1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenasePhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Retinol O-Fatty-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.AlbaniaGlycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

*  Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial
Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid ... Integration of metabolomics and expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM) in breast cancer-link to patient ... Phospholipid metabolism; CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis; CDP-diacylglycerol from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate: step 1/3. 4 ... Identification and functional characterization of human glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 gene promoters.. ...
  https://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q9HCL2
*  Mice deleted for GPAT3 have reduced GPAT activity in white adipose tissue and altered energy and cholesterol homeostasis in...
acyltransferase. *GPAT. *triglyceride. *phospholipid. acyl-coa:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) ... mice fed a high-fat diet were homogenized in cold phosphate-buffered saline, and the total protein level in each sample was ... GPAT, acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. A: strategy for generating Gpat3 knockout (KO) mice. Part of the murine ... Mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: new genes for an old activity. J Lipid Res 49: 2079-2088, 2008. ...
  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/306/10/E1176.long
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for TG(16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)) (HMDB0005441)
Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol- ... Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP ... 9. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity. Specific ... 2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase ( ...
  http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB05441
*  Thomas C Vanaman | Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry
Presence of phosphate, sulfhydryl, and disulfide groups." The Journal of biological chemistry 261, 1 (1986): 71-5. [PubMed Link ... and COOH-terminal sequence and cyanogen bromide peptide analysis of Escherichia coli sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." ... 1950) 125, 3 (1980): 1171-7. [PubMed Link] , [ Full text ] * Blum, J.J.;Hayes, A.;Jamieson GA, J.;Vanaman, T.C. "Calmodulin ... "Ligatin: a peripheral membrane protein with covalently bound palmitic acid." The Journal of biological chemistry 262, 3 (1987 ...
  https://biochemistry.med.uky.edu/users/vanaman
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for TG(16:0/16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)) (HMDB0005377)
Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP ... 9. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity. Specific ... 2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase ( ... DHAP can also serve as a TAG precursor in non-adipose tissues, but does so to a much lesser extent than glycerol. The use of ...
  http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB05377
*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: sho:SHJGH 3778
hco:LOKO_03137 Aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogena K00111 546 104 ( -) 30 0.323 65 -, 1 hhb:Hhub_1986 tRNA/rRNA cytosine- ... mrm:A7982_10406 Phosphate regulon sensor protein PhoR ( K14980 516 152 ( 30) 40 0.297 219 -, 15 psea:WY02_07910 hypothetical ... nsr:NS506_00790 Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 704 168 ( 54) 44 0.272 382 -, 11 smd:Smed_3984 hypothetical protein 398 168 ( ... bstg:WT74_22405 pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase K07006 687 113 ( 4) 32 0.324 139 -, 5 cpv:cgd8_680 hypothetical protein 1146 ...
  http://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=sho:SHJGH_3778
*  6.13: Metabolism of Fat - Biology LibreTexts
In the first reaction, glycerol-3-phosphate is esterified at position 1 with a fatty acid, followed by a duplicate reaction at ... Synthesis of fat starting with glycerol-3-phosphate requires action of acyl transferase enzymes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate ... acyl transferase, which catalyze addition of fatty acids to the glycerol backbone.. Figure 6.13.1: Synthesis of Fat ... Synthesis of fat requires glycerol-3-phosphate (or DHAP) and three fatty acids. ...
  https://bio.libretexts.org/TextMaps/Map%3A_Biochemistry_Free_and_Easy_
*  SEQUENCES FOR FK228 BIOSYNTHESIS AND METHODS OF SYNTHESIZING FK228 AND FK228 ANALOGS - Patent application
A phosphotransferase, encoded by depG, is proposed to further mask and quench the hydrolyzed FK228 by adding a phosphate group ... 2003). "Type I polyketide synthase requiring a discrete acyltransferase for polyketide biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... glycerol, 0.5% glucose, 0.5% peptone, 0.1% yeast extract, 0.1% NaCl, pH 7.0) (8×500 ml) at 37° C. for 4 days with shaking (160 ... 2001). "Alteration of the substrate specificity of a modular polyketide synthase acyltransferase domain through site-specific ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100261878
*  ABHD5 Gene - GeneCards | ABHD5 Protein | ABHD5 Antibody
... motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3- ... motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3- ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase which functions in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis (PubMed:18606822). May regulate the ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=51099
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for PC(14:0/22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)) (HMDB0007892)
Phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase. General function:. Involved in phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase ... ATP + H(2)O + phospholipid(In) = ADP + phosphate + phospholipid(Out). Gene Name:. ATP11C. Uniprot ID:. Q8NB49 Molecular weight: ... the fatty acid distribution at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol within phospholipids is continually in flux, owing to ... ATP + H(2)O + phospholipid(In) = ADP + phosphate + phospholipid(Out). Gene Name:. ATP11A. Uniprot ID:. P98196 Molecular weight: ...
  http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB07892
*  Product Overview anti-GLYCTK Antibodies
anti-Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase, Mitochondrial Antibodies * anti-Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 1 (Soluble) ... anti-Glyceronephosphate O-Acyltransferase Antibodies * anti-Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase 1 Antibodies * anti- ... PE (3) , Alexa Fluor 350 (1) , Alexa Fluor 488 (1) , Alexa Fluor 555 (1) , Alexa Fluor 594 (1) , Alexa Fluor 647 (1) , Alexa ... anti-Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Antibodies * anti-Glutathione Transferase zeta 1 (Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase) ...
  http://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Glycerate+Kinase+
*  Influence of diet fat saturation on rates of cholesterol synthesis and esterification in healthy young men - UBC Library Open...
Lecithin:acyltransferase of human plasma. Role of chylomicrons, very low, and high density lipoproteins in the reaction. J Biol ... For example, upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway, which does not exchange protons with body water and thus does not ... found at the C2 position on the glycerol backbone of plasma lecithin and transferred to cholesterol by LCAT. The fatty acid ... Physiological role of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. Am J Clin Nutr 23:1129-1136. Glueck CJ, Gordon DJ, Nelson JJ, Davis ...
  https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0088878
*  dict.md | A
alpha-glycerol phosphatase activity. alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD) activity. alpha-glycerophosphatase activity. ... alpha-glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity. Alpha-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase. alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase ( ... alpha-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylphenethylamine hydrochloride. alpha-ethyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-(3-((2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl) ... alpha-Hydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one, 3. alpha-hydroxy-alpha-2-thienyl-2-thiopheneacetic acid 6,6,9-trimethyl-9-azabicyclo (3.3. ...
  http://en.dict.md/A/231
*  Gentaur antibody-antibodies: Cusabio products
Bovine 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1(MOGAT1) ELISA kit. Bovine 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1(MOGAT1) ELISA kit ... Bovine 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase homolog (C. elegans) (DERA) ELISA kit, Species Bovine, Sample Type serum, plasma. ... Bovine 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha(AGPAT1) ELISA kit SpeciesBovine. ... Bovine 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta(AGPAT4) ELISA kit SpeciesBovine. ...
  http://www.antibody-antibodies.com/supplier159-Cusabio.html
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for PC(P-18:0/P-18:1(9Z)) (HMDB0011268)
Glycerol vinyl ether. *Dialkyl phosphate. *Organic phosphoric acid derivative. *Phosphoric acid ester ... Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. ... Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2. General function:. Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. ... 8. Phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase. General function:. Involved in phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase ...
  http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB11268
*  Myosin phosphatase Rho-interacting protein elisa and antibody
1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosph ate acyltransferase alpha (Agpat1... Recombinant Protein. • alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) ELISA Kit. ... Also known as Myosin phosphatase Rho-interacting protein (M-RIP) (Rho-interacting protein 3) (RIP3) (p116Rip).. Targets myosin ...
  https://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=myosin-phosphatase-rho-interacting-protein
*  rice.txt
ORYSJ Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase precursor (EC 4.1.2.27) (S1PL) (SP-lyase) (SPL) (Sphingosine-1-phosphate aldolase) [SPL] [ ... Acyl transferase 7 (EC 2.3.1.-) (OsAT7) [AT7] [LOC_Os05g08640] Os05g0182600 Q65WY8 SSP1B_ORYSJ FACT complex subunit SSRP1-B ( ... ORYSJ Probable glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] 3, cytosolic (EC 1.1.1.8) [LOC_Os05g41590] [OJ1579_G03.13] [OsJ_ ... ORYSJ Probable sucrose-phosphate synthase 1 (EC 2.4.1.14) (Sucrose phosphate synthase 1F) (OsSPS1F) (UDP-glucose-fructose- ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/docs/rice
