1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC DehydrogenasePhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Retinol O-Fatty-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.AlbaniaGlycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

*  Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial

Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid ... Integration of metabolomics and expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM) in breast cancer-link to patient ... Phospholipid metabolism; CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis; CDP-diacylglycerol from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate: step 1/3. 4 ... Identification and functional characterization of human glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 gene promoters.. ...

*  Mice deleted for GPAT3 have reduced GPAT activity in white adipose tissue and altered energy and cholesterol homeostasis in...

acyltransferase. *GPAT. *triglyceride. *phospholipid. acyl-coa:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC ... mice fed a high-fat diet were homogenized in cold phosphate-buffered saline, and the total protein level in each sample was ... GPAT, acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. A: strategy for generating Gpat3 knockout (KO) mice. Part of the murine ... Mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: new genes for an old activity. J Lipid Res 49: 2079-2088, 2008. ...

*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for TG(16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)) (HMDB0005441)

Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol- ... Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP ... 9. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity. Specific ... 2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase ( ...

*  Thomas C Vanaman | Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry

Presence of phosphate, sulfhydryl, and disulfide groups." The Journal of biological chemistry 261, 1 (1986): 71-5. [PubMed Link ... and COOH-terminal sequence and cyanogen bromide peptide analysis of Escherichia coli sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." ... 1950) 125, 3 (1980): 1171-7. [PubMed Link] , [ Full text ] * Blum, J.J.;Hayes, A.;Jamieson GA, J.;Vanaman, T.C. "Calmodulin ... "Ligatin: a peripheral membrane protein with covalently bound palmitic acid." The Journal of biological chemistry 262, 3 (1987 ...

*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for TG(16:0/16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)) (HMDB0005377)

Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol- ... Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP ... 9. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity. Specific ... 2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase ( ...

*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: sho:SHJGH 3778

hco:LOKO_03137 Aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogena K00111 546 104 ( -) 30 0.323 65 -, 1 hhb:Hhub_1986 tRNA/rRNA cytosine- ... mrm:A7982_10406 Phosphate regulon sensor protein PhoR ( K14980 516 152 ( 30) 40 0.297 219 -, 15 psea:WY02_07910 hypothetical ... nsr:NS506_00790 Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 704 168 ( 54) 44 0.272 382 -, 11 smd:Smed_3984 hypothetical protein 398 168 ( ... bstg:WT74_22405 pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase K07006 687 113 ( 4) 32 0.324 139 -, 5 cpv:cgd8_680 hypothetical protein 1146 ...

*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for PC(14:0/22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)) (HMDB0007892)

Phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase. General function:. Involved in phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase ... ATP + H(2)O + phospholipid(In) = ADP + phosphate + phospholipid(Out). Gene Name:. ATP11C. Uniprot ID:. Q8NB49 Molecular weight: ... the fatty acid distribution at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol within phospholipids is continually in flux, owing to ... ATP + H(2)O + phospholipid(In) = ADP + phosphate + phospholipid(Out). Gene Name:. ATP11A. Uniprot ID:. P98196 Molecular weight: ...

*  Gentaur antibody-antibodies: Cusabio products

Bovine 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1(MOGAT1) ELISA kit. Bovine 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1(MOGAT1) ELISA kit ... Bovine 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase homolog (C. elegans) (DERA) ELISA kit, Species Bovine, Sample Type serum, plasma. ... Bovine 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha(AGPAT1) ELISA kit SpeciesBovine. ... Bovine 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta(AGPAT4) ELISA kit SpeciesBovine. ...

*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for PC(P-18:0/P-18:1(9Z)) (HMDB0011268)

Glycerol vinyl ether. *Dialkyl phosphate. *Organic phosphoric acid derivative. *Phosphoric acid ester ... Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. ... Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2. General function:. Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. ... 8. Phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase. General function:. Involved in phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase ...

