Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Folklore: The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)South AmericaGeographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Secondary Care Centers: A healthcare facility equipped to provide all but the most specialized forms of care, surgery, and diagnostic techniques.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)EuropePrincipal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.BrazilHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.AfricaRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.OregonOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.MexicoHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.North AmericaPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.WalesCaliforniaEnglandOntario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.ScotlandDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.IndiaModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

*  Field (geography) - Wikipedia

The most famous effort to elucidate a fundamental concept in geography was Tobler's first law of geography: "Everything is ... In fact, many of the methods used in time geography and similar spatiotemporal models treat the location of an individual as a ... The first law of geography is essentially the same as the concept of spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which ... The quantitative revolution of geography, starting in the 1950s, and leading to the modern discipline of spatial analysis; ...

*  Geography

Dean Harrison does the honors during the opening reception of Geography's new lab, while Cesar Caviedes and Mike Binford look ... Department of Geography Invigorated by New Professor Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Analysis Lab a Reality at Last. ... Geography's new lab makes for more than interesting research, however. "It's a good teaching lab," Binford emphasizes. "Our PhD ... "This lab is the first of its kind in the College and really puts Geography at the forefront technologically," Caviedes ...

*  Geography of Uruguay - Wikipedia

Retrieved from "" ...

*  Geography of Finland - Wikipedia

Geography of Norden. pp. 27-40.. *^ a b "Mercury Hits All Time Record of 37.2 Degrees". YLE Uutiset. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. ... The geography of Finland differs from that of other Nordic countries. Bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of ... The most predominant influences on Finland's geography were the continental glaciers that scoured and gouged the country's ... Retrieved from "" ...

*  Wiley: Geography Compass

Geography Compass is an online-only journal publishing original, peer-reviewed surveys of current research from across the ...

*  Geography of Denmark - Wikipedia

Media related to Geography of Denmark at Wikimedia Commons. *Map of Denmark from the Atlas "Theatrum orbis terrarum" by Abraham ... Retrieved from "" ...

*  Geography of Hyderabad - Wikipedia

"Hyderabad Geography". JNTU. Retrieved 4 May 2012. "Water sources and water supply" (PDF). 2005. p. 2. ...

*  Publications - Geography

Diploma Thesis, Department of Geography, Justus Liebig University, Giessen.. *JIANG, T., R. WANG & L. KING (1999): Analysis of ... Doctoral Thesis, Department of Geography, Justus Liebig University. Shaker Verlag, Aachen.. *GEMMER, M., KING, L. (2004): New ... Diploma Thesis, Department of Geography, Justus Liebig University, Giessen.. *KING, L., M. GEMMER & M. METZLER (2002):. Das ... Diploma Thesis, Department of Geography, Justus Liebig University, Giessen.. *JIANG, T. (2000): Analysis of Flood Hazards in ...

*  Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography

This list is open to anyone with a scholarly/academic interest in the geography of recreation, tourism and sport in North ... Tourism and Sport Geography Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers. ... Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography is a Restricted Group with 306 members.. *Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography ...

*  Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography

This list is open to anyone with a scholarly/academic interest in the geography of recreation, tourism and sport in North ... Tourism and Sport Geography Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers. ... Tourism Geographies journal Editor-in-Chief. * World Regional Geography: Human Mobilities, Tourism Destinations & Sustainable ... Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography is a Restricted Group with 306 members.. *Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography ...

*  Geography of Chicago - Wikipedia

Chicago's present natural geography is a result of the large glaciers of the Ice Age, namely the Wisconsinan Glaciation that ... Thus, the paradox of Chicago's development as a city in the 19th century became taking advantage of this geography, but also ... Indeed, Chicago's low lying geography, which ultimately became crucial to its boom town development (as the site of the Chicago ...

*  10.13 Geography

Historical Geography is a study of concepts and methods in historical geography. The field concerned with geographies of the ... Cultural Geography is an introduction to the study of culture in geography, emphasizing both the history of the field from ... Nature of Geography is an examination of the major philosophical issues in the nature of geography and recent changes in ... Issues in Economic Geography covers basic issues and ideas in economic geography. The development of a regional economy will be ...