*  CARBOXY OXAZOLE OR THIAZOLE COMPOUNDS AS DGAT- 1 INHIBITORS USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF OBESITY - Patent application
KH2PO4 Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate EDTA Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid LB Luria Bertani [0407] BSA Bovine serum albumin ... 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol (1228.5 μM) [0413] Preparation of stock solution: 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol stock (19.5 mM) was prepared ... 0004] A key enzyme in the synthesis of triglycerides is acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). Genes for two DGAT ... 25. A method for the treatment of diseases mediated by diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1), comprising administering to a ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120214854
*  FERMENTATION AND PURIFICATION OF ACTINOMADURA CHROMOPROTEIN AND RELATED SPECIES - Patent application
Approximately 1 ml of a frozen mycelia glycerol stock was inoculated into a 25 mm×150 mm seed tube containing 10 ml of MYM ... 11). The first step in madurosamine (MDA) biosynthesis, as with all deoxysugars, is activation of D-glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P ... Biol., 293-302) Orf32 consists of 5 domains common to type I PKSs including a ketosynthase (KS), acyltransferase (AT), ... "E" solution contains 5 g magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, 50 g citric acid monohydrate, 250 g potassium phosphate dibasic, and ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100028952
*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: dha:DEHA2F10450g
rmb:K529_003675 imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase s K02501 212 100 ( -) 29 0.368 38 -, 1 sez:Sez_0254 sialic acid ... acd:AOLE_15300 putative acyltransferase 308 123 ( -) 34 0.316 98 -, 1 ant:Arnit_1162 putative histidine decarboxylase K01590 ... lpm:LP6_0786 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase I K01634 601 198 ( -) 51 0.264 292 -, 1 lpn:lpg2176 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase I ... hsa:8879 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 K01634 568 335 ( 234) 82 0.247 461 -, 2 ipu:108263680 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 ...
  http://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=dha:DEHA2F10450g
*  Ig kappa-b5 chain C region elisa and antibody
1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosph ate acyltransferase beta (AGPAT2... ELISA Kit. • Anti-myelin basic protein antibody (MBP) ELISA Kit ...
  https://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=ig-kappa-b5-chain-c-region
*  DR Dean Goodman - The University of Melbourne
Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum and P-berghei glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase involved in FASII fatty acid ... Dimeric cyclohexane-1,3-dione oximes inhibit wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase and show anti-malarial activity. Bioorganic and ...
  https://www.findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/display/person24967
*  KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: bbv:HMPREF9228 0182
ang:ANI_1_6114 diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2A K14458 408 102 ( -) 29 0.333 72 ,-, 1 asj:AsACE_CH02529 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5 ... sbu:SpiBuddy_0322 Glycerol-3-phosphate-transporting ATP K02010 368 104 ( -) 30 0.325 126 -, 1 sdn:Sden_2887 4-hydroxythreonine- ... metc:MTCT_1605 mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase K00966 378 103 ( -) 29 0.348 69 -, 1 mez:Mtc_1636 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate- ... nos:Nos7107_5325 membrane bound O-acyl transferase MBOA 499 107 ( -) 30 0.308 91 ,-, 1 nsl:BOX37_16085 alpha/beta hydrolase 283 ...
  http://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=bbv:HMPREF9228_0182
*  Network Portal - Gene GSU1379
1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, putative (NCBI). 81, 189. GSU3208. GSU3208. conserved hypothetical protein ( ... ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase (NCBI). 35, 81. GSU0729. GSU0729. iron-sulfur cluster-binding protein (VIMSS). 121, 291. ... Functional Annotations (3). Function. System. Fe2+/Zn2+ uptake regulation proteins. cog/ cog. sequence-specific DNA binding ... POSITION A C G T 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.823529 0.0 0.117647 0.058824 3 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 0.117647 0.882353 5 0.882353 ...
  http://networks.systemsbiology.net/gsu/gene/GSU1379
*  AMPK activation-protean potential for boosting healthspan | SpringerLink
Park H, Kaushik VK, Constant S et al (2002) Coordinate regulation of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate ... acyltransferase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase by AMP-activated protein kinase in rat tissues in response to exercise. J Biol Chem ... evidence that sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase is a novel target. Biochem J 338(Pt 3):783-791PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle ... Br J Clin Pharmacol 71(3):377-382PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11357-013-9595-y

