Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Management Information Systems: Systems designed to provide information primarily concerned with the administrative functions associated with the provision and utilization of services; also includes program planning, etc.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Decision Support Systems, Management: Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Health Facility Moving: The relocation of health care institutions or units thereof. The concept includes equipment relocation.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Fitness Centers: Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Defoliants, Chemical: Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Housing: Living facilities for humans.North CarolinaPesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.South CarolinaCity Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)CaliforniaOregonEpidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.BrazilComputer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MississippiInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.United StatesRural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)BangladeshKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.MassachusettsTexasDisease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)FloridaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Operating Room Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of operating room services and facilities.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Schools: Educational institutions.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.New York CityCommunicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.WisconsinPopulation Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.IndiaFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.SwedenClinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.ItalyNursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems: A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.

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The Center for Geographic Information Science (CGISc) at the University of North Carolina Greensboro (UNCG) was established in ... Leveraging the Science of Geographic Information Systems: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2038-4.ch097: ... "Leveraging the Science of Geographic Information Systems." Geographic Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and ... "Leveraging the Science of Geographic Information Systems." In Geographic Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, ...
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Geographic information system, a system for storing and manipulating geographical information on computer. Merriam-Webster - ... Transcript of Geographic Information System. The History of GIS Early History 20th Century The Computer Age Deep History. These ... It was called Canada Geographical Information System or CGIS and was being used in 1960 to save, manipulate and study the data ... early records followed the two-element structure of modern geographic information systems: a graphic file linked to an ...
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A Geographic Information System Based on Quadtrees. Clifford A. Shafer, Hanan Samet, and Randal C. Nelson. Department of ... Abstract: This paper describes QUILT, a prototype Geographic Information System that uses the quadtree data structure as the ... QUILT provides a simple attribute attachment system which associates non-spatial data with geographic objects. The user views ... QUILT's geographic functions include conversion of rasters to and from quadtrees; subset operations to select specified ...
cs.rochester.edu/users/faculty/nelson/pubs/abstracts/1990_ijgis.html

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Geographic information systems (GIS).. T.. Raster- or image-based GIS. U.. Vector- or polygon-based GIS (must allow polygon ... Figure 4.18 The Flow of Information in the Remote Sensing System. The pixel values are transmitted to earth (downlinked) as a ... Figure 4.6 Optical Mechanical Scanning System. *. A push broom radiometer. This uses a wide angle optical system in which all ... 4.4.3 Scanning Sensor Systems. This is the main alternative to photographic systems for detecting and recording EMR. Several ...
fao.org/docrep/003/T0446E/T0446E04.htm

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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - Commission - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and ... Skill: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Median Commission by Years Experience Years Experience ... Privacy Notice: PayScale takes your privacy seriously and is sensitive to the nature of information collected on this site. ...
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... is built based on space positions data of Global Positioning System (GPS) and experimental data of soil ... The database of Geographic Information System (GIS) ...
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Includes information for plotting and expert information to get the details correct. ... Showing posts with label Geographic information system. Show all posts Showing posts with label Geographic information system. ... Labels: Animal migration, Deadlock, Fiona Quinn, Geographic information system, GIS, mapping, Relic, SilverHart, space ... Geographic Information System, GIS, is "designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or ...
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Home / Products and Services / Resources / Government Finance Review / Geographic Information Systems: Pinpointing Lost ...
gfoa.org/geographic-information-systems-pinpointing-lost-revenues

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National Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Center (U.S.) Overview. Works:. 373 works in 543 publications in 1 ... National Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Center. United States. Soil Conservation Service. National Cartography ... National Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Center. United States. Natural Resources Conservation Service. ... Most widely held works by National Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Center (U.S.) ...
worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n89-110695/

*  Quantum GIS: the Open-Source Geographic Information System | Linux Journal

... control with geospatial information-where you're the chef who concocts the whole stew-dive into a geographic information system ... To accomplish this task, I explore how to load QGIS on your system; find the geospatial data for the task; load that data into ... Getting QGIS on Your System. QGIS has a useful, comprehensive Web site with plenty of resources to get you started. Beyond the ... new users might find the terminology a bit stilted and missing some information. The authors of the documentation assume you ...
linuxjournal.com/magazine/quantum-gis-open-source-geographic-information-system?quicktabs_1=0

