1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 220.127.116.11.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 18.104.22.168.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 22.214.171.124.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 126.96.36.199.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenasePhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Retinol O-Fatty-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.AlbaniaGlycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Glicerolo-3-fosfato O-aciltransferasi - WikipediaFrentzen, M., Heinz, E., McKeon, T.A. and Stumpf, P.K., Specificities and selectivities of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase ... Yamashita, S. and Numa, N., Partial purification and properties of glycerophosphate acyltransferase from rat liver. Formation ... Bertrams, M. and Heinz, E., Positional specificity and fatty-acid selectivity of purified sn-glycerol 3-phosphate ... Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 256, ...
plsB - Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase - Actinobacillus succinogenes (strain ATCC 55618 / 130Z) - plsB gene & protein... motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3- ... Acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information ... glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate C16:0-DCA-CoA acyl transferase ... Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the ...
RCSB PDB - 1IUQ: The 1.55 A Crystal Structure of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Methods Report PageSubstrate recognition and selectivity of plant glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) from Cucurbita moscata and ...
Agpat4 - 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Agpat4 gene & protein... into phosphatidic acid by incorporating an acyl moiety at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. ... motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3- ... Lysocardiolipin acyltransferase 1 (Lclat1), 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase epsilon (Agpat5), 1-acyl-sn-glycerol ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gamma (Agpat3), 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta (Agpat2), 1- ...
plsB - Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase - Salmonella typhimurium (strain LT2 / SGSC1412 / ATCC 700720) - plsB gene & protein... motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3- ... Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseAdd BLAST. 806. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across ... Acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information ... glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate C16:0-DCA-CoA acyl transferase ...
GPAT4 (AT1G01610) Result Summary | BioGRIDglycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase activity [IDA]*phosphatase activity [IDA]*transferase activity, transferring acyl ... ATGPAT4, F22L4.15, F22L4_15, GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE ACYLTRANSFERASE 4, AT1G01610. bifunctional sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O- ... acyltransferase/phosphatase. GO Process (2). GO Function (3). GO Component (1). Gene Ontology Biological Process. *cutin ... Bifunctional Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase/phosphatase ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Molecular mechanism of acclimation and tolerance to low temperature. (KAKENHI-PROJECT-08102011)Publications] Tasaka & Murata: 'Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in plants (review).' Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1348. ... of a two-component signal transduction system involved in the induction of alkaline phosphatase under phosphate-limiting ... Publications] Yokoi et al.: 'Introduction of the cDNA for Arabidopsis glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase(GPAT)confers ... 3) New factors for cold acclimation : The global examination of cold-inducible expression of genes in Synechocystis with DNA ...
AGPAT9 polyclonal antibody - (PAB22285) - Products - Abnova... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase theta,lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, theta ... Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) acyltransferases (GPAT; EC 188.8.131.52), such as GPAM (MIM 602395) and GPAT3, catalyze the initial step ... synthesis by converting glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) (Cao et al., 2006 [PubMed 17170135]).[ ... Western blot analysis of Lane 1: RT-4, Lane 2: U-251 MG, Lane 3: Human Plasma, Lane 4: Liver, Lane 5: Tonsil with AGPAT9 ...
TIGR03703GO:0004366: glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity molecular_function. GO:0008654: phospholipid biosynthetic process ... In many bacteria, PlsB is not found, and appears to be replaced by a two enzyme system for 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate ... Members of this protein family are PlsB, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase, present in E. coli and numerous related ...
AGPAT6 - 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, zeta), isoform CRA b - Homo...IPR002123. Plipid/glycerol_acylTrfase. Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01553. ... AcyltransferaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, zeta), isoform CRA_bImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, zeta), isoform CRA_b OS=Homo sapiens GN=AGPAT6 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Plus it2002) A phosphate transporter from Medicago truncatula involved in the acquisition of phosphate released by arbuscular ... 2007) The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19: ... glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase. RNAi. RNA interference. AMF. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. RNAseq. deep sequencing ... Mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporters, such as M. truncatula PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER4 (MtPT4), Rice PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER11 (OsPT11 ...
