Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geographic Locations: The continents and countries situated on those continents; the UNITED STATES and each of the constituent states arranged by region; CANADA and each of its provinces; AUSTRALIA and each of its states; the major bodies of water and major islands on both hemispheres; and selected major cities.Historical Geographic Locations: Countries known in remote history (as BYZANTIUM) or former names of countries reflecting political changes in the 19th or 20th century (as GERMANY, EAST).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.United StatesGeographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Cyprus: An island republic in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital is Nicosia. It was colonized by the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks and ruled successively by the Assyrian, Persian, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. It was under various countries from the 12th to the 20th century but became independent in 1960. The name comes from the Greek Kupros, probably representing the Sumerian kabar or gabar, copper, famous in historic times for its copper mines. The cypress tree is also named after the island. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p308 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p134)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.EuropeDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.IndiaMolecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.ChileDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.FloridaEvolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.North AmericaCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).AfricaEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.IsraelAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.South AmericaRural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Great BritainGenome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.CaliforniaBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.ScotlandHaplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.MexicoBrazilFish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.JapanReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).TaiwanEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.EnglandModels, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.

*  Geologic Mapping Support | Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University

The Center for Geographic Analysis, a member of the Institute for Quantitative Social Science (IQSS), 1737 Cambridge Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (map) 617-495-3213 © President & Fellows Harvard University. All Rights Reserved. ...
gis.harvard.edu/services/project-consultation/project-resume/geologic-mapping-support

*  Chinese Manufacturing Clusters Panorama | Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University

Presentation by Jie Guo, Ph.D. candidate in School of Government at Peking University. Thursday, June 15, Noon - 1:00. Room S354, CGIS South Building.. Abstract: In the last few decades, China's urbanization was mainly driven by land finance and low value-added industries, but these ways were unsustainable. Industrial cluster is an important strategy choice for regional economic development and competitiveness. Methods of research on industrial cluster change