*  Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Solutions - Offerings | Infosys

... enterprises can optimize their fleet and provide field force with customer or asset information in real-time. View our ... Geographic Information System. A significant number of enterprises across the spectrum are burdened by multiple requirements - ... with technology like the geographic information system (GIS), enterprises can optimize their fleet, provide field force with ... customer or asset information in real-time, and entice customers with offers based on their location. Well, the possibilities ...
https://infosys.com/engineering-services/service-offerings/Pages/gis-webpage.aspx

*  ESRI and First American Spatial Solutions Deliver Risk Analysis

and SANTA ANA, Calif., June 29 /PRNewswire/ -- ESRI, the leading provider of geographic information system (GIS) technology, ... and SANTA ANA, Calif., June 29 /PRNewswire/ -- ESRI, the leading provider of geographic information system (GIS) technology, ... For more information on the Risk Analysis Solution for ArcGIS or to talk to an expert about the solution, please visit www.esri ... More information about the company and an archive of its press releases can be found at www.firstam.com. ...
www10.mcadcafe.com/nbc/articles/1/714363/esri.comesri.com

*  MBG: Geographic Information Systems

... conservation organizations to build their Geographic Information Systems (GIS) capacity [CTSP will NOT be making any grants ... This site gives you background information on how it was produced, at what scale, etc. Federal Geographic Data Committee http ... INFORMATION: What's New? People at MO Visitor's Guide Herbarium Jobs & Fellowships Symposium Research Links Site Map Search GIS ... providing support in managing this information. Nice site for interactive printable maps with information and links to forest ...
mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/gis/links_new.shtml

*  Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Salary, Average Salaries | PayScale India

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - Salary - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and ... Privacy Notice: PayScale takes your privacy seriously and is sensitive to the nature of information collected on this site. ...
https://payscale.com/research/IN/Skill=Geographic_Information_Systems_

*  Archaeological & Geographical Information Systems Laboratory

These currently include Geographic Information Systems in Archaeology I (ARCLG090), Geographic Information Systems in ... The Institute of Archaeology Archaeological and Geographic Information Systems Laboratory (the AGIS Lab) is a postgraduate ... The Archaeological & Geographical Information Systems Laboratory. Facilities , aDNA , AGIS , Bone , Conservation , ...
ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/about/facilities/agis

*  Geographic Information Systems and | eCampus.com Marketplace

View low-priced textbook options for Geographic Information Systems and Science, 3rd Editio on the eCampus.com Marketplace from ... Geographic Information Systems and Science, 3rd Edition. by Paul A. Longley (University College London, UK ); Mike Goodchild ( ... Your payment is processed by eCampus.com so your banking information is never made available to our Marketplace sellers. Please ... Your payment is processed by eCampus.com so your banking information is never made available to our Marketplace sellers. Please ...
ecampus.com/marketplace/9780470721445&pos=2

*  BetterWorldBooks.com - Computer Books & Technology | Technology & Engineering | Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems

Geographic Information Systems. We offer fast and FREE worldwide shipping. ... Geographic Information Systems books and information? BetterWorldBooks.com has a complete list of books about Computer Books & ...
https://betterworldbooks.com/remote-sensing-books-geographic-information-systems-books-H5109.aspx?dsNav=Aro:10,N:4294965695-3005109&=&=,&hFR[Categories.lvl0][0]=Computer Books & Technology > Technology & Engineering > Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems

*  Geographic Information Systems Help Scholars Se...

