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Glycyrrhiza uralensis: A plant species of the family FABACEAE.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Glycyrrhizic Acid: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Pulsatilla: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cernuosides and other oleanane and hederagenin saponins.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Kazakhstan

*  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Effect of Abscisic Acid on Accumulation of Five Active Components in Root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis
... uralensis are lower than in wild G. uralensis. Therefore, the production of high-quality cultivated G. uralensis is an urgent ... Cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer are the main source of licorice at present, but the content of main active components ... In this study, the content of five active components and seven endogenous phytohormones in cultivated G. uralensis (two-year- ... Our results indicate that ABA is significantly related to the accumulation of active components in G. uralensis, and the ...
http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/11/1982
*  New topic - Parkinson's and smoking
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a medicinal herb containing various bioactive components implicated in antioxidative, anti- ... In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on 6- ... Isoliquiritigenin isolated from licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic ...
http://petticoatgovernment.blogspot.com/2016/10/new-topic-parkinsons-and-smoking.html
*  Licorice Root Could Fight Cavities and Gum Disease | EmaxHealth
Isoflavonoids and coumarins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis: antibacterial activity against oral pathogens and conversion of ...
https://www.emaxhealth.com/1275/licorice-root-could-fight-cavities-and-gum-disease
*  Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) and DGL (deglycyrrhizinated licorice) - B-Healthy
Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra violacea, Glycyrrhiza palidiflora, glycyrrhiza root, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, ... glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra glandulifera, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linne, ... Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) and DGL (deglycyrrhizinated licorice). Also listed as: Glycyrrhiza glabra. Related terms. ... Table of Contents , Herbs & Supplements , Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) and DGL (deglycyrrhizinated licorice) ...
http://www.bhealthyonline.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=XPJ5GAQTH9S92JS100AKHMCCQAUX6Q83&DocID=bottomline-licorice
*  Glycyrrhiza Uralensis
adapt, adaptogens, Aralia Mandschurica, cortisol, Crataegus Oxyacantha, Eleutherococcus Senticosus, Glycyrrhiza Uralensis, ...
https://www.supersizehealth.com/blog/tag/glycyrrhiza-uralensis/
*  Glycyrrhiza uralensis - Wikipedia
Glycyrrhiza uralensis, also known as Chinese liquorice, is a flowering plant native to Asia. It is used as a sweetener and in ... "liquorice Root". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Spice Pages: liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra/uralensis ... "Glycyrrhiza uralensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycyrrhiza_uralensis
*  Salicylic acid induces the change in the adventitious root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.: bioactive compounds and antioxidant...
"Salicylic acid induces the change in the adventitious root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.: bioactive compounds and antioxidant ... Salicylic acid induces the change in the adventitious root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.:... Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin ... Salicylic acid induces the change in the adventitious root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.: bioactive compounds and antioxidant ... Salicylic acid induces the change in the adventitious root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.: bioactive compounds and antioxidant ...
https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/salicylic-acid-induces-the-change-in-the-adventitious-root-of-b0m0FgDDrk
*  Effects of Space Flight on the Chemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)
Wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) seeds were obtained from Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China. ACK, which ... Pharmaceutical evaluation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots cultivated in eastern Nei-Meng-Gu of China. Biol Pharm Bull. (2003) 26 ... The effects of spaceflight on soluble protein, isoperoxidase, and genomic DNA in Ural licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.). ... Effects of Space Flight on the Chemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch). ...
http://ijpr.sbmu.ac.ir/article_1139.html
*  Immunosuppressive activity on the murine immune responses of glycyrol from Glycyrrhiza uralensis via inhibition of calcineurin...
Immunosuppressive activity on the murine immune responses of glycyrol from Glycyrrhiza uralensis via inhibition of calcineurin ... This paper is to search for an effective immunosuppressant from Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Licorice, Gan Cao). Our results show the ... Immunosuppressive activity on the murine immune responses of glycyrol from Glycyrrhiza uralensis via inhibition of calcineurin ... Immunosuppressive activity on the murine immune responses of glycyrol from Glycyrrhiza uralensis via inhibition of calcineurin ...
http://tangsclinical.com/index.php/patient-info/immunosuppressive-activity-on-the-murine-immune-responses-of-glycyrol-from-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-via-inhibition-of-calcineurin-activity
*  Skin-Soothing | Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary | Paula's Choice
Glycyrrhiza glabra Categories: Skin-Soothing, Plant Extracts Best. Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract Categories: Skin-Soothing ...