Mice deleted for GPAT3 have reduced GPAT activity in white adipose tissue and altered energy and cholesterol homeostasis in...acyltransferase. *GPAT. *triglyceride. *phospholipid. acyl-coa:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 184.108.40.206) ... mice fed a high-fat diet were homogenized in cold phosphate-buffered saline, and the total protein level in each sample was ... GPAT, acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. A: strategy for generating Gpat3 knockout (KO) mice. Part of the murine ... Mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: new genes for an old activity. J Lipid Res 49: 2079-2088, 2008. ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for TG(16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)) (HMDB0005441)Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol- ... Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP ... 9. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity. Specific ... 2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase ( ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for TG(16:0/16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)) (HMDB0005377)Involved in acyltransferase activity. Specific function:. Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol- ... Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP ... 9. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1. General function:. Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity. Specific ... 2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase ( ...
Bone Marrow | MyBioSourceRecombinant Mouse 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta (Agpat2). Gene Names: Agpat2; BSCL; BSCL1; LPAAB; ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase; beta). Host/Reactivities: Host: Cell Free Expression. ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta (Agpat2), Recombinant Protein. (#MBS7007391). ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 ( ...
Expression of AGPAT4 in cancer - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 4 (Lysophosphatidic acid ... acyltransferase, delta), isoform CRA_e Show all. Predicted membrane proteins. Prediction method-based. Membrane proteins ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta; Putative uncharacterized protein DKFZp686G10113 ... SK-BR-3. SK-MEL-30. T-47d. THP-1. TIME. U-138 MG. U-2 OS. U-2197. U-251 MG. U-266/70. U-266/84. U-698. U-87 MG. U-937. WM-115. ...
LPGAT1 - Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - LPGAT1 gene & protein... specific acyltransferase that recognizes various acyl-CoAs and LPGs as substrates but demonstrates a clear preference for long ... motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3- ... Acyltransferase, Transferase. Biological process. Lipid biosynthesis, Lipid metabolism, Phospholipid biosynthesis, Phospholipid ... Lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) specific acyltransferase that recognizes various acyl-CoAs and LPGs as substrates but ...
MLXIPL polyclonal antibody - (PAB12520) - Products - AbnovaThe presence of distal and proximal promoters for rat mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase.. Aneja KK, Guha P, ... In Tris-citrate/phosphate buffer, pH 7.0-8.0 (0.01% sodium azide). *Storage Instruction: ...
KEGG PATHWAY: hsa00561DGAT1; diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 [KO:K11155] [EC:220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124] ... GPAT2; glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial [KO:K00629] [EC:126.96.36.199] ... MBOAT1; membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 1 [KO:K13517] [EC:2.3.1.- 188.8.131.52] ... MBOAT2; membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 2 [KO:K13517] [EC:2.3.1.- 184.108.40.206] ...
1-Acilglicerol-3-fosfat O-aciltransferaza - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes". Eur. J. ... Frentzen, M., Heinz, E., McKeon, T.A. and Stumpf, P.K. (1983). „Specificities and selectivities of glycerol-3-phosphate ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 220.127.116.11, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... 1-acilglicerol-3-fosfat O-aciltransferaza (EC 18.104.22.168, 1-acil-sn-glicero-3-fosfatna aciltransferaza, 1-acil-sn-glicerol 3- ...
Browsercholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Rat. 22.214.171.124, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Mouse. 126.96.36.199, glycerol-3- ...
De novo assembly of Phlomis purpurea after challenging with Phytophthora cinnamomi | BMC Genomics | Full Text... as suggested by contigs corresponding to acyltransferases, hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA acyltransferase, ... The identification of genes coding for cytochrome enzymes (CYPs), β-ketoacyl CoA synthase, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate ... paraformaldehyde in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2] for 12 h at 4 °C . The samples were washed 3 times with PBS ... Molina I, Kosma D. Role of HXXXD-motif/BAHD acyltransferases in the biosynthesis of extracellular lipids. Plant Cell Rep. 2015; ...
xBASEinorganic phosphate transporter, sodium-dependent. 12322. 13953. 1. CDS. -. ZP_02700711.1. SNSL317_A1494. peptidase E. 14043. ... glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. 57223. 59643. -1. CDS. dgkA. ZP_02700766.1. SNSL317_A1547. diacylglycerol kinase. 59814. ... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. 41205. 42854. 1. CDS. -. ZP_02700748.2. SNSL317_A1531. conserved hypothetical protein. 43295. ...