*  Category:Troms geography stubs - Wikipedia

This category is for stub articles relating to the geography of Troms, Norway. You can help by expanding them.. To add an ... Pages in category "Troms geography stubs". The following 140 pages are in this category, out of 140 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "" ...

*  Rina Ghose | Geography

PhD, Geography, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1998. MA, Geography, University of Montana, 1993. BA, Geography Honors, ... Pettygrove, M., & Ghose, R. (2016, June). A Synthesized Framework for Urban Geographies of Food and Dietary Health. Geography ... International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, Technology, x, pp. 5403-54013. ... Geog 470 - Geography of South Asia. Geog 525 - Geographic Information Science. Geog 734 - GIS and Society. Geog 934 - Seminar ...

*  Linda McCarthy | Geography

MA, Geography, University of Minnesota, 1992. BA, Geography and Archaeology, University College Dublin, Ireland, 1989 ... Applied Geography Papers and Proceedings, 35, 108-117.. Jonas, A., & McCarthy, L. M. (2009). Urban Management and Regeneration ... Knox, P., Agnew, J., & McCarthy, L. M. (2014). The Geography Of The World Economy. 6th edition. Oxford: Routledge. ... Knox, P., & McCarthy, L. M. (2012). Urbanization: An introduction to urban geography. 3rd edition. Prentice-Hall. ...

*  Teaching Geography

Using Inquiry to Enhance the Learning and Appreciation of Geography,' by Phil Klein, Journal of Geography (March/April 1995), ... Cultural Patterns and Processes in Advanced Placement Human Geography,' Journal of Geography (August 2000), pp. 111-19. ... Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Geography,' Journal of Geography (August 2000), pp. 153-68. ... Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography,' by Martha Sharma, Journal of Geography (August 2000), pp. 99-111. ...

*  Grad Bulletin/Geography--internship

GUS 482: Field Methods in Geography. Two Practical Skills courses in Geography taken from the following: GUS 462, 465, 467, or ... The graduate program in Geography emphasizes study and research in the areas of urban and economic geography, environmental ... The Department of Geography and Urban Studies offers graduate work leading to the Master of Arts degree. The program prepares ... The purpose of the comprehensive examination is to demonstrate a breadth and depth of knowledge in the concepts of geography. ...

*  Geography and development

The most striking fact about the economic geography of the world is the uneven spatial distribution of economic activity, ... and empirical work that illuminates how the spatial relationship between economic units changes and conclude that geography ... "Geography and development," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(1), pages 81-105, January. ... "Economic Geography and International Inequality," CEPR Discussion Papers 2568, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. *Stephen Redding & ...

*  Department of Geography - Durham University

Department of Geography. Founded in 1928, the Department of Geography at Durham is one of the leading centres of geographical ... Department of Geography Durham University Lower Mountjoy South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK Tel: 0191 3341800 Fax: 0191 3341801 ... RT @DrLABest: Winter Wonderland 2017 well underway with @GeogDurham Physical Geographers #geography #snow #Christmas ... New NERC IAPETUS Physical Geography Studentships for 2018. *Natural Hazard Mortality in Nepal - Paper Published in ...

*  Category:Haute-Corse geography stubs - Wikipedia

This category is for stub articles relating to the geography of Haute-Corse department. You can help by expanding them.. To add ... Pages in category "Haute-Corse geography stubs". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 260 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...

*  Category:Erode district geography stubs - Wikipedia

Pages in category "Erode district geography stubs". The following 156 pages are in this category, out of 156 total. This list ... Retrieved from "" ...

*  The Geography of Bliss : NPR

NPR coverage of The Geography of Bliss: One Grump's Search for the Happiest Places in the World by Eric Weiner. News, author ... The Geography of Bliss NPR coverage of The Geography of Bliss: One Grump's Search for the Happiest Places in the World by Eric ... NPR stories about The Geography of Bliss. Opinion The End Of Offline In Flight? Say It Ain't So. February 11, 2009 A handful of ... The Geography of Bliss. One Grump's Search for the Happiest Places in the World. by Eric Weiner ...