(1/250) Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

(2/250) AMP-activated kinase reciprocally regulates triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle: evidence that sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase is a novel target.

AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to metabolic stresses that deplete cellular ATP, and in both liver and skeletal muscle, activated AMPK stimulates fatty acid oxidation. To determine whether AMPK might reciprocally regulate glycerolipid synthesis, we studied liver and skeletal-muscle lipid metabolism in the presence of 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA) riboside, a cell-permeable compound whose phosphorylated metabolite activates AMPK. Adding AICA riboside to cultured rat hepatocytes for 3 h decreased [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG) by 50% and 38% respectively, and decreased oleate labelling of diacylglycerol by 60%. In isolated mouse soleus, a highly oxidative muscle, incubation with AICA riboside for 90 min decreased [14C]oleate incorporation into TAG by 37% and increased 14CO2 production by 48%. When insulin was present, [14C]oleate oxidation was 49% lower and [14C]oleate incorporation into TAG was 62% higher than under basal conditions. AICA riboside blocked insulin's antioxidative and lipogenic effects, increasing fatty acid oxidation by 78% and decreasing labelled TAG 43%. Similar results on fatty acid oxidation and acylglycerol synthesis were observed in C2C12 myoblasts, and in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, AICA riboside also inhibited the hydrolysis of intracellular TAG. These data suggest that AICA riboside might inhibit sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), which catalyses the committed step in the pathway of glycerolipid biosynthesis. Incubating rat hepatocytes with AICA riboside for both 15 and 30 min decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity 22-34% without affecting microsomal GPAT, diacylglycerol acyltransferase or acyl-CoA synthetase activities. Finally, purified recombinant AMPKalpha1 and AMPKalpha2 inhibited hepatic mitochondrial GPAT in a time-and ATP-dependent manner. These data show that AMPK reciprocally regulates acyl-CoA channelling towards beta-oxidation and away from glycerolipid biosynthesis, and provide strong evidence that AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits mitochondrial GPAT.  (+info)

(3/250) A missense mutation accounts for the defect in the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase expressed in the plsB26 mutant.

The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) catalyzes the first step in membrane phospholipid formation. A conditional Escherichia coli mutant (plsB26) has a single missense mutation (G1045A) predicting the expression of an acyltransferase with an Ala349Thr substitution. The PlsB26 protein had a significantly reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase specific activity coupled with an elevated Km for glycerol-3-phosphate.  (+info)

(4/250) Rat sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase: molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA and expressed protein.