Choukri Ben Mamoun, PhD > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...Zufferey R, Ben Mamoun C: Leishmania major expresses a single dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase localized in the ... The Initial Step of Glycerolipid Metabolism in Leishmania major Promastigotes Involves a Single Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... The Initial Step of Glycerolipid Metabolism in Leishmania major Promastigotes Involves a Single Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Leishmania major Expresses a Single Dihydroxyacetonephosphate Acyltransferase Localized in the Glycosome, Important for Rapid ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase: Glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase (, sn-2-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPhospholipid acyltransferase: A:146-305 A:146-305Glycerol phosphate shuttle: 380px|thumb|Glycerol Phosphate ShuttleSodium hexametaphosphateMacrocinAcylation: In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the acyl group is called the acylating agent.Growth hormone secretagogue receptor: Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), or ghrelin receptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds ghrelin and plays a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of body weight. In the brain, they are located in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus, as well as in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens.GlycerophospholipidBibliography of Albania: This is a list of books in the English language which deal with Albania and its geography, history, inhabitants, culture, biota, etc.
(1/250) Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (+info)
(2/250) AMP-activated kinase reciprocally regulates triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle: evidence that sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase is a novel target.
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to metabolic stresses that deplete cellular ATP, and in both liver and skeletal muscle, activated AMPK stimulates fatty acid oxidation. To determine whether AMPK might reciprocally regulate glycerolipid synthesis, we studied liver and skeletal-muscle lipid metabolism in the presence of 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA) riboside, a cell-permeable compound whose phosphorylated metabolite activates AMPK. Adding AICA riboside to cultured rat hepatocytes for 3 h decreased [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG) by 50% and 38% respectively, and decreased oleate labelling of diacylglycerol by 60%. In isolated mouse soleus, a highly oxidative muscle, incubation with AICA riboside for 90 min decreased [14C]oleate incorporation into TAG by 37% and increased 14CO2 production by 48%. When insulin was present, [14C]oleate oxidation was 49% lower and [14C]oleate incorporation into TAG was 62% higher than under basal conditions. AICA riboside blocked insulin's antioxidative and lipogenic effects, increasing fatty acid oxidation by 78% and decreasing labelled TAG 43%. Similar results on fatty acid oxidation and acylglycerol synthesis were observed in C2C12 myoblasts, and in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, AICA riboside also inhibited the hydrolysis of intracellular TAG. These data suggest that AICA riboside might inhibit sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), which catalyses the committed step in the pathway of glycerolipid biosynthesis. Incubating rat hepatocytes with AICA riboside for both 15 and 30 min decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity 22-34% without affecting microsomal GPAT, diacylglycerol acyltransferase or acyl-CoA synthetase activities. Finally, purified recombinant AMPKalpha1 and AMPKalpha2 inhibited hepatic mitochondrial GPAT in a time-and ATP-dependent manner. These data show that AMPK reciprocally regulates acyl-CoA channelling towards beta-oxidation and away from glycerolipid biosynthesis, and provide strong evidence that AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits mitochondrial GPAT. (+info)
(3/250) A missense mutation accounts for the defect in the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase expressed in the plsB26 mutant.
The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) catalyzes the first step in membrane phospholipid formation. A conditional Escherichia coli mutant (plsB26) has a single missense mutation (G1045A) predicting the expression of an acyltransferase with an Ala349Thr substitution. The PlsB26 protein had a significantly reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase specific activity coupled with an elevated Km for glycerol-3-phosphate. (+info)
(4/250) Rat sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase: molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA and expressed protein.
Rat mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) cDNA was cloned and characterized. We identified a cDNA containing an open reading frame of 828 amino acids that had an 89% homology with the coding region of the previously characterized mouse mitochondrial GPAT and a predicted amino acid sequence that was 96% identical. The rat 5' UTR was only 159 nucleotides, in contrast to the 926 nucleotide 5' UTR of the mouse cDNA and had an internal deletion of 167 nucleotides. GPAT was expressed in Sf21 insect cells, and specific inhibitors strongly suggest that, like the Escherichia coli GPAT, the recombinant mitochondrial GPAT and the mitochondrial GPAT isoform in rat liver contain critical serine, histidine, and arginine residues. (+info)
(5/250) Phosphatidic acid synthesis in mitochondria. Topography of formation and transmembrane migration.