*  Oklahoma | history - geography |

Oklahoma: Oklahoma, constituent state of the United States of America. It borders Colorado and Kansas to the north, Missouri and Arkansas to the east, Texas to the south and west, and

*  Belarus | history - geography |

Belarus: Belarus, country of eastern Europe. Until it became independent in 1991, Belarus, formerly known as Belorussia or White Russia, was the smallest of the three Slavic republics

*  Belize | history - geography |

Belize: Belize, country located on the northeast coast of Central America. Belize, which was known as British Honduras until 1973, was the last British colony on the American

Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Soul eater (folklore): A soul eater is a folklore figure in the traditional belief systems of some African peoples, notably the Hausa people of Nigeria and Niger.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.JAPE (linguistics): In computational linguistics, JAPE is the Java Annotation Patterns Engine, a component of the open-source General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) platform. JAPE is a finite state transducer that operates over annotations based on regular expressions.Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Genetic variation: right|thumbBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightSuburban Baths (Pompeii): The Suburban Baths are located in Pompeii, Italy. Pompeii (located in the Italian region of Campania) was destroyed on August 24, 79 AD when Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the entire city (along with Herculaneum) and consequently preserving them.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Index of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:GA²LENRV coefficient: In statistics, the RV coefficientEcosystemAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}University of CampinasMicrosatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Miss Asia Pacific 2005Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.CASY cell counting technology: CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system. It was first marketed by Schärfe System GmbH in 1987 under the name CASY1.Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.British Columbia Medical Journal: The British Columbia Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed general medical journal covering scientific research, review articles, and updates on contemporary clinical practices written by British Columbian physicians or focused on topics likely to be of interest to them, such as columns from the BC Centre for Disease Control and the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia. Although it is published by the British Columbia Medical Association (BCMA), it maintains distance from the BCMA in order to encourage open debate.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009List of waterfalls in Oregon: There are at least 238 waterfalls in the U.S.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Daniel Kane (linguist): Daniel Kane is an Australian linguist, one of the world's foremost authorities on the extinct Jurchen and Khitan languages and their scripts.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentIntegrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.The Flash ChroniclesAmerican Medical Student AssociationThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.North Wales Narrow Gauge RailwaysSan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Chronic disease in Northern OntarioMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Meramec Conservation AreaThemis MedicareDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Global Health Delivery ProjectIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.

(1/6654) Using physical-chemistry-based substitution models in phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 subtypes.

HIV-1 subtype phylogeny is investigated using a previously developed computational model of natural amino acid site substitutions. This model, based on Boltzmann statistics and Metropolis kinetics, involves an order of magnitude fewer adjustable parameters than traditional substitution matrices and deals more effectively with the issue of protein site heterogeneity. When optimized for sequences of HIV-1 envelope (env) proteins from a few specific subtypes, our model is more likely to describe the evolutionary record for other subtypes than are methods using a single substitution matrix, even a matrix optimized over the same data. Pairwise distances are calculated between various probabilistic ancestral subtype sequences, and a distance matrix approach is used to find the optimal phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the relationships between subtypes B, C, and D and those between subtypes A and H may be closer than previously thought.  (+info)

(2/6654) Prehistoric birds from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea: extinctions on a large Melanesian island.

At least 50 species of birds are represented in 241 bird bones from five late Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological sites on New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea). The bones include only two of seabirds and none of migrant shorebirds or introduced species. Of the 50 species, at least 12 (petrel, hawk, megapode, quail, four rails, cockatoo, two owls, and crow) are not part of the current avifauna and have not been recorded previously from New Ireland. Larger samples of bones undoubtedly would indicate more extirpated species and refine the chronology of extinction. Humans have lived on New Ireland for ca. 35,000 years, whereas most of the identified bones are 15,000 to 6,000 years old. It is suspected that most or all of New Ireland's avian extinction was anthropogenic, but this suspicion remains undetermined. Our data show that significant prehistoric losses of birds, which are well documented on Pacific islands more remote than New Ireland, occurred also on large, high, mostly forested islands close to New Guinea.  (+info)