The landing site of each of the Apollo missions is shown on the satellite image, providing more information on each mission as ... To provide timely and reliable information on soils at synoptic scales, moderate and coarse spatial resolution satellite data ... To provide timely and reliable information on soils at synoptic scales, moderate and coarse spatial resolution satellite data ... this situation requires up-to-date and relevant soil information at regional and continental scales. ...
scoop.it/t/ceregeo-geomatica/p/3447146708/2012/11/23/geographic-information-systems-help-scholars-see-history

*  Geographic Information Systems, Computer Science | American University, Washington, DC

CSC-310: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (Undergraduate) A geographic information system (GIS) is a system of ... CSC-610: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (Graduate) GIS is becoming widespread in: local, state, and federal ... Authorities define a GIS to be "a system of hardware, software, data, people, organizations, and institutional arrangements for ... and disseminating information about areas of the earth. This course provides an introduction to GIS, GIS software, and ...
https://american.edu/cas/cs/gis.cfm

*  Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst Salary in Dallas, Texas

... the average pay for a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst in Dallas, TX is $52,873 annually. ... Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst in Dallas, Texas Salary A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst in Dallas, ... Is Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst your job title? Get a personalized salary report!. Location:. ... Privacy Notice: PayScale takes your privacy seriously and is sensitive to the nature of information collected on this site. ...
https://payscale.com/research/US/Job=Geographic_Information_Systems_

*  Fulton County Geographic Information System

The Geographic Information System (GIS) program of Fulton County is a collaborative effort aimed at serving all departments of ... We also maintain a vast store of geographic data used to support a wide spectrum of county business functions. The GIS program ... providing geospatial integration with county business systems, producing large format maps, and developing online mapping tools ...
fultoncountyga.gov/fcgis-home

*  Global 3D CAD Industry

Table 16: European Historic Review for 3D CAD by Geographic Region/Country - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, and ... For more information: Sarah Smith Research Advisor at Reportbuyer.com Email: query@reportbuyer.com Tel: +44 208 816 85 48 ... US).............. II-25 Bentley Systems, Incorporated (US) II-25 CAXA Technology Co., Ltd. (China) II-25 Chempute Software (Pty ... Table 7: World Historic Review for 3D CAD by Geographic Region/Country - US, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-3d-cad-industry-300352227.html

*  ADS Bibliographic Codes: Refereed Publications

Journal of Geographic Information System JGS Journal of Geographical Systems JGeoE Journal of Geological Education JG Journal ... Earth System Dynamics ESDD Earth System Dynamics Discussion ESSD Earth System Science Data ESSDD Earth System Science Data ... Information Bulletin on Variable Stars InfCo Information Control InfD Information Display 2000ASSL 250 Information Handling in ... Few Body Systems and Nuclear Forces I 1978LNP 87 Few Body Systems and Nuclear Forces II FBS Few-Body Systems 1988LNP 295 ...
adsabs.harvard.edu/abs_doc/refereed.html

*  Acropora elseyi

Systems:. Marine. Threats [top] Major Threat(s):. Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching ... Geographic Range [top] Range Description:. This species is widespread, found in the Red Sea, south-west and northern Indian ... There is no species specific population information available for this species. However, there is evidence that overall coral ... To make use of this information, please check the ,Terms of Use,.. ...
iucnredlist.org/details/133010/0

*  Restless Legs Syndrome: 16 Natural Remedies and Treatment for RLS

Deep, diaphragmatic breathing can very quickly activate the parasympathetic nervous system, the branch of the nervous system ... See additional information: THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only ... Joel Sartore / National Geographic. *Steve Cole / the Agency Collection. *PhotoAlto / Odilon Dimier ... How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more. ...
https://medicinenet.com/restless_legs_syndrome_pictures_slideshow/article.htm