https://www.paulaschoice.com/ingredient-dictionary/skin-soothing
*  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Structures of New Phenolics Isolated from Licorice, and the Effectiveness of Licorice Phenolics...
Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new ... which is the underground part of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in Asian and Western countries as a traditional ... Glycyrrhiza uralensis; flavonoid; 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran; VRE; antibacterial effect; HPLC licorice; Glycyrrhiza uralensis; ... Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new ...
http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/9/13027
*  Cold Remedy Soothing (tablet) International Nature Nutraceuticals
GLYCYRRHIZA URALENSIS. ASCORBIC ACID. PEPPERMINT OIL. MODIFIED CORN STARCH (1-OCTENYL SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE). ...
https://www.drugs.com/otc/116997/cold-remedy-soothing.html
*  Huo Pao Tieh Ta Feng Shin Kao (plaster) Dah Wei Biochemical Pharmaceutic International Ltd.
Chinese licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Pubescent angelica Angelica pubescens. Scrophularia Scrophularia ningpoensis. Chinese ...
https://www.drugs.com/otc/130115/huo-pao-tieh-ta-feng-shin-kao.html
*  Breast Cancer: Lung Metastasis | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural
Licoricidin in Glycyrrhiza uralensis inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells.Dec 31, 2015. ...
http://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/breast-cancer-lung-metastasis
*  Hepatitis C | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine | Alternative
Glycyrrhiza uralensis and other Glycyrrhiza species have anti-hepatitis C virus compounds.Feb 28, 2014. ...
http://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/hepatitis-c
*  Original Herb, Original Herb Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com
Tags: Glycyrrhiza Glabra Extract , Licorice Roots Extract Powder , Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Extract , View larger image ... Original chinese herb ! ! ! 100%pure powder glycyrrhiza glabra extract/glycyrrhiza glabra powder easy absorbed terrific quality ...
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*  China Herbal Extract For Skin Whitening, China Herbal Extract For Skin Whitening Manufacturers and Suppliers on Alibaba.com
Best Skin Whitening 100% Pure Natural Glycyrrhiza Glabra Extract Glabridin 40%/ glycyrrhiza uralensis extract manufatcurer ... Tags: Pure Natural Top Quality Herbal Extract Licorice Extract , 100% Natural Licorice Root Extract Glycyrrhiza Uralensis For ... Best Skin Whitening 100% Pure Natural Glycyrrhiza Glabra Extract glabridin 98% white powder ...
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*  China Hplc, Hplc Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Botanical Source: Glycyrrhiza Uralensis. * Suppliers with verified business licenses. Kingherbs Limited * Hunan, China ISO 9001 ...
https://www.made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Hplc.html
*  The Herbal Compound "Diwu Yanggan" Modulates Liver Regeneration by Affecting the Hepatic Stem Cell Microenvironment in 2...
and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. decoction and the Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam., ... Kitam., 33.3%; Curcuma longa L., 13.4%; Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., 20.0%; and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., 13.4%. ...
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/468303/
*  How to get rid of cavities: Home remedies & prevention
Isoflavonoids and coumarins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis: Antibacterial activity against oral pathogens and conversion of ...
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321259.php?iacp
*  Buy rhodiola side effects and benefits - rhodiola side effects and benefits on sale
100% natural Glycyrrhiza glabara/ Licorice Root Extract,Glycyrrhiza uralensis for whitening effect ... 100% natural Glycyrrhiza glabara/ Licorice Root Extract,Glycyrrhiza uralensis for whitening effect ...
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*  Astragalus membranaceus - Scientific Review on Usage, Dosage, Side Effects | Examine.com
Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Also referred to as Radix Glycyrrhizae, it showed synergistic anti-oxidant potency when paired with ... Zwickey H, et al. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans ... the synergism was not significantly greater than Glycyrrhiza in isolation.[27] ...
https://examine.com/supplements/astragalus-membranaceus/
*  Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine | Portsmouth Regional Hospital
Glycyrrhiza uralensis * Schizonepeta tenuifolia In paired double-blind, placebo-controlled trials carried out by one research ...
https://portsmouthhospital.com/hl/?/37410/Daio-Kanzo-To&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1
*  Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine | Medical City Dallas
Glycyrrhiza uralensis * Schizonepeta tenuifolia In paired double-blind, placebo-controlled trials carried out by one research ...
https://medicalcityhospital.com/hl/?/37410/Yunnan-Baiyao&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  Ononin
... is a major isoflavone found in a number of plants and herbs like soybean and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Intestinal bacterial ... "Flavonoid glycosides of the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis". Phytochemistry. 24 (2): 339-341. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83548-7 ...
*  Glycyrrhiza uralensis
... , also known as Chinese liquorice, is a flowering plant native to Asia. It is used as a sweetener and in ... "liquorice Root". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Spice Pages: liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra/uralensis ... "Glycyrrhiza uralensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States ...
