com)
  • chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex. (mhmedical.com)
  • DSDs refer to congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex is atypical. (renalandurologynews.com)

Hermaphroditism

  • Hermaphroditism can also occur in 46 xx individuals with a fragment of a y chromosome. (healthtap.com)
  • An unusal case of hermaphroditism--a 46,XX/69,XXY chimera. (biomedsearch.com)

chromosome

  • Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. (ctdbase.org)

receptor

differentiation

  • It begins with establishment of the genetic sex at the moment of conception, and includes gonadal development, differentiation of the internal reproductive structures, and differentiation of the external genitalia. (renalandurologynews.com)

development

  • Ovotesticular disorder of sexual development can only be confirmed with gonadal biopsy results. (medscape.com)
  • However, because of functioning normal ovarian tissue, most people experience breast development at puberty, and approximately two-thirds of those with a 46,XX peripheral karyotype menstruate. (medscape.com)

surgical

  • With the exception of 46,XX individuals with CAH or documented maternal androgen excess, most patients with genital ambiguity require surgical exploration for diagnostic confirmation and removal of contradictory gonadal tissue. (medscape.com)

Next

  • Most common is klinefelter's syndrome 47 XXY (male) next most common is turner syndrome 45 xo (female), following are all much less common:- triple x 47 xxx, hermaprodite 46 xx/xy mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 47 xyy & 48 xxyy syndromes. (healthtap.com)