*  rice.txt

ORYSJ Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase precursor (EC (S1PL) (SP-lyase) (SPL) (Sphingosine-1-phosphate aldolase) [SPL] [ ... Acyl transferase 7 (EC 2.3.1.-) (OsAT7) [AT7] [LOC_Os05g08640] Os05g0182600 Q65WY8 SSP1B_ORYSJ FACT complex subunit SSRP1-B ( ... ORYSJ Probable glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] 3, cytosolic (EC [LOC_Os05g41590] [OJ1579_G03.13] [OsJ_ ... ORYSJ Probable sucrose-phosphate synthase 1 (EC (Sucrose phosphate synthase 1F) (OsSPS1F) (UDP-glucose-fructose- ...


KH2PO4 Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate EDTA Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid LB Luria Bertani [0407] BSA Bovine serum albumin ... 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol (1228.5 μM) [0413] Preparation of stock solution: 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol stock (19.5 mM) was prepared ... 0004] A key enzyme in the synthesis of triglycerides is acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). Genes for two DGAT ... 25. A method for the treatment of diseases mediated by diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1), comprising administering to a ...


Approximately 1 ml of a frozen mycelia glycerol stock was inoculated into a 25 mm×150 mm seed tube containing 10 ml of MYM ... 11). The first step in madurosamine (MDA) biosynthesis, as with all deoxysugars, is activation of D-glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P ... Biol., 293-302) Orf32 consists of 5 domains common to type I PKSs including a ketosynthase (KS), acyltransferase (AT), ... "E" solution contains 5 g magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, 50 g citric acid monohydrate, 250 g potassium phosphate dibasic, and ...

*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: dha:DEHA2F10450g

rmb:K529_003675 imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase s K02501 212 100 ( -) 29 0.368 38 -, 1 sez:Sez_0254 sialic acid ... acd:AOLE_15300 putative acyltransferase 308 123 ( -) 34 0.316 98 -, 1 ant:Arnit_1162 putative histidine decarboxylase K01590 ... lpm:LP6_0786 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase I K01634 601 198 ( -) 51 0.264 292 -, 1 lpn:lpg2176 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase I ... hsa:8879 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 K01634 568 335 ( 234) 82 0.247 461 -, 2 ipu:108263680 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 ...

*  DR Dean Goodman - The University of Melbourne

Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum and P-berghei glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase involved in FASII fatty acid ... Dimeric cyclohexane-1,3-dione oximes inhibit wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase and show anti-malarial activity. Bioorganic and ...

*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: bbv:HMPREF9228 0182

ang:ANI_1_6114 diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2A K14458 408 102 ( -) 29 0.333 72 ,-, 1 asj:AsACE_CH02529 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5 ... sbu:SpiBuddy_0322 Glycerol-3-phosphate-transporting ATP K02010 368 104 ( -) 30 0.325 126 -, 1 sdn:Sden_2887 4-hydroxythreonine- ... metc:MTCT_1605 mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase K00966 378 103 ( -) 29 0.348 69 -, 1 mez:Mtc_1636 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate- ... nos:Nos7107_5325 membrane bound O-acyl transferase MBOA 499 107 ( -) 30 0.308 91 ,-, 1 nsl:BOX37_16085 alpha/beta hydrolase 283 ...

*  Network Portal - Gene GSU1379

1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, putative (NCBI). 81, 189. GSU3208. GSU3208. conserved hypothetical protein ( ... ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase (NCBI). 35, 81. GSU0729. GSU0729. iron-sulfur cluster-binding protein (VIMSS). 121, 291. ... Functional Annotations (3). Function. System. Fe2+/Zn2+ uptake regulation proteins. cog/ cog. sequence-specific DNA binding ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.823529 0.0 0.117647 0.058824 3 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 0.117647 0.882353 5 0.882353 ...

*  Plus it

Prevention of hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance in mitochondrial acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate ... acyltransferase 1 knockout mice. Cell Metab 2005;2:55-65. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of Science ... 3A) and protein levels of HERP, eIF2αSer52, and JNKThr183/Tyr185 (Fig. 3B) were not affected by either placebo or TUDCA ... 3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress markers before (□) and after (. ) placebo or TUDCA therapy. A: Gene expression (relative to 18S ...

*  Flagellar filament 30.7 kDa core protein elisa and antibody

1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosph ate acyltransferase epsilon (AGPA... ELISA Kit. • PTHR - PTHR1 Antibody. • FGbeta ELISA Kit. • ...

*  Colleen Cox | PI3-kinase inhibitors in lymphoma

... including glycerol monomycolate (64), blood sugar monomycolate (25), free Pomalidomide of charge mycolic acidity (69), ... Sphingosine N-acyltransferase *Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors *SphK *sPLA2 *Src Kinase *sst Receptors ... After 3 washes with TTBS (TBS added with 0.1% Tween 20), membranes had been incubated with a goat anti-mouse IgG-HRP-conjugated ... 3. The CLL microenvironment CLL cell connections with the supporting tissues microenvironment enjoy a vital function in disease ...

*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for PS(18:0/20:4(8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)) (HMDB0010165)

Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase C2 domain-containing subunit alpha. General function:. Involved in binding. Specific ... 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than ... These are glycerophosphoserines in which two fatty acids are bonded to the glycerol moiety through ester linkages. As is the ... Phosphatidylserine is an acidic (anionic) phospholipid with three ionizable groups, i.e. the phosphate moiety, the amino group ...

*  My brain cancer story

... studies of fatty acid synthase and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene transcription. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 18, ... 12:37 3 comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest. ... Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 66(2-3), pp.333-341. ... 3. García-Pallero, M.A., García-Navarrete, E., Torres, C.V., Pastor, J., Navas, M. and Sola, R.G., 2017. Effectiveness of vagal ...

*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: sbh:SBI 07687

agy:ATC03_11780 glycerol acyltransferase 259 104 ( 2) 30 0.301 153 -, 2 aly:ARALYDRAFT_910107 hypothetical protein K14686 145 ... smag:AN936_13805 N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate redu K00145 308 105 ( 0) 30 0.311 122 -, 4 smp:SMAC_05168 hypothetical ... buo:BRPE64_ACDS25310 sn-glycerol-3-phosphate import ATP K05816 361 114 ( 11) 32 0.300 90 -, 3 cfus:CYFUS_008232 cytochrome c1 ... mll:B1R94_19055 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltran 282 112 ( 7) 31 0.309 97 -, 4 mne:D174_19145 gamma-glutamyl kinase ...

*  Browse our GSTM4 ELISA Kits

Glycerol Kinase 2 ELISA Kits * Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase, Mitochondrial ELISA Kits ... Glyceronephosphate O-Acyltransferase ELISA Kits * Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase 1 ELISA Kits * Glycerophosphodiester ... glutathione S-transferase mu 3 , glutathione S-transferase mu 4 , glutathione-S-transferase, mu 4 ...

*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: ppp:PHYPADRAFT 228860

tni:TVNIR_0071 Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase am K02501 212 100 ( -) 29 0.317 101 -, 1 tsc:TSC_c09870 integral membrane ... vil:CFK37_15850 phosphate acyltransferase K03621 335 100 ( -) 29 0.309 94 ,-, 1 vsc:VSVS12_00978 Flagellar basal-body rod ... gma:AciX8_4553 phosphate transporter K03306 542 101 ( -) 29 0.305 82 -, 1 hdt:HYPDE_41188 Phage integrase 421 101 ( -) 29 0.340 ... cbr:CBG19465 Hypothetical protein CBG19465 K00844 494 883 ( 105) 207 0.374 460 -, 3 dse:Dsec_GM20151 Dsec\GM20151-PA K00844 454 ...

*  Gentaur Molecular :Biochai \ BESTBio<sup>TM< sup> FDA Standard Frozen Tissue...

Acyl-PO4 G3P acyltransferase) (Acyl-phosphate--glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) (G3P acyltransferase) (GPAT) (EC 2.3.1.n3 ... pdxH Sup05_0909] Pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase (EC (PNP/PMP oxidase) (PNPOx) (Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate ... pdxA Sup05_1071] 4-hydroxythreonine-4-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC (4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine dehydrogenase). [ ... 4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase (DHBP synthase) (EC [ ...

(1/250) Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

(2/250) AMP-activated kinase reciprocally regulates triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle: evidence that sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase is a novel target.

AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to metabolic stresses that deplete cellular ATP, and in both liver and skeletal muscle, activated AMPK stimulates fatty acid oxidation. To determine whether AMPK might reciprocally regulate glycerolipid synthesis, we studied liver and skeletal-muscle lipid metabolism in the presence of 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA) riboside, a cell-permeable compound whose phosphorylated metabolite activates AMPK. Adding AICA riboside to cultured rat hepatocytes for 3 h decreased [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG) by 50% and 38% respectively, and decreased oleate labelling of diacylglycerol by 60%. In isolated mouse soleus, a highly oxidative muscle, incubation with AICA riboside for 90 min decreased [14C]oleate incorporation into TAG by 37% and increased 14CO2 production by 48%. When insulin was present, [14C]oleate oxidation was 49% lower and [14C]oleate incorporation into TAG was 62% higher than under basal conditions. AICA riboside blocked insulin's antioxidative and lipogenic effects, increasing fatty acid oxidation by 78% and decreasing labelled TAG 43%. Similar results on fatty acid oxidation and acylglycerol synthesis were observed in C2C12 myoblasts, and in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, AICA riboside also inhibited the hydrolysis of intracellular TAG. These data suggest that AICA riboside might inhibit sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), which catalyses the committed step in the pathway of glycerolipid biosynthesis. Incubating rat hepatocytes with AICA riboside for both 15 and 30 min decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity 22-34% without affecting microsomal GPAT, diacylglycerol acyltransferase or acyl-CoA synthetase activities. Finally, purified recombinant AMPKalpha1 and AMPKalpha2 inhibited hepatic mitochondrial GPAT in a time-and ATP-dependent manner. These data show that AMPK reciprocally regulates acyl-CoA channelling towards beta-oxidation and away from glycerolipid biosynthesis, and provide strong evidence that AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits mitochondrial GPAT.  (+info)

(3/250) A missense mutation accounts for the defect in the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase expressed in the plsB26 mutant.

The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) catalyzes the first step in membrane phospholipid formation. A conditional Escherichia coli mutant (plsB26) has a single missense mutation (G1045A) predicting the expression of an acyltransferase with an Ala349Thr substitution. The PlsB26 protein had a significantly reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase specific activity coupled with an elevated Km for glycerol-3-phosphate.  (+info)

(4/250) Rat sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase: molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA and expressed protein.

Rat mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) cDNA was cloned and characterized. We identified a cDNA containing an open reading frame of 828 amino acids that had an 89% homology with the coding region of the previously characterized mouse mitochondrial GPAT and a predicted amino acid sequence that was 96% identical. The rat 5' UTR was only 159 nucleotides, in contrast to the 926 nucleotide 5' UTR of the mouse cDNA and had an internal deletion of 167 nucleotides. GPAT was expressed in Sf21 insect cells, and specific inhibitors strongly suggest that, like the Escherichia coli GPAT, the recombinant mitochondrial GPAT and the mitochondrial GPAT isoform in rat liver contain critical serine, histidine, and arginine residues.  (+info)

(5/250) Phosphatidic acid synthesis in mitochondria. Topography of formation and transmembrane migration.

The topography of formation and migration of phosphatidic acid (PA) in the transverse plane of rat liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) were investigated. Isolated mitochondria and microsomes, incubated with sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an immobilized substrate palmitoyl-CoA-agarose, synthesized both lyso-PA and PA. The mitochondrial and microsomal acylation of glycerophosphate with palmitoyl-CoA-agarose was 80-100% of the values obtained in the presence of free palmitoyl-CoA. In another series of experiments, both free polymyxin B and polymyxin B-agarose stimulated mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity approximately 2-fold. When PA loaded mitochondria were treated with liver fatty acid binding protein, a fifth of the phospholipid left the mitochondria. The amount of exportable PA reduced with the increase in the time of incubation. In another approach, PA-loaded mitochondria were treated with phospholipase A(2). The amount of phospholipase A(2)-sensitive PA reduced when the incubation time was increased. Taken together, the results suggest that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and PA are synthesized on the outer surface of the MOM and that PA moves to the inner membrane presumably for cardiolipin formation.  (+info)

(6/250) A conserved seven amino acid stretch important for murine mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. Significance of arginine 318 in catalysis.

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the initial and committed step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. We previously cloned the cDNA sequence to murine mitochondrial GPAT (Yet, S-F., Lee, S., Hahm, Y. T., and Sul, H.S. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 9486-9491). We expressed the protein in insect cells which was targeted to mitochondria, purified, and reconstituted mitochondrial GPAT activity using phospholipids (Yet, S.-F., Moon, Y., and Sul, H. S. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 7303-7310). Deletion of the seven amino acids from mitochondrial GPAT, (312)IFLEGTR(318), which is highly conserved among acyltransferases in glycerolipid biosynthesis, drastically reduced mitochondrial GPAT activity. Treatment of mitochondrial GPAT with arginine-modifying agents, phenylglyoxal and cyclohexanedione, inactivated the enzyme. Two highly conserved arginine residues, Arg-318, in the seven amino stretch, and Arg-278, were identified. Substitution of Arg-318 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine reduced the mitochondrial GPAT activity by over 90%. On the other hand, although substitution of Arg-278 with alanine and histidine decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity by 90%, replacement with lysine reduced activity by only 25%. A substitution of the nonconserved Arg-279 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine did not alter mitochondrial GPAT activity. Moreover, R278K mitochondrial GPAT still showed sensitivity to arginine-modifying agents, as in the case of wild-type mitochondrial GPAT. These results suggest that Arg-318 may be critical for mitochondrial GPAT activity, whereas Arg-278 can be replaced by a basic amino acid. Examination of the other conserved residues in the seven amino acid stretch revealed that Phe-313 and Glu-315 are also important, but conservative substitutions can partially maintain activity; substitution with alanine reduced activity by 83 and 72%, respectively, whereas substituting Phe-313 with tyrosine and Glu-315 with glutamine had even lesser effect. In addition, there was no change in fatty acyl-CoA selectivity. Kinetic analysis of the R318K and R318A mitochondrial GPAT showed an 89 and 95%, respectively, decrease in catalytic efficiency but no major change in substrate binding as indicated by the K(m) values for palmitoyl-CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate. These studies indicate importance of the conserved seven amino acid stretch for mitochondrial GPAT activity and the significance of Arg-318 for catalysis.  (+info)

(7/250) Microsomal fatty acyl-CoA transacylation and hydrolysis: fatty acyl-CoA species dependent modulation by liver fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins.

arachidonoyl-CoA. In summary, the data established for the first time a role for both L-FABP and ACBP in microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. By preferentially stimulating microsomal transacylation of unsaturated long chain fatty acyl-CoAs while concomitantly exerting their differential protection from microsomal acyl-CoA hydrolase, L-FABP and ACBP can uniquely function in modulating the pattern of fatty acids esterified to phosphatidic acid, the de novo precursor of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. This may explain in part the simultaneous presence of these proteins in cell types involved in fatty acid absorption and lipoprotein secretion.  (+info)

(8/250) Regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter by insulin.

Expression of critical enzymes in fatty acid and fat biosynthesis is tightly controlled by nutritional and hormonal stimuli. The expression of fatty acid synthase, which catalyzes all reactions for synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, and of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, which catalyzes the first acylation step in glycerophospholipid synthesis, is decreased to an undetectable level during fasting. Food intake, especially a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet after fasting, causes a dramatic increase in the transcription of these genes. Insulin secretion is increased during feeding and has a positive effect on expression. By using adipocytes in culture and transgenic mice that express the reporter gene driven by the fatty acid synthase promoter, the cis-acting sequence that mediates insulin regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter was defined. Upstream stimulatory factors (USF) that bind to the -65 E-box are required for insulin-mediated transcriptional activation of the fatty acid symthase gene. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 may be also involved in induction of these genes during feeding. Using specific inhibitors and expressing various signaling molecules, we found that insulin regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase signaling pathway and that protein kinase B/akt is a downstream effector.  (+info)

dihydroxyacetone phosphate

  • Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is produced during glycolysis, is the precursor for TAG synthesis in adipose tissue. (hmdb.ca)
  • In mammalian and yeast cells, two different pathways are known for the de novo synthesis of PA, the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway or the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of diacylglycerol begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which is derived primarily from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a product of glycolysis (usually in the cytoplasm of liver or adipose tissue cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme acylates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) at the sn-1 position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate is synthesized by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a glycolysis intermediate, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) are molecules so small that they can permeate the mitochondrial outer membrane through porins and shuttle between two dehydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both pathways lead to the production of dihydroxyacetone phosphate in processes that consume ATP. (wikipedia.org)

lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase

  • Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, 1-acylglycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase, 1-acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase, 1-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase, and lysophosphatidic acid-acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)


  • It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylcholine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are lipids containing a glycerol moiety carrying a phosphocholine at the 3-position. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylserine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. (hmdb.ca)
  • Phosphatidylserine is an acidic (anionic) phospholipid with three ionizable groups, i.e. the phosphate moiety, the amino group and the carboxyl function. (hmdb.ca)
  • Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position on the glycerol moiety and an unsaturated fatty acid at the C-2 position. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes such as bacteria, diphosphatidylglycerol synthase catalyses a transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of one phosphatidylglycerol to the free 3'-hydroxyl group of another, with the elimination of one molecule of glycerol, via the action of an enzyme related to phospholipase D. The enzyme can operate in reverse under some physiological conditions to remove cardiolipin. (wikipedia.org)

fatty acid

  • Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides, meaning that they are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acid groups (i.e. fatty acid tri-esters of glycerol). (hmdb.ca)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Phosphatidic acids: those lipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol under the catalysis of diglyceride acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)


  • The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. (hmdb.ca)
  • There an acyl group is placed at the sn-2 position by an alkyl/acyl GPA acyltransferase and the phosphate group is removed by a phosphatidic acid phosphatase to form 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyl-CoA → Lysophosphatidic acid + CoA Glycerol-1-phosphatase removes the phosphate group of glycerol 3-phosphate to generate glycerol, allowing glycerol fermentation to produce glycerol from glucose through glycolysis pathway. (wikipedia.org)


  • DHAP can also serve as a TAG precursor in non-adipose tissues, but does so to a much lesser extent than glycerol. (hmdb.ca)
  • The ER/mitochondria pathway requires the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to convert DHAP to glycerol-3-phosphate. (hmdb.ca)
  • The ER/peroxisome reaction pathway uses the peroxisomal enzyme DHAP acyltransferase to acylate DHAP to acyl-DHAP which is then reduced by acyl-DHAP reductase. (hmdb.ca)
  • DHAP and thus glycerol 3-phosphate is also possible to be synthesized from amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates via glyceroneogenesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)


  • Shikonin also caused the mitochondrial apoptotic path mediated through the improved appearance of the pro-apoptotic Bax and inhibition of Bcl-2, interruption of the mitochondrial membrane layer potential (MMP) adopted by the service of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP cleavage. (mirc-undernet.org)
  • Cardiolipin (IUPAC name "1,3-bis(sn-3'-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol") is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, it is first acylated on its sn-1 position by an ER- or mitochondrial membrane enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase, and another acyl group is then added on the sn-2 position making phosphatidic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2O → + Pi Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases are located both in the cytosol and the intermembrane face of mitochondrial inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)


  • Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. (hmdb.ca)
  • NAD(P)H + H+ → + NAD(P)+ It is also synthesized by phosphorylating glycerol generated upon hydrolyzing fats with glycerol kinase, and can feed into glycolysis or glyconeogenesis pathways. (wikipedia.org)


  • PA is a unique phospholipid in that it has a small highly charged head group that is very close to the glycerol backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two phosphatidic acid moieties connect with a glycerol backbone in the center to form a dimeric structure. (wikipedia.org)


  • Glycerol-3-phosphate is first acylated with acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since there are two phosphates in the molecule, each of them can catch one proton. (wikipedia.org)


  • The major building block for the synthesis of triacylglycerides, in non-adipose tissue, is glycerol. (hmdb.ca)
  • ATP → + ADP Glycerol 3-phosphate is a starting material for de novo synthesis of glycerolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + a 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate This membrane-associated enzyme is required for suberin or cutin synthesis in plants. (wikipedia.org)

enzyme participates

  • This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: glycerolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and ether lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)


  • The sulfoglycolytic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (sulfo-EMP) pathway involves the degradation of sulfoquinovose to 2,3-dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS), and shares similarity with the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas glycolysis pathway. (wikipedia.org)


  • Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). (hmdb.ca)
  • Heteroaryl compounds, processes for their preparation, pharmaceutical compositions containing them and their use in the treatment of diseases or disorders mediated by Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme, particularly DGAT-1 is described. (patentsencyclopedia.com)


  • PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs) or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid peroxidation inactivates rat liver microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)


  • In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) with the help of lipases and bile secretions, which can then move into blood vessels. (hmdb.ca)
  • As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (hmdb.ca)
  • Industrial production is primarily achieved by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides and glycerol. (wikipedia.org)


  • 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that converts lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid, which is the second step in the de novo phospholipid biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)


  • A plasma enzyme called lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) converts the free cholesterol into cholesteryl ester (a more hydrophobic form of cholesterol), which is then sequestered into the core of the lipoprotein particle, eventually causing the newly synthesized HDL to assume a spherical shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • sn-Glycerol 3-phosphate is a phosphoric ester of glycerol, which is a component of glycerophospholipids. (wikipedia.org)


  • In enzymology, a 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acyl-CoA + 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, whereas its two products are CoA and 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acyl-CoA:2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase (EC, sn-2-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)


  • The first step is the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate by a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)


  • Biosynthesis of plasmalogens (PLs) begins with association of peroxisomal matrix enzymes GNPAT (glycerone phosphate acyl transferase) and AGPS (alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase) on the luminal side of the peroxisomal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following step is conversion of CDP-DAG to phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) by the enzyme PGP synthase, followed by dephosphorylation by PTPMT1 to form PG. (wikipedia.org)


  • The formulation used in these products is said to be the same as VSL #3 , a probiotic that has been the subject of over 60 human clinical trials as a medical food in the dietary management of gastrointestinal and liver disorders. (blogspot.com)


  • The hydroxyl groups (-OH and -O−) on phosphate would form a stable intramolecular hydrogen bond with the centered glycerol's hydroxyl group, thus forming a bicyclic resonance structure. (wikipedia.org)


  • As with other acidic lipids, it exists in nature in salt form, but it has a high propensity to chelate to calcium via the charged oxygen atoms of both the carboxyl and phosphate moieties, modifying the conformation of the polar head group. (hmdb.ca)


  • however, 1-phosphate is specifically used in archeal ether lipids. (wikipedia.org)


  • Consequently in the present research, we analyzed the results of Shikonin on DU-145 and Personal computer-3 prostate tumor cells and looked into the molecular systems included in the procedure. (mirc-undernet.org)
  • Cell viability assayCell viability was scored using the CCK-8 assay package in (Personal computer-3 and DU-145) hormone refractory prostate tumor cells and PrEC cells as per the producers guidelines. (mirc-undernet.org)


  • From a historical reason, it is also known as L-glycerol 3-phosphate, D-glycerol 1-phosphate, L-α-glycerophosphoric acid. (wikipedia.org)


  • TG(16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z))[iso in particular, consists of one chain of palmitoleic acid at the C-1 position, one chain of oleic acid at the C-2 position and one chain of arachidonic acid at the C-3 position. (hmdb.ca)


  • In addition, genetic mutations in the GNPAT or AGPS genes can result in plasmalogen deficiencies, which lead to the development of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) type 2 or 3, respectively. (wikipedia.org)