*  Glycyrrhizol
He J, Chen L, Shi W, Lu Q-Y (2006). "Antibacterial Compounds from Glycyrrhiza uralensis". Journal of Natural Products. 69 (1): ... It is a compound isolated from the root of the Chinese Licorice plant (Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Recent studies by scientists ...
*  Inoherb
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Ligusticum chuanxiong hort, Angelica sinensis, Sea buckthorns, papaya, chrysanthemum flower, ...
*  Ochrobactrum endophyticum
nov., isolated from roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis". Archives of Microbiology. 198 (2): 171-179. PMID 26615404. doi:10.1007/ ... and bacteria from the genus of Ochrobactrum which has been isolated from the roots of the plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis from Yuli ...
*  Novosphingobium endophyticum
isolated from roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis". Archives of Microbiology. 197 (7): 911-918. doi:10.1007/s00203-015-1124-1. PMID ... aerobic bacterium from the genus of Novosphingobium which has been isolated from the roots of the plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis ...
*  List of MeSH codes (B06)
... glycyrrhiza (wd , gwp gwe g , in it p) MeSH B06.388.100.401.300.500 --- glycyrrhiza uralensis (wd , gwp gwe g , in it p) MeSH ...
*  Traditional Chinese medicines derived from the human body
In south China, people blend human placenta with gāncǎo 甘草 "Glycyrrhiza uralensis; Chinese licorice root", shēngmá 升麻 " ...
*  Ordos Desert
Glycyrrhiza uralensis). On the left bank of the Huang He, level spaces amongst the dry river beds are studded with little ...
*  Liquiritin
Apiosyl-Glucoside and Liquiritin from the Root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis by High-Performance Centrifugal Partition ...
*  Sini San Wan
Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Aconitum carmichaelii) has a potential benefit in treating septic shock. Chinese classic herbal ...
*  Liquiritigenin
... is a flavanone that was isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and is found in a variety of plants, including ... Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). It is an estrogenic compound which acts as a selective agonist of the ERβ subtype of the ...
*  Physochlaina
The three drugs added to the boiling solution are the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the rhizome of Ophiopogon japonicus and ...
*  Asian soups
Glycyrrhiza uralensis (甘草), cardamom (白豆蔻), and lightly cooked rice (微炒大米) Bazhen tang (T: 八珍湯, S: 八珍汤; literally "eight-rarity ... and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (甘草) Siwu tang (T: 四物湯, S: 四物汤; literally "four substances soup"); contains Angelica sinensis (T: 當歸 ... Glycyrrhiza uralensis (甘草), stiff silkworm (T: 僵蠶, S: 僵蚕), and mentha (薄荷), Yupingfeng
*  Pterocarpan
Glycyrrhiza uralensis) Maackiain, isolated from the roots of Maackia amurensis subsp. Buergeri Medicarpin, found in Medicago ...
*  Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa
Glycyrrhiza uralensis, 甘草), and menthol in a syrup and honey base. It is common to take the preparation right from the bottle ...
*  Shennong Ben Cao Jing
Glycyrrhiza uralensis) . These herbs are described as "noble" or "upper herbs" (上品). The second volume is devoted to 120 ...
*  Bupleurum chinense
Glycyrrhiza uralensis family Fabaceae (licorice) 5% Another example of how Bupleurum is used in traditional Chinese herbal ... Glycyrrhiza uralensis (root honey-fried) - 8% Herba mentha (leaf) - Bo He - 8% Zingiber officinale (Fresh rhizome) - Sheng ...
*  Dit da jow
... glycyrrhiza uralensis'') ganjiang (ginger root) gaoliang jiang (galangal rhizome) gegen (kudzu root) gouqi zi (lycium berry) ...
*  Mesir macunu
Glycyrrhiza uralensis fisch) Licorice root (Meyan koku) (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Mastic (Cam sakizi) (Mastichum) Millet (Hintdarisi ...
*  Liquorice (disambiguation)
Glycyrrhiza echinata Glycyrrhiza inflata Glycyrrhiza uralensis Liquorice (confectionery), confectionery flavoured with the ... Licorice or Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a somewhat sweet flavor can be extracted, or a similar ... It may also refer to: Any species of the genus Glycyrrhiza Chinese licorice refers to several species: ... extract of the root Polypodium glycyrrhiza or Licorice fern "Liquorice" (song), a 2011 track by Azealia Banks on 1999 EP ...
*  Glycyrrhiza inflata
A related species, G. uralensis, however, is more likely the licorice species ones find in traditional Chinese medicine. ... Glycyrrhiza inflata is a plant species in the genus Glycyrrhiza from China, with common name Chinese licorice. ... Xie, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, W. (2010). "HPLC analysis of glycyrrhizin and licochalcone a in Glycyrrhiza inflata from Xinjiang ( ... Furusawa, J.; Funakoshi-Tago, M.; Mashino, T.; Tago, K.; Inoue, H.; Sonoda, Y.; Kasahara, T. (2009). "Glycyrrhiza inflata- ...
*  Glycyrrhiza
American licorice Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Glycyrrhiza squamulosa Glycyrrhiza triphylla Glycyrrhiza uralensis Glycyrrhiza ... Glycyrrhiza acanthocarpa Glycyrrhiza aspera Glycyrrhiza astragalina Glycyrrhiza bucharica Glycyrrhiza echinata Glycyrrhiza ... licorice Glycyrrhiza gontscharovii Glycyrrhiza iconica Glycyrrhiza inflata Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi Glycyrrhiza lepidota - ... eglandulosa Glycyrrhiza foetida Glycyrrhiza foetidissima Glycyrrhiza glabra - liquorice, ...
*  Liquorice
The extracts from the root of the plant can also be referred to as licorice, sweet root, and glycyrrhiza extract. G. glabra ... In traditional Chinese medicine, liquorice (G. uralensis) is believed to "harmonize" the ingredients in a formula and to carry ... Licorice is an extract from the Glycyrrhiza glabra plant which contains glycyrrhizic acid, or GZA. GZA is made of one molecule ... Recent analysis revealed that Glycyrrhiza glabra is one of the most used plant species worldwide for the ethnomedical therapy ...