The topography of formation and migration of phosphatidic acid (PA) in the transverse plane of rat liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) were investigated. Isolated mitochondria and microsomes, incubated with sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an immobilized substrate palmitoyl-CoA-agarose, synthesized both lyso-PA and PA. The mitochondrial and microsomal acylation of glycerophosphate with palmitoyl-CoA-agarose was 80-100% of the values obtained in the presence of free palmitoyl-CoA. In another series of experiments, both free polymyxin B and polymyxin B-agarose stimulated mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity approximately 2-fold. When PA loaded mitochondria were treated with liver fatty acid binding protein, a fifth of the phospholipid left the mitochondria. The amount of exportable PA reduced with the increase in the time of incubation. In another approach, PA-loaded mitochondria were treated with phospholipase A(2). The amount of phospholipase A(2)-sensitive PA reduced when the incubation time was increased. Taken together, the results suggest that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and PA are synthesized on the outer surface of the MOM and that PA moves to the inner membrane presumably for cardiolipin formation. (+info)
(6/250) A conserved seven amino acid stretch important for murine mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. Significance of arginine 318 in catalysis.
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the initial and committed step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. We previously cloned the cDNA sequence to murine mitochondrial GPAT (Yet, S-F., Lee, S., Hahm, Y. T., and Sul, H.S. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 9486-9491). We expressed the protein in insect cells which was targeted to mitochondria, purified, and reconstituted mitochondrial GPAT activity using phospholipids (Yet, S.-F., Moon, Y., and Sul, H. S. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 7303-7310). Deletion of the seven amino acids from mitochondrial GPAT, (312)IFLEGTR(318), which is highly conserved among acyltransferases in glycerolipid biosynthesis, drastically reduced mitochondrial GPAT activity. Treatment of mitochondrial GPAT with arginine-modifying agents, phenylglyoxal and cyclohexanedione, inactivated the enzyme. Two highly conserved arginine residues, Arg-318, in the seven amino stretch, and Arg-278, were identified. Substitution of Arg-318 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine reduced the mitochondrial GPAT activity by over 90%. On the other hand, although substitution of Arg-278 with alanine and histidine decreased mitochondrial GPAT activity by 90%, replacement with lysine reduced activity by only 25%. A substitution of the nonconserved Arg-279 with either alanine, histidine, or lysine did not alter mitochondrial GPAT activity. Moreover, R278K mitochondrial GPAT still showed sensitivity to arginine-modifying agents, as in the case of wild-type mitochondrial GPAT. These results suggest that Arg-318 may be critical for mitochondrial GPAT activity, whereas Arg-278 can be replaced by a basic amino acid. Examination of the other conserved residues in the seven amino acid stretch revealed that Phe-313 and Glu-315 are also important, but conservative substitutions can partially maintain activity; substitution with alanine reduced activity by 83 and 72%, respectively, whereas substituting Phe-313 with tyrosine and Glu-315 with glutamine had even lesser effect. In addition, there was no change in fatty acyl-CoA selectivity. Kinetic analysis of the R318K and R318A mitochondrial GPAT showed an 89 and 95%, respectively, decrease in catalytic efficiency but no major change in substrate binding as indicated by the K(m) values for palmitoyl-CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate. These studies indicate importance of the conserved seven amino acid stretch for mitochondrial GPAT activity and the significance of Arg-318 for catalysis. (+info)
(7/250) Microsomal fatty acyl-CoA transacylation and hydrolysis: fatty acyl-CoA species dependent modulation by liver fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins.
arachidonoyl-CoA. In summary, the data established for the first time a role for both L-FABP and ACBP in microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. By preferentially stimulating microsomal transacylation of unsaturated long chain fatty acyl-CoAs while concomitantly exerting their differential protection from microsomal acyl-CoA hydrolase, L-FABP and ACBP can uniquely function in modulating the pattern of fatty acids esterified to phosphatidic acid, the de novo precursor of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. This may explain in part the simultaneous presence of these proteins in cell types involved in fatty acid absorption and lipoprotein secretion. (+info)
(8/250) Regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter by insulin.