List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective. PROMIS measures are standardized, allowing for assessment of many patient-reported outcome domains—including pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning and social role participation—based on common metrics that allow for comparisons across domains, across chronic diseases, and with the general population.Landsat 4Legend tripping: Legend tripping is a name recently bestowed by folklorists and anthropologists on an adolescent practice (containing elements of a rite of passage) in which a usually furtive nocturnal pilgrimage is made to a site which is alleged to have been the scene of some tragic, horrific, and possibly supernatural event or haunting. The practice has been documented most thoroughly to date in the United States.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Lough TaltRobotic spacecraft: 250px|right|thumb|An artist's interpretation of the [[MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury]]Pacific ElectricGeographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.Emergency Management Information System: Emergency Management Information System (EMIS) is a computer database for disaster response that provides graphical, real-time information to responders.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Chad (disambiguation): Chad is an African country.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentDR Systems: DR Systems, Inc. is an independent provider of enterprise imaging and information management systems for hospitals, integrated healthcare networks and diagnostic imaging centers.Oakleigh Recreation CentreChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.CASY cell counting technology: CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system. It was first marketed by Schärfe System GmbH in 1987 under the name CASY1.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Red edge: Red edge refers to the region of rapid change in reflectance of vegetation in the near infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum. Chlorophyll contained in vegetation absorbs most of the light in the visible part of the spectrum but becomes almost transparent at wavelengths greater than 700 nm.Agilent ChemStation: Agilent ChemStation is a software package to control Agilent liquid chromatography and gas chromatography systems such as the 1050, 1100 and 1200 Series HPLC system. It is an evolution of the Hewlett-Packard ChemStation System.Casing hanger: In petroleum production, the casing hanger is that portion of a wellhead assembly which provides support for the casing string when it is lowered into the wellbore. It serves to ensure that the casing is properly located.Exhaust gasHadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightEcosystemJohn F. Cotton Corporate Wellness Center: The John F. Cotton Corporate Wellness Center or John F.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==WormsgrabenU.S.-Vietnam Dialogue Group on Agent Orange/Dioxin: The U.S.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Steven Zeisel: Steven H. Zeisel, M.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Florence Crittenton Home (Charleston, South Carolina)Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.SchistosomiasisGreat Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Mac OS X Server 1.0List of truck types: This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks and to provide links to articles on the various types. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.List of waterfalls in Oregon: There are at least 238 waterfalls in the U.S.P-AnisidineMeramec Conservation AreaPublic water systemQ Services Corps (South Africa): The establishment of the 'Q' Services Corps as part of the South African Permanent Force was promulgated in the Government Gazette dated 10 November 1939.Typed copy of Proclamation 276 of 1939Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.University of CampinasAcknowledgement (data networks): In data networking, an acknowledgement (or acknowledgment) is a signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of response, as part of a communications protocol. For instance, ACK packets are used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the receipt of SYN packets when establishing a connection, data packets while a connection is being used, and FIN packets when terminating a connection.Walking on a Dream (song)Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry: The University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Dentistry is a dental graduate school that is part of the University of Mississippi. Located in Jackson, Mississippi, U.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Glen Canyon National Recreation AreaList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,

(1/1285) Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city.

This study was conducted to assess the risk of enteric diseases among children living in a water reclamation area in Mexico City. A geographic information system was used to define eligible wells and surrounding homesteads. Sixty-five water samples from five wells were tested for fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL (FC/100 mL) during visits to 750 eligible households; caretakers only in those dwellings with children under 5 years old were interviewed throughout repeated cross-sectional surveys, conducted during 1999-2000. Data on diarrheal diseases were obtained from 761 children during the rainy season and 732 children during the dry season; their guardians also provided information on drinking water supply, sanitation, and socioeconomic variables. The presence of indicator organisms in groundwater samples pointed to fecal pollution; bacterial indicators, however, did not predict the health risk. The rates of diarrhea were 10.7% in the dry season and 11.8% in the rainy season. Children 1 year old showed the highest rate of diarrhea during the dry season [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-4.71], particularly those from households perceiving unpleasant taste of tap water (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.97-2.92) and consuming vegetables washed only with water (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39). Lower risk was observed in individuals enjoying full-day water supply (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and a flushing toilet (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.16-0.67), as well as those storing water in covered receptacles (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.15-0.80). Rainy season data suggested that children from households perceiving a color to their water had a higher rate of diarrhea than did those without such complaint (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.93-3.67); recent consumption of food sold by street vendors was also a significant risk factor (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.98-2.87). Groundwater is at risk of contamination, as indicated by the presence of FC/100 mL. The endemic pattern of diarrhea, however, reflects mostly inadequate housing, sanitation, and water-related practices. Health protection policy must be discussed.  (+info)

(2/1285) Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system.