(3/6654) Ancestral origins and worldwide distribution of the PRNP 200K mutation causing familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belongs to a group of prion diseases that may be infectious, sporadic, or hereditary. The 200K point mutation in the PRNP gene is the most frequent cause of hereditary CJD, accounting for >70% of families with CJD worldwide. Prevalence of the 200K variant of familial CJD is especially high in Slovakia, Chile, and Italy, and among populations of Libyan and Tunisian Jews. To study ancestral origins of the 200K mutation-associated chromosomes, we selected microsatellite markers flanking the PRNP gene on chromosome 20p12-pter and an intragenic single-nucleotide polymorphism at the PRNP codon 129. Haplotypes were constructed for 62 CJD families originating from 11 world populations. The results show that Libyan, Tunisian, Italian, Chilean, and Spanish families share a major haplotype, suggesting that the 200K mutation may have originated from a single mutational event, perhaps in Spain, and spread to all these populations with Sephardic migrants expelled from Spain in the Middle Ages. Slovakian families and a family of Polish origin show another unique haplotype. The haplotypes in families from Germany, Sicily, Austria, and Japan are different from the Mediterranean or eastern European haplotypes. On the basis of this study, we conclude that founder effect and independent mutational events are responsible for the current geographic distribution of hereditary CJD associated with the 200K mutation.  (+info)

(4/6654) mtDNA analysis of Nile River Valley populations: A genetic corridor or a barrier to migration?

To assess the extent to which the Nile River Valley has been a corridor for human migrations between Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, we analyzed mtDNA variation in 224 individuals from various locations along the river. Sequences of the first hypervariable segment (HV1) of the mtDNA control region and a polymorphic HpaI site at position 3592 allowed us to designate each mtDNA as being of "northern" or "southern" affiliation. Proportions of northern and southern mtDNA differed significantly between Egypt, Nubia, and the southern Sudan. At slowly evolving sites within HV1, northern-mtDNA diversity was highest in Egypt and lowest in the southern Sudan, and southern-mtDNA diversity was highest in the southern Sudan and lowest in Egypt, indicating that migrations had occurred bidirectionally along the Nile River Valley. Egypt and Nubia have low and similar amounts of divergence for both mtDNA types, which is consistent with historical evidence for long-term interactions between Egypt and Nubia. Spatial autocorrelation analysis demonstrates a smooth gradient of decreasing genetic similarity of mtDNA types as geographic distance between sampling localities increases, strongly suggesting gene flow along the Nile, with no evident barriers. We conclude that these migrations probably occurred within the past few hundred to few thousand years and that the migration from north to south was either earlier or lesser in the extent of gene flow than the migration from south to north.  (+info)

(5/6654) Distribution of haplotypes from a chromosome 21 region distinguishes multiple prehistoric human migrations.

Despite mounting genetic evidence implicating a recent origin of modern humans, the elucidation of early migratory gene-flow episodes remains incomplete. Geographic distribution of haplotypes may show traces of ancestral migrations. However, such evolutionary signatures can be erased easily by recombination and mutational perturbations. A 565-bp chromosome 21 region near the MX1 gene, which contains nine sites frequently polymorphic in human populations, has been found. It is unaffected by recombination and recurrent mutation and thus reflects only migratory history, genetic drift, and possibly selection. Geographic distribution of contemporary haplotypes implies distinctive prehistoric human migrations: one to Oceania, one to Asia and subsequently to America, and a third one predominantly to Europe. The findings with chromosome 21 are confirmed by independent evidence from a Y chromosome phylogeny. Loci of this type will help to decipher the evolutionary history of modern humans.  (+info)

(6/6654) High recombination rate in natural populations of Plasmodium falciparum.

Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is expected to decline with increasing distance along a chromosome. The rate of this decline should be proportional to the effective meiotic recombination rate in the population. Multiple polymorphic sites covering a 5-kb region of chromosome 9 (the msp1 gene) have been typed in 547 isolates from six populations in Africa to test for such a decline and estimate its rate in populations of Plasmodium falciparum. The magnitude of two-site linkage disequilibrium declines markedly with increasing molecular map distance between the sites, reaching nonsignificant levels within a map range of 0.3-1.0 kb in five of the populations and over a larger map distance in the population with lowest malaria endemicity. The rate of decline in linkage disequilibrium over molecular map distance is at least as rapid as that observed in most chromosomal regions of other sexually reproducing eukaryotes, such as humans and Drosophila. These results are consistent with the effective recombination rate expected in natural populations of P. falciparum, predicted on the basis of the underlying molecular rate of meiotic crossover and the coefficient of inbreeding caused by self-fertilization events. This is conclusive evidence to reject any hypothesis of clonality or low rate of meiotic recombination in P. falciparum populations. Moreover, the data have major implications for the design and interpretation of population genetic studies of selection on P. falciparum genes.  (+info)

(7/6654) The modulation of DNA content: proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

The forces responsible for modulating the large-scale features of the genome remain one of the most difficult issues confronting evolutionary biology. Although diversity in chromosomal architecture, nucleotide composition, and genome size has been well documented, there is little understanding of either the evolutionary origins or impact of much of this variation. The 80,000-fold divergence in genome sizes among eukaryotes represents perhaps the greatest challenge for genomic holists. Although some researchers continue to characterize much variation in genome size as a mere by-product of an intragenomic selfish DNA "free-for-all" there is increasing evidence for the primacy of selection in molding genome sizes via impacts on cell size and division rates. Moreover, processes inducing quantum or doubling series variation in gametic or somatic genome sizes are common. These abrupt shifts have broad effects on phenotypic attributes at both cellular and organismal levels and may play an important role in explaining episodes of rapid-or even saltational-character state evolution.  (+info)

(8/6654) Identification of a distinct common strain of "Norwalk-like viruses" having a global distribution.

"Norwalk-like viruses" (NLVs) are the most common cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. During molecular surveillance of NLV strains from 152 outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred in the US between August 1993 and July 1997, we identified an NLV strain that predominated during the 1995-1996 season. The "95/96-US" strain caused 60 outbreaks in geographically distant locations within the US and was identified, by sequence comparisons, in an additional 7 countries on 5 continents during the same period. This is the first demonstration linking a single NLV strain globally and suggests that the circulation of these strains might involve patterns of transmission not previously considered. The diagnostic techniques are now available to establish a global network for surveillance of NLV strains that would highlight the importance of NLVs worldwide and allow molecular identification of common strains having a global distribution so as to consider interventions for their control.  (+info)


  • United States National Research Council, 1997 Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography. (


  • Using the integrative skills of geographical analysis, the course prepares students for advanced study in geography and citizenship in the modern world. (
  • The journal covers research that applies geographic methods to solve human problems, including human geography, physical geography, and geographical information system science. (
  • Electoral geography is the analysis of the methods, the behavior, and the results of elections in the context of geographic space and using geographical techniques. (
  • Typical studies in Visual Geography include the geographical symbols within visual arts. (
  • Avestan geography, is the geographical references in the Avesta, which are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau up to Indo-Iranian border. (
  • Geography was not recognized as a formal academic discipline until the 18th century, although many scholars had undertaken geographical scholarship for much longer, particularly through cartography. (
  • The Royal Geographical Society was founded in England in 1830, although the United Kingdom did not get its first full Chair of geography until 1917. (
  • For example, Imperial Military Geography in 1938 shows how a colonial empire approach to military geography could describe the geographical setting of empire, the responsibilities and the resources that could be mobilised for national or imperial needs. (
  • World War II contributed to the popularization of geographical knowledge generally, and post-war economic recovery and development contributed to the growth of economic geography as a discipline. (

physical and human geography

  • The difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. (
  • It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. (
  • The now fairly distinct differences between the subfields of physical and human geography have developed at a later date. (
  • Due to a perceived lack of scientific rigor in an overly descriptive nature of the discipline, and a continued separation of geography from its two subfields of physical and human geography and from geology, geographers in the mid-20th century began to apply statistical and mathematical models in order to solve spatial problems. (