(1/21) Pharmaceutical evaluation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots cultivated in eastern Nei-Meng-Gu of China.

To clarify the feasibility of medicinal use of the cultivated Glycyrrhiza resources, the equivalency between the G. uralensis roots cultivated in eastern Nei-Meng-Gu of China and medicinal licorice (Glycyrrhizae Radix, Gancao in Chinese and Kanzo in Japanese) was examined. The HPLC fingerprint including glycyrrhizin (GL) of the cultivated roots was similar to that of medicinal Gancao, but different from that of non-medicinal Xinjiang-Gancao (Shinkyo Kanzo in Japanese). Similarity between the cultivated roots and two medicinal Gancao was confirmed quantitatively by hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of HPLC-7-peak-area data. Moreover, the 4-year-old adventitious roots conformed to the five standards described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XIV (JP XIV). The 4-year-old adventitious roots had similar pharmaceutical properties to those of medicinal Dongbei-Gancao (Tohoku Kanzo in Japanese) as determined by examining IgE-mediated triphasic skin reaction in mice and pharmacokinetic profile of glycyrrhetic acid, an anti-allergic metabolite of GL. The present pharmaceutical study suggests that the 4-year-old adventitious roots of G. uralensis cultivated in eastern Nei-Meng-Gu of China are comparable to medicinal Gancao conforming to the JP XIV, and may be a potential medicinal source to compensate for the insufficiency of wild Glycyrrhiza plants caused by collection restriction in China.  (+info)

(2/21) Comparative pharmacokinetic behavior of glycyrrhetic acid after oral administration of glycyrrhizic acid and Gancao-Fuzi-Tang.

Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of glycyrrhetic acid (GA), glycyrrhizic acid (GL) and Gancao-Fuzi-Tang (KF) after oral administration of GL and KF were studied. Plasma samples taken from rats were acidified with acetic acid and GA was extracted with isopropanol-ethyl ether (1 : 1). Separation of GA was performed on a C(18) column with the detection wavelength set at 254 nm. The mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (58 : 18 : 24 : 1 v/v). The results showed that the mean residence time and area under the curve of GA in KF-administered rats were 27.6+/-1.5 h and 122.8+/-46.7 microg.h/ml respectively, which were significantly different from those in GL-administered rats (15.0+/-2.0 h and 40.9+/-9.6 microg.h/ml, respectively). The results suggest the increased effect of GA after oral administration of KF in comparison with GL.  (+info)

(3/21) Comparative analysis of ten strains of Glycyrrhiza uralensis cultivated in Japan.