The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae) represent a superb illustration of evolutionary radiation, with a single colonization event giving rise to 19 extant and at least 10 extinct species [Curnutt, J. & Pimm, S. (2001) Stud. Avian Biol. 22, 15-30]. They also represent a dramatic example of anthropogenic extinction. Crop and pasture land has replaced their forest habitat, and human introductions of predators and diseases, particularly of mosquitoes and avian malaria, has eliminated them from the remaining low- and mid-elevation forests. Landscape analyses of three high-elevation forest refuges show that anthropogenic climate change is likely to combine with past land-use changes and biological invasions to drive several of the remaining species to extinction, especially on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii.  (+info)

(3/1285) A pilot study of global positioning system/geographical information system measurement of residential proximity to agricultural fields and urinary organophosphate metabolite concentrations in toddlers.

This pilot study enrolled 20 children between the ages of 11 and 17 months in Imperial County, California to assess children's pesticide exposure and residential proximity to agricultural fields. We compared parental self-report of residential proximity to agricultural fields to measurements using global positioning system/geographical information system (GPS/GIS) technology, and we assessed the relationship between residential proximity to agricultural fields and a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. Questionnaires were administered twice, 4 weeks apart, to determine self-reported residential proximity to agricultural fields. Urine samples were collected at each contact to measure OP metabolites. Actual residential proximity to the closest agricultural field and number of fields was within 1 mile to the west were measured using GPS/GIS. Self-report of living proximity to agricultural fields agreed with GPS/GIS measurement 75% of the time during the initial interview, compared to 66% agreement during the second interview. Presence of urinary metabolites suggests that OP exposure was ubiquitous: creatinine-adjusted total urinary dimethyl values ranged from 1.60 to 516.00 microg/g creatinine, and total diethyl ranged from 2.70 to 134.84 microg/g creatinine. No association was found between urinary OP metabolites and residential to field proximity. These results suggest that initial self-report of living proximity to agricultural fields may be more accurate than follow-up self-report. Limitations in this pilot study prevent determination of whether self-report is an accurate measure of proximity.  (+info)

(4/1285) Exposures to the Kuwait oil fires and their association with asthma and bronchitis among gulf war veterans.

Military personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf War have reported a variety of symptoms attributed to their exposures. We examined relationships between symptoms of respiratory illness present 5 years after the war and both self-reported and modeled exposures to oil-fire smoke that occurred during deployment. Exposure and symptom information was obtained by structured telephone interview in a population-based sample of 1,560 veterans who served in the Gulf War. Modeled exposures were exhaustively developed using a geographic information system to integrate spatial and temporal records of smoke concentrations with troop movements ascertained from global positioning systems records. For the oil-fire period, there were 600,000 modeled data points with solar absorbance used to represent smoke concentrations to a 15-km resolution. Outcomes included respiratory symptoms (asthma, bronchitis) and control outcomes (major depression, injury). Approximately 94% of the study cohort were still in the gulf theater during the time of the oil-well fires, and 21% remained there more than 100 days during the fires. There was modest correlation between self-reported and modeled exposures (r = 0.48, p < 0.05). Odds ratios for asthma, bronchitis, and major depression increased with increasing self-reported exposure. In contrast, there was no association between the modeled exposure and any of the outcomes. These findings do not support speculation that exposures to oil-fire smoke caused respiratory symptoms among veterans.  (+info)

(5/1285) A spatial analysis of obesogenic environments for children.

In this study, we use spatial analysis techniques to explore environmental and social predictors of obesity in children. We constructed a merged database, incorporating clinical data from an electronic medical record system, the Regenstrief Medical Record System (RMRS) and societal & environmental data from a geographical information system, the Social Assets and Vulnerabilities Indicators (SAVI) Project. We used the RMRS to identify cohorts of children that were normal weight, overweight, or obese. The RMRS records were geocoded and merged into the SAVI database. Using the merged databases, we analyzed the relationships between markers of socioeconomic status and obesity outcomes in children. Our preliminary analyses show that markers of low socioeconomic status at the census tract level correlate with both overweight and obese outcomes in our study population. Utilization of geographic information systems (GIS) for the study of health epidemiology is discussed.  (+info)

(6/1285) Timely redistribution of information for epidemiological surveillance and alert: the experience from the French communicable diseases network.