Rat mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) cDNA was cloned and characterized. We identified a cDNA containing an open reading frame of 828 amino acids that had an 89% homology with the coding region of the previously characterized mouse mitochondrial GPAT and a predicted amino acid sequence that was 96% identical. The rat 5' UTR was only 159 nucleotides, in contrast to the 926 nucleotide 5' UTR of the mouse cDNA and had an internal deletion of 167 nucleotides. GPAT was expressed in Sf21 insect cells, and specific inhibitors strongly suggest that, like the Escherichia coli GPAT, the recombinant mitochondrial GPAT and the mitochondrial GPAT isoform in rat liver contain critical serine, histidine, and arginine residues.  (+info)

(5/250) Phosphatidic acid synthesis in mitochondria. Topography of formation and transmembrane migration.

The topography of formation and migration of phosphatidic acid (PA) in the transverse plane of rat liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) were investigated. Isolated mitochondria and microsomes, incubated with sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an immobilized substrate palmitoyl-CoA-agarose, synthesized both lyso-PA and PA. The mitochondrial and microsomal acylation of glycerophosphate with palmitoyl-CoA-agarose was 80-100% of the values obtained in the presence of free palmitoyl-CoA. In another series of experiments, both free polymyxin B and polymyxin B-agarose stimulated mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity approximately 2-fold. When PA loaded mitochondria were treated with liver fatty acid binding protein, a fifth of the phospholipid left the mitochondria. The amount of exportable PA reduced with the increase in the time of incubation. In another approach, PA-loaded mitochondria were treated with phospholipase A(2). The amount of phospholipase A(2)-sensitive PA reduced when the incubation time was increased. Taken together, the results suggest that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and PA are synthesized on the outer surface of the MOM and that PA moves to the inner membrane presumably for cardiolipin formation.  (+info)

(6/250) A conserved seven amino acid stretch important for murine mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. Significance of arginine 318 in catalysis.

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the initial and committed step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. We previously cloned the cDNA sequence to murine mitochondrial GPAT (Yet, S-F., Lee, S., Hahm, Y. T., and Sul, H.S. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 9486-9491). We expressed the protein in insect cells which was targeted to mitochondria, purified, and reconstituted mitochondrial GPAT activity using phospholipids (Yet, S.-F., Moon, Y., and Sul, H. S. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 7303-7310). Deletion of the seven amino acids from mitochondrial GPAT, (312)IFLEGTR(318), which is highly conserved among acyltransferases in glycerolipid biosynthesis, drastically reduced mitochondrial GPAT activity. Treatment of mitochondrial GPAT with arginine-modifying agents, phenylglyoxal and cyclohexanedione, inactivated the enzyme. Two highly conserved arginine residues, Arg-318, in the seven amino stretch, and Arg-278, were identified. Substitution of Arg-318 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine reduced the mitochondrial GPAT activity by over 90%. On the other hand, although substitution of Arg-278 with alanine and histidine decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity by 90%, replacement with lysine reduced activity by only 25%. A substitution of the nonconserved Arg-279 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine did not alter mitochondrial GPAT activity. Moreover, R278K mitochondrial GPAT still showed sensitivity to arginine-modifying agents, as in the case of wild-type mitochondrial GPAT. These results suggest that Arg-318 may be critical for mitochondrial GPAT activity, whereas Arg-278 can be replaced by a basic amino acid. Examination of the other conserved residues in the seven amino acid stretch revealed that Phe-313 and Glu-315 are also important, but conservative substitutions can partially maintain activity; substitution with alanine reduced activity by 83 and 72%, respectively, whereas substituting Phe-313 with tyrosine and Glu-315 with glutamine had even lesser effect. In addition, there was no change in fatty acyl-CoA selectivity. Kinetic analysis of the R318K and R318A mitochondrial GPAT showed an 89 and 95%, respectively, decrease in catalytic efficiency but no major change in substrate binding as indicated by the K(m) values for palmitoyl-CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate. These studies indicate importance of the conserved seven amino acid stretch for mitochondrial GPAT activity and the significance of Arg-318 for catalysis.  (+info)