Comparative analysis of 10 strains of Glycyrrhiza uralensis cultivated in Kyoto, Japan, was undertaken to characterize their variations. Based on the chemical characteristics of their leaves and underground parts, the 10 strains were divided into two chemotypes, the China type and Kazakhstan type. The contents of licoleafol in the leaves of the China type (0-0.03% of dry weight) were lower than those of the Kazakhstan type (0.05-1.16% of dry weight). In addition, a China type-specific unidentified compound was also detected in the leaves of China-type plants. Glycyrrhizin contents in the underground parts of the China type (2.08-5.12% of dry weight) were relatively higher than those of the Kazakhstan type (0.75-2.55% of dry weight). Contents of glycycoumarin, a species-specific flavonoid of G. uralensis, in the underground parts of China-type plants (0.07-0.28% of dry weight) were higher than those of Kazakhstan-type plants (0.01-0.08% of dry weight). These 10 strains were also divided into two genotypes, the GA type and AT type, based on their chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene (rbcL) sequences, although there was no correlation between the chemotype and the rbcL genotype.  (+info)

(4/21) Traditional Chinese medicines Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) activate pregnane X receptor and increase warfarin clearance in rats.

The traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are essential components of alternative medicines. Many TCMs are known to alter the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The molecular mechanism by which TCMs and/or their constituents regulate enzyme and transporter expression, however, has remained largely unknown. In this report, we show that two TCMs, Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), and their selected constituents activate the xenobiotic orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Treatment with TCM extracts and the Schisandrol and Schisandrin constituents of Wu Wei Zi induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in reporter gene assays and in primary hepatocyte cultures. The affected enzymes and transporters include CYP3A and 2C isozymes and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. In transient transfection and reporter gene assays, the Schisandrin constituents of Wu Wei Zi had an estimated EC50 of 2 and 1.25 microM on hPXR and mPXR, respectively. Interestingly, mutations that were intended to alter the pore of the ligand-binding cavity of PXR had species-specific effects on the activities of the individual Schisandrols and Schisandrins. In rats, the administration of Wu Wei Zi and Gan Cao increased the metabolism of the coadministered warfarin, reinforcing concerns involving the safe use of herbal medicines and other nutraceuticals to avoid PXR-mediated drug-drug interactions. Meanwhile, the activation of PXR and induction of detoxifying enzymes provide a molecular mechanism for the hepatoprotective effects of certain TCMs.  (+info)

(5/21) A LuxR/LuxI-type quorum-sensing system in a plant bacterium, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, controls symbiotic nodulation.

The ability of rhizobia to symbiotically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere when forming nodules on their plant hosts requires various signal transduction pathways. LuxR-LuxI-type quorum-sensing systems have been shown to be one of the players in a number of rhizobium species. In this study, we found that Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a moderate-growth Rhizobium that forms nodules on a number of licorice plants, produces multiple N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-like molecules. A simple screen for AHL synthase genes using an M. tianshanense genomic expression library in Escherichia coli, coupled with a sensitive AHL detector, uncovered a LuxI-type synthase, MrtI, and a LuxR-type regulator, MrtR, in M. tianshanense. Deletions of the mrtI or mrtR locus completely abolished AHL production in M. tianshanense. Using lacZ transcriptional fusions, we found that expression of the quorum-sensing regulators is autoinduced, as mrtI gene expression requires MrtR and cognate AHLs and mrtR expression is dependent on AHLs. Compared with the wild-type strains, quorum-sensing-deficient mutants showed a marked reduction in the efficiency of root hair adherence and, more importantly, were defective in nodule formation on their host plant, Glycyrrhiza uralensis. These data provide strong evidence that quorum sensing plays a critical role in the M. tianshanense symbiotic process.  (+info)

(6/21) Isoliquiritigenin, one of the antispasmodic principles of Glycyrrhiza ularensis roots, acts in the lower part of intestine.