Since 1984 the French Communicable Disease Network (FCDN) collects and analyses epidemiological information obtained online from a team of "Sentinel General Practitioners" (SGPs). It redistributes this information in the form of standardised weekly incidence estimates. These weekly estimates now appear on the Internet and are the basis for issuing alerts of influenza epidemics. We postulate that day to day estimations would be highly desirable to achieve timely detection of the actual onset of the epidemic, a need dramatically underscored by the emergence of bioterrorism. The present paper suggests the feasibility of reconstructing daily epidemiological information using local smoothing with a suitable spline function to obtain short latency alert messages.  (+info)

(7/1285) Use of remote sensing and a geographical information system in a national helminth control programme in Chad.

OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a rapid and valid epidemiological assessment of helminths among schoolchildren in Chad using ecological zones defined by remote sensing satellite sensor data and to investigate the environmental limits of helminth distribution. METHODS: Remote sensing proxy environmental data were used to define seven ecological zones in Chad. These were combined with population data in a geographical information system (GIS) in order to define a sampling protocol. On this basis, 20 schools were surveyed. Multilevel analysis, by means of generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the school level, was used to investigate the relationship between infection patterns and key environmental variables. FINDINGS: In a sample of 1023 schoolchildren, 22.5% were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and 32.7% with hookworm. None were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence of S. haematobium and hookworm showed marked geographical heterogeneity and the observed patterns showed a close association with the defined ecological zones and significant relationships with environmental variables. These results contribute towards defining the thermal limits of geohelminth species. Predictions of infection prevalence were made for each school surveyed with the aid of models previously developed for Cameroon. These models correctly predicted that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura would not occur in Chad but the predictions for S. haematobium were less reliable at the school level. CONCLUSION: GIS and remote sensing can play an important part in the rapid planning of helminth control programmes where little information on disease burden is available. Remote sensing prediction models can indicate patterns of geohelminth infection but can only identify potential areas of high risk for S. haematobium.  (+info)

(8/1285) How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain.  (+info)



geospatial


  • The Geographic Information System (GIS) program of Fulton County is a collaborative effort aimed at serving all departments of the county government to ensure that employees are supplied with the necessary geospatial knowledge and tools to enable them to deliver quality services to their constituents. (fultoncountyga.gov)
  • Our services include providing data analysis and compilation services, mapping the water and sewer infrastructure, maintaining the county's digital tax parcel map, providing geospatial integration with county business systems, producing large format maps, and developing online mapping tools. (fultoncountyga.gov)
  • For a deeper level of control with geospatial information-where you're the chef who concocts the whole stew-dive into a geographic information system, or GIS. (linuxjournal.com)
  • For more information on geospatial professional development courses, please contact the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at info@gis.psu.edu . (psu.edu)

Analyst


  • A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst in Dallas, Texas earns an average salary of $52,873 per year. (payscale.com)
  • Is Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Analyst your job title? (payscale.com)

data


  • Nice site for interactive printable maps with information and links to forest data worldwide. (mobot.org)
  • This paper describes QUILT, a prototype Geographic Information System that uses the quadtree data structure as the underlying representation for the cartographic data. (rochester.edu)
  • QUILT provides a simple attribute attachment system which associates non-spatial data with geographic objects. (rochester.edu)
  • We also maintain a vast store of geographic data used to support a wide spectrum of county business functions. (fultoncountyga.gov)
  • GIS stands for "geographic information system" and refers to any system that accumulates organizes and analyzes data as it relates to geographical location. (infobarrel.com)
  • The digital maps displaying the information contained in GIS software are dynamic, and can be modified at any time by adding or removing criteria from the data input. (infobarrel.com)
  • It was called Canada Geographical Information System or CGIS and was being used in 1960 to save, manipulate and study the data gathered for Canada Land Inventory. (prezi.com)
  • On the other hand, because a GIS portrays data in similar groupings of geographic elements, called layers, your computer will execute your command and not label you loopy. (linuxjournal.com)
  • The GIS course work includes, but is not limited to, the introduction to geographic data, problem solving with GIS, GIS database development, and theory and practice of cartographic design. (psu.edu)
  • Creates, collects, analyzes and validates enterprise asset data and associated landbase data within the enterprise geographic information system (GIS) or other. (simplyhired.com)