  • or Demography Religion geography Social geography Transportation geography Tourism geography Urban geography Various approaches to the study of human geography have also arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world. (
  • Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach. (
  • In addition, behavioral geography is an ideology/approach in human geography that makes use of the methods and assumptions of behaviorism to determine the cognitive processes involved in an individual's perception of or response and reaction to their environment. (
  • Behavioral geography is that branch of human science, which deals with the study of cognitive processes with its response to its environment, through behaviorism. (
  • The approach adopted in behavioral geography is closely related to that of psychology, but draws on research findings from a multitude of other disciplines including economics, sociology, anthropology, transportation planning, and many others. (
  • Behavioral geography emerged for some time as a means to understand how people made perceived spaces and places, and made locational decisions. (


  • The Animal Geography Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers was founded in 2009 by Monica Ogra and Julie Urbanik. (
  • Two key geographers shaping this wave of animal geography were Carl Sauer and Charles Bennett. (
  • In the early 1990s several things happened to cause geographers with an interest in animals and human-animal relations to rethink what was possible within animal geography. (
  • Though the first traces of the study of different nations and cultures on Earth can be dated back to ancient geographers such as Ptolemy or Strabo, cultural geography as academic study firstly emerged as an alternative to the environmental determinist theories of the early Twentieth century, which had believed that people and societies are controlled by the environment in which they develop. (
  • This revitalized cultural geography manifested itself in the engagement of geographers such as Yi-Fu Tuan and Edward Relph and Anne Buttimer with humanism, phenomenology, and hermeneutics. (
  • citation needed] Fred K. Schaefer's article "Exceptionalism in geography: A Methodological Examination", published in the American journal Annals of the Association of American Geographers, and his critique of regionalism, made a large impact on the field: the article became a rallying point for the younger generation of economic geographers who were intent on reinventing the discipline as a science, and quantitative methods began to prevail in research. (
  • Contemporary economic geographers tend to specialize in areas such as location theory and spatial analysis (with the help of geographic information systems), market research, geography of transportation, real estate price evaluation, regional and global development, planning, Internet geography, innovation, social networks. (
  • As economic geography is a very broad discipline, with economic geographers using many different methodologies in the study of economic phenomena in the world some distinct approaches to study have evolved over time: Theoretical economic geography focuses on building theories about spatial arrangement and distribution of economic activities. (


  • The more influential 'radical geography' emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. (
  • Since the 1980s, a new cultural geography has emerged, drawing on a diverse set of theoretical traditions, including Marxist political-economic models, feminist theory, post-colonial theory, post-structuralism and psychoanalysis. (

quantitative revolution

  • By the 1960s, however, the quantitative revolution led to strong criticism of regional geography. (


  • Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Biogeography Climatology & meteorology Coastal geography Environmental management Geodesy Geomorphology Glaciology Hydrology & hydrography Landscape ecology Oceanography Pedology Palaeogeography Quaternary science Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. (
  • Strategic geography is that branch of science, which deals with the study of spatial areas that affect the security and prosperity of a nation. (
  • Animal geography is a subfield of the nature-society/human-environment branch of geography as well as a part of the larger, interdisciplinary umbrella of Human-Animal Studies (HAS). (

branches of human geography

  • Geography is often defined in terms of the two branches of human geography and physical geography. (
  • the use of statistics, spatial modeling, and positivist approaches are still important to many branches of human geography. (

Dictionary of Human Geography


  • new technology and domains of training and operations,such as in cybergeography, make military geography a dynamic frontier. (


  • Each of these movements pushed geography towards a more refined, quantitative discipline and instigated the sub-discipline of Geographic Information Science . (
  • Geography Compass is an online-only journal publishing original, peer-reviewed surveys of current research from across the entire discipline. (
  • Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities-not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. (
  • Among the topics covered by this discipline, of particular importance are information geography and digital divides. (
  • As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods. (
  • Known under the term 'critical geography,' these critiques signaled another turning point in the discipline. (
  • It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography. (


  • Geography Compass , 10 (6), 268-281. (


  • This connection between both physical and human properties of geography is most apparent in the theory of environmental determinism, made popular in the 19th century by Carl Ritter and others, and has close links to the field of evolutionary biology of the time. (
  • With links to (possibilism) (geography) and cultural ecology some of the same notions of causal effect of the environment on society and culture remain with environmental determinism. (
  • Environmental determinism, regional geography, geographic information systems and geography more generally have all evolved and entwined over hundreds of years. (
  • The ambition was to establish general laws of how animals arranged themselves across the earth's surface or, at smaller scales, to establish patterns of spacial co-variation between animals and other environmental factors" Key works include Newbigin's Animal Geography, Bartholomew, Clarke, and Grimshaw's Atlas of Zoogeography, and Allee and Schmidt's Ecological Animal Geography. (
  • Rather than studying pre-determined regions based upon environmental classifications, cultural geography became interested in cultural landscapes. (