Glycyrrhizae radix is used to treat abdominal pain as a component of shakuyakukanzoto (shaoyao-gancao-tang), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation. Previously, we have reported the isolation of glycycoumarin as a potent antispasmodic with an IC50 value of 2.93+/-0.94 microM for carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced contraction of mouse jejunum from an aqueous extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (licorice), and clarified that its mechanism of action involves inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3. The purpose of the present study was to examine an antispasmodic principle of licorice other than glycycoumarin. Isoliquiritigenin was isolated from an aqueous extract of licorice as a potent relaxant, which inhibited the contraction induced by various types of stimulants, such as CCh, KCl, and BaCl2 with IC50 values of 4.96+/-1.97 microM, 4.03+/-1.34 microM and 3.70+/-0.58 microM, respectively, which are close to those of papaverine. However, the amount of isoliquiritigenin in the aqueous extract of licorice was very small. When the aqueous licorice extract was treated with naringinase, the amounts of glycosides such as isoliquiritin, which were abundant but had much less potent relaxant activity, were decreased while isoliquiritigenin was increased. At the time, the relaxant activity of the treated sample was increased significantly, shifting the IC50 from 358+/-104 to 150+/-38 microg/ml for CCh-induced contraction. Isoliquiritigenin also showed the most potent inhibition of mouse rectal contraction induced by CCh with an IC50 value of 1.70+/-0.07 microM. These results suggest that isoliquiritigenin acts as a potent relaxant in the lower part of the intestine by transformation from its glycosides.  (+info)

(7/21) Changes in components, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid, in raw Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, modify insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic actions.

We hypothesized that roasted Glycyrrhizae Radix (Glycyrrhizin Radix Praeparata, GRP) might modify anti-diabetic action due to compositional changes. Then we examined the anti-diabetic effect and mechanism of raw Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) and GRP extracts and their major respective components, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid. In partial pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic mice, both GR and GRP improved glucose tolerance, but only GRP enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as much as exendin-4. Both GR and GRP extracts enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistently with the results of the mice study, only GRP and glycyrrhetinic acid enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. In addition, they induced mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate-2, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1, and glucokinase in the islets, which contributed to improving beta-cell viability. In conclusion, GRP extract containing glycyrrhetinic acid improved glucose tolerance better than GR extract by enhancing insulinotropic action. Thus, GRP had better anti-diabetic action than GR.  (+info)

(8/21) Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information.

Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata are revealed by comparing 117 of licorice identified using four genetic markers; internal tracscribed spacer (ITS) on nuclear ribosomal DNA, rbcL gene, matK gene, and trnH-trnK1 intergenic region on chloroplast DNA. Regarding six main constituents of licorice; glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, and liquiritigenin, the constituent property of G. glabra resembles to that of G. inflata. On the other hand, the constituent property of G. uralensis is not similar to that of G. glabra or G. inflata and is characterized by a wide content variation of the six constituents compared to those of G. glabra and/or G. inflata. The mean contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, or liquilitigenin in G. uralensis are significantly higher than those of G. glabra or G. inflata. Therefore, the licorice species should be selected depending on these constituent properties for the traditional Chinese medicines or the Japanese Kampo medicines. Additionally, glycycoumarin, glabridin, and licochalcone A were reconfirmed as the species-specific typical constituents of G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata respectively. Therefore, it is resulted that the determination of the three species-specific constituents may be useful for the species identification of licorice. However, since 6% of licorice examined and hybrids were exceptions to the rule, their genetic information is necessary for the accurate species identification of licorice.  (+info)


  • antibacterial
  • Gafner S, Bergeron C, Villinski JR, Godejohann M, Kessler P, Hardellina JH, Ferreira D, Feghali K, Grenier D. Isoflavonoids and coumarins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis: antibacterial activity against oral pathogens and conversion of isoflavans into isoflavan-quinones during purification. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Constituents
  • Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • In this report, we prepared roasted licorice with or without honey using 3 lots of crude drug samples derived from wild G. uralensis , and analyzed the constituents in unprocessed, roasted, and honey-roasted licorice samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS n ) with principal component analysis. (springer.com)
  • roots
  • Gao, Wenyuan 2015-05-24 00:00:00 In this study, adventitious roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were cultured in a 5-L balloon-type bubble bioreactor with different medium salt strength and different concentrations of sucrose. (deepdyve.com)
  • Addition of 1 mg L−1 salicylic acid significantly enhanced the contents of glycyrrhizic acid (0.31 mg g−1), glycyrrhetinic acid (0.14 mg g−1) and polysaccharide (159.29 mg g−1) in the G. uralensis adventitious roots and the contents were 2.58-fold, 1.27-fold, and 2.07-fold over the control group. (deepdyve.com)
  • Licorice, derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (Leguminosae family), is one of the oldest and most commonly used Chinese traditional medicines (TCM) in China (1). (ac.ir)
  • active
  • In this study, the content of five active components and seven endogenous phytohormones in cultivated G. uralensis (two-year-old) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. (mdpi.com)