ESRI


  • Includes information about ESRI grants and an ECP Grant Application Form. (mobot.org)

asset


  • However, with technology like the geographic information system (GIS), enterprises can optimize their fleet, provide field force with customer or asset information in real-time, and entice customers with offers based on their location. (infosys.com)

spatial


  • Maps can give the wrong Impression google images google images The power of a GIS comes from the ability to relate different information in a spatial context and to reach a conclusion about this relationship. (prezi.com)

geographical


  • Geographic information system, a system for storing and manipulating geographical information on computer. (prezi.com)

attribute


  • These early records followed the two-element structure of modern geographic information systems: a graphic file linked to an attribute database. (prezi.com)

Technology


  • Information and resources about computerized mapping, computerized navigation, satellites, and other aspects of technology in geography. (mobot.org)
  • But with the ever increasing portability and power of personal computers as well as the unprecedented growth in the popularity of the iPod and the use of GPS navigation systems in cars, the biggest expansion in the use GIS technology will most likely be in the sphere of consumer electronics. (infobarrel.com)
  • The course provides an introduction to Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and how it may be applied to solve urban planning problems. (umich.edu)

scale


  • This site gives you background information on how it was produced, at what scale, etc. (mobot.org)

degree


  • This certificate is designed as a "stand-alone" certificate or can serve as a "step up" to the Master of Geographic Information Systems degree program. (psu.edu)
  • A Bachelor's Degree in computer science, Computer Information Systems (CIS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), engineering, or a closely related field from. (simplyhired.com)

enterprise


  • Schneider Electric's EcoStruxure™ ArcFM (formerly known as ArcFM) Solution Suite is a comprehensive enterprise Geographic Information Systems (GIS) solution that provides a map-centric, intuitive way to model, design, maintain and manage facility and land-based information. (schneider-electric.us)

database


  • Develops, updates, and maintains a Geographic Information System (GIS) database. (simplyhired.com)

nature


  • You can take the first required course, The Nature of Geographic Information, and then request a waiver for the other required courses. (psu.edu)

provide


  • Thus, by combining many layers of information about a particular place, a GIS can provide its user with a better understanding of said place. (infobarrel.com)

additional


  • Please visit our military website for additional information regarding financial aid, transfer credits, or application instructions. (psu.edu)
  • Additional and ongoing opportunities exist in other geographic areas of. (simplyhired.com)

environment


  • Modelling the Errors in Areal Interpolation between Zonal Systems by Monte Carlo Simulation ," Environment and Planning A , , vol. 27(2), pages 211-224, February. (repec.org)

available


  • Your payment is processed by eCampus.com so your banking information is never made available to our Marketplace sellers. (ecampus.com)
  • Until now, these systems were used by a fraction of company employees, but utilities and communication service providers today need to leverage their existing systems and make geographic information available across the entire organization. (schneider-electric.us)

software


  • CTSP annually awards grants of equipment plus software to tax-exempt conservation organizations to build their Geographic Information Systems (GIS) capacity [CTSP will NOT be making any grants during 2001-2002, as they reassess their organizational direction]. (mobot.org)

forest


  • Coursework or experience in wildland fire behavior, forest ecology and silviculture, forest inventory and mensuration, geographic information systems, wildfire. (simplyhired.com)

administrator


  • Check out this article to learn more or contact your system administrator. (prezi.com)

support


  • The programme produces integrated and accessible information on the conservation of the world's forests and their biodiversity, as well as providing support in managing this information. (mobot.org)

knowledge


  • Basic knowledge of telecommunications and/or electrical distribution systems is a plus. (simplyhired.com)