  • From the 1970s, a number of critiques of the positivism now associated with geography emerged. (
  • In the 1970s, new kind of critique of positivism in geography directly challenged the deterministic and abstract ideas of quantitative geography. (
  • This break initiated a strong trend in human geography toward Post-positivism that developed under the label New Cultural Geography while deriving methods of systematic social and cultural critique from critical geography. (


  • Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. (
  • Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Cultural geography Development geography Economic geography Health geography Historical & Time geog. (
  • Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. (
  • Polar Geography is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the physical and human aspects of the Polar regions. (
  • Spatial areas that concern strategic geography change with human needs and development. (
  • This field is a subset of human geography, itself a subset of the more general study of geography. (
  • Both human geography and physical geography in the visual arts are studied. (
  • 2004). Practising Human Geography. (
  • Initiating an affair human geography and behavior analysis. (
  • Human geography and behavior analysis: An application of behavior analysis to the evolution of human landscapes. (
  • Emotional geography is a subtopic within human geography, dealing with the relationships between emotions and geographic places and their contextual environments. (
  • Emotional geography specifically focuses on how human emotions relate to, or affect, the environment around them. (
  • Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spatial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earth's environment. (
  • A similar concern with both human and physical aspects is apparent during the later 19th and first half of the 20th centuries focused on regional geography.The goal of regional geography, through something known as regionalisation, was to delineate space into regions and then understand and describe the unique characteristics of each region through both human and physical aspects. (
  • On a strategic level, an emerging field of strategic and military geography seeks to understand the changing human and biophysical environments that alter the security and military domains. (
  • Animal geography is defined as the study of "the complex entangling's of human-animal relations with space, place, location, environment and landscape" or "the study of where, when, why and how nonhuman animals intersect with human societies. (
  • Bennett called for a 'cultural animal geography' that focused on the interactions of animals and human cultures such as subsistence hunting and fishing. (
  • Cultural geography is a sub-field within human geography. (


  • is an introduction to the study of culture in geography, emphasizing both the history of the field from classic studies of landscapes to contemporary scholarship and themes of recent importance. (
  • This course provides a basis for further study in advanced geography courses. (
  • Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. (
  • Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. (
  • Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. (
  • Visual geography is the study of geography as represented in paintings, photos and other forms of the visual arts. (
  • Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. (

Teaching Geography


  • Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an Earth science. (


  • In fact, many of the methods used in time geography and similar spatiotemporal models treat the location of an individual as a function or field over time. (

citation needed

  • citation needed] The Geography consists of three sections, divided among 8 books. (
  • citation needed] Pappus, writing at Alexandria in the 4th century, produced a commentary on Ptolemy's Geography and used it as the basis of his (now lost) Chorography of the Ecumene. (


  • Regional economic geography examines the economic conditions of particular regions or countries of the world. (
  • Historical economic geography examines the history and development of spatial economic structure. (


  • covers basic issues and ideas in economic geography. (
  • My research interests are: Urban economic geography and public policy and planning in the United States, Europe, and China. (
  • The most striking fact about the economic geography of the world is the uneven spatial distribution of economic activity, including the coexistence of economic development and underdevelopment. (
  • They review the theoretical and empirical work that illuminates how the spatial relationship between economic units changes and conclude that geography matters for development, but that economic growth is not governed by a geographic determinism. (
  • and the new economic geography which takes into account social, cultural, and institutional factors in the spatial economy. (
  • Economists such as Paul Krugman and Jeffrey Sachs have also analyzed many traits related to economic geography. (
  • Evolutionary economic geography adopts an evolutionary approach to economic geography. (

cultural ecology

  • For the next several decades animal geography, as cultural ecology, was dominated by research into the origins of domestication, cultural rituals around domestication, and different cultures livestock relations (sedentary versus nomadic herding). (