Expression of critical enzymes in fatty acid and fat biosynthesis is tightly controlled by nutritional and hormonal stimuli. The expression of fatty acid synthase, which catalyzes all reactions for synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, and of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, which catalyzes the first acylation step in glycerophospholipid synthesis, is decreased to an undetectable level during fasting. Food intake, especially a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet after fasting, causes a dramatic increase in the transcription of these genes. Insulin secretion is increased during feeding and has a positive effect on expression. By using adipocytes in culture and transgenic mice that express the reporter gene driven by the fatty acid synthase promoter, the cis-acting sequence that mediates insulin regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter was defined. Upstream stimulatory factors (USF) that bind to the -65 E-box are required for insulin-mediated transcriptional activation of the fatty acid symthase gene. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 may be also involved in induction of these genes during feeding. Using specific inhibitors and expressing various signaling molecules, we found that insulin regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase signaling pathway and that protein kinase B/akt is a downstream effector. (+info)
- Acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
- acyl-coa:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 188.8.131.52) catalyzes the first and committed step in de novo triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis, converting glycerol 3-phosphate into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). (physiology.org)
- Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). (hmdb.ca)
- View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes CDP-diacylglycerol from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate , the pathway CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis and in Phospholipid metabolism . (uniprot.org)
- In many bacteria, PlsB is not found, and appears to be replaced by a two enzyme system for 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate biosynthesis, the PlsX/Y system. (jcvi.org)
- One of them is the closest homolog of Medicago truncatula , REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION1 (RAM1), which was reported to regulate a glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase that promotes cutin biosynthesis to enhance hyphopodia formation. (plantphysiol.org)
- Members of this protein family are PlsB, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase, present in E. coli and numerous related species. (jcvi.org)
- EC 184.108.40.206), such as GPAM (MIM 602395) and GPAT3, catalyze the initial step of de novo triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis by converting glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) (Cao et al. (abnova.com)
- Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the first step in the synthesis of glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. (physiology.org)
- The major building block for the synthesis of triacylglycerides, in non-adipose tissue, is glycerol. (hmdb.ca)
- Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. (hmdb.ca)
- Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is produced during glycolysis, is the precursor for TAG synthesis in adipose tissue. (hmdb.ca)
- Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides, meaning that they are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acid groups (i.e. fatty acid tri-esters of glycerol). (hmdb.ca)
- Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. (hmdb.ca)
- Bertrams, M. and Heinz, E., Positional specificity and fatty-acid selectivity of purified sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases from chloroplasts, in Plant Physiol. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes CDP-diacylglycerol from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
- Here, we show that among 45 transcription factors up-regulated in mycorrhizal roots of the legume Lotus japonicus , expression of a unique GRAS protein particularly increases in arbuscule-containing cells under low phosphate conditions and displays a phylogenetic pattern characteristic of symbiotic genes. (plantphysiol.org)
- We and others have previously identified two closely related members of the glycerolipid acyltransferase family as endoplasmic reticulum-associated microsomal GPAT enzymes, now named GPAT3 and GPAT4 ( 3 , 5 , 17 , 22 ). (physiology.org)
- The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. (hmdb.ca)
- The ER/peroxisome reaction pathway uses the peroxisomal enzyme DHAP acyltransferase to acylate DHAP to acyl-DHAP which is then reduced by acyl-DHAP reductase. (hmdb.ca)
- Western blot analysis of Lane 1: RT-4, Lane 2: U-251 MG, Lane 3: Human Plasma, Lane 4: Liver, Lane 5: Tonsil with AGPAT9 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB22285). (abnova.com)
- Yamashita, S. and Numa, N., Partial purification and properties of glycerophosphate acyltransferase from rat liver. (wikipedia.org)
- As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (hmdb.ca)
- 3) New factors for cold acclimation : The global examination of cold-inducible expression of genes in Synechocystis with DNA microarrays has revealed that cold stress induces a number of genes, which encode factors in transcription and translation, subunit proteins of ribosomes, RNA helicases, and a number of proteins of unknown function. (nii.ac.jp)
- Phosphorus depletion in the rhizosphere favored the evolution of adaptive strategies in response to low phosphate ( Pi ) conditions, such as the formation of symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ( AMF ), which improves Pi uptake at the cost of photosynthesis-derived carbon. (plantphysiol.org)
- Formation of 1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and palmityl coenzyme A, in Eur. (wikipedia.org)
- In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) with the help of lipases and bile secretions, which can then move into blood vessels. (hmdb.ca)