(7/250) Microsomal fatty acyl-CoA transacylation and hydrolysis: fatty acyl-CoA species dependent modulation by liver fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins.

arachidonoyl-CoA. In summary, the data established for the first time a role for both L-FABP and ACBP in microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. By preferentially stimulating microsomal transacylation of unsaturated long chain fatty acyl-CoAs while concomitantly exerting their differential protection from microsomal acyl-CoA hydrolase, L-FABP and ACBP can uniquely function in modulating the pattern of fatty acids esterified to phosphatidic acid, the de novo precursor of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. This may explain in part the simultaneous presence of these proteins in cell types involved in fatty acid absorption and lipoprotein secretion.  (+info)

(8/250) Regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter by insulin.

Expression of critical enzymes in fatty acid and fat biosynthesis is tightly controlled by nutritional and hormonal stimuli. The expression of fatty acid synthase, which catalyzes all reactions for synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, and of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, which catalyzes the first acylation step in glycerophospholipid synthesis, is decreased to an undetectable level during fasting. Food intake, especially a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet after fasting, causes a dramatic increase in the transcription of these genes. Insulin secretion is increased during feeding and has a positive effect on expression. By using adipocytes in culture and transgenic mice that express the reporter gene driven by the fatty acid synthase promoter, the cis-acting sequence that mediates insulin regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter was defined. Upstream stimulatory factors (USF) that bind to the -65 E-box are required for insulin-mediated transcriptional activation of the fatty acid symthase gene. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 may be also involved in induction of these genes during feeding. Using specific inhibitors and expressing various signaling molecules, we found that insulin regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase signaling pathway and that protein kinase B/akt is a downstream effector.  (+info)



  • moiety
  • It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylcholine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are lipids containing a glycerol moiety carrying a phosphocholine at the 3-position. (hmdb.ca)
  • In prokaryotes such as bacteria, diphosphatidylglycerol synthase catalyses a transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of one phosphatidylglycerol to the free 3'-hydroxyl group of another, with the elimination of one molecule of glycerol, via the action of an enzyme related to phospholipase D. The enzyme can operate in reverse under some physiological conditions to remove cardiolipin. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolysis
  • The sulfoglycolytic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (sulfo-EMP) pathway involves the degradation of sulfoquinovose to 2,3-dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS), and shares similarity with the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas glycolysis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthase
  • Biosynthesis of plasmalogens (PLs) begins with association of peroxisomal matrix enzymes GNPAT (glycerone phosphate acyl transferase) and AGPS (alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase) on the luminal side of the peroxisomal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following step is conversion of CDP-DAG to phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) by the enzyme PGP synthase, followed by dephosphorylation by PTPMT1 to form PG. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • As there is no plasmenylcholine desaturase choline plasmalogens can be formed only after hydrolysis of ethanolamine PLs to 1-O-(1Z-alkenyl)-2-acyl-sn-glycerol that can be modified by choline phosphotransferase and CDP choline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • The hydroxyl groups (-OH and -O−) on phosphate would form a stable intramolecular hydrogen bond with the centered glycerol's hydroxyl group, thus forming a bicyclic resonance structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • position
  • TG(16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z))[iso in particular, consists of one chain of palmitoleic acid at the C-1 position, one chain of oleic acid at the C-2 position and one chain of arachidonic acid at the C-3 position. (hmdb.ca)
  • action
  • Sulfoquinovose is obtained from SQ glycosides by the action of sulfoquinovosidases, which are glycoside hydrolases that can hydrolyse the glycosidic linkage in SQDG, or its deacylated form, sulfoquinovosyl glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • In addition, genetic mutations in the GNPAT or AGPS genes can result in plasmalogen deficiencies, which lead to the development of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) type 2 or 3, respectively. (wikipedia.org)