  • The first wave of animal geography, known as zoogeography, came to prominence as a geographic subfield from the late 1800s through the early part of the 20th century. (


  • From 1980 to 1994 it was known as Polar Geography and Geology. (
  • At its inception the journal was named Polar Geography, changed three years afterwards, in 1980, to Polar Geography and Geology. (
  • Polar Geography and Geology. (


  • In geography zoogeography exists today as the vibrant subfield of biogeography. (


  • In: N. Bolashvili (ed): Modern Problems of Geography, proceedings of the conference dedicated to the 80th anniversary since the foundation of Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Tbilisi, collected papers N5 (84): 216 - 219 (mit Zusammenfassung in Russisch und Georgisch). (
  • Applied Geography Papers and Proceedings , 35 , 108-117. (


  • The purpose of the comprehensive examination is to demonstrate a breadth and depth of knowledge in the concepts of geography. (


  • This geography studies the geography of culture Theories of cultural hegemony or cultural assimilation via cultural imperialism. (


  • The most predominant influences on Finland's geography were the continental glaciers that scoured and gouged the country's surface. (
  • Chicago's present natural geography is a result of the large glaciers of the Ice Age, namely the Wisconsinan Glaciation that carved out the modern basin of Lake Michigan (which formed from the glacier's meltwater). (


  • This lab is the first of its kind in the College and really puts Geography at the forefront technologically," Caviedes explained at the lab's September 25 opening. (
  • At the forefront of this third wave of animal geography was Tuan's work on pets in Dominance and Affection and a special topics issue of the journal Environment and Planning D: Society and Space edited by Wolch and Emel. (


  • Rina Ghose's research interests intersect Critical GIS, urban geography, and political economy. (
  • A Synthesized Framework for Urban Geographies of Food and Dietary Health. (
  • Urbanization: An introduction to urban geography. (
  • A total of 6 graduate credits from an accredited institution may be transferred into the Geography and Urban Studies program. (


  • Recreation, Tourism & Sport Geography is a Restricted Group with 306 members. (


  • Strategic geography is concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that affect the security and prosperity of nations. (
  • Strategic Geography: NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and the Superpowers. (
  • Kemp G., Harkavy R. Strategic Geography and the changing Middle East. (


  • Applied Geography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published quarterly by Elsevier. (


  • It's been a long time coming, but Cesar Caviedes's Geography Department finally has the technology they've been working for well over a decade to get. (



  • Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena (alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latter), to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. (


  • Teaching critical thinking in world regional geography through stakeholder debate. (
  • Sauer's work was highly qualitative and descriptive and was challenged in the 1930s by the regional geography of Richard Hartshorne. (


  • Indeed, Chicago's low lying geography, which ultimately became crucial to its boom town development (as the site of the Chicago Portage and canal), could not initially attract substantial early settlement because the tall grass prairie around its lake and river systems was underlain by hard packed glacial clay, making much of the area forbidding wetlands. (
  • Thus, the paradox of Chicago's development as a city in the 19th century became taking advantage of this geography, but also overcoming its limitations. (
  • The core assumption of Internet geography is that the location of servers, websites, data, services, and infrastructure is key to understand the development and the dynamics of the Internet. (


  • This category is for stub articles relating to the geography of Troms , Norway . (


  • is designed to introduce students to the practice of geography in the field. (
  • Military geography is a sub-field of geography that is used by the military, as well as academics and politicians, to understand the geopolitical sphere through the military lens. (


  • One of the old, thorny problems in studies on Avestan geography is represented by Airyana Vaēǰah (Pahlavi: Ērānwēz), "the area of the Aryans" and first of the sixteen districts in Vd. (


  • Though a physician and a pioneer of epidemiology, the map is probably one of the earliest examples of health geography. (


  • The NGCE supports geography educators at all levels, from kindergarten through university. (
  • This was led by Carl O. Sauer (called the father of cultural geography), at the University of California, Berkeley. (


  • The Animal Geography Research Network was founded in 2011 by Daniel Allen. (
  • Baldwin provides an excellent overview of second wave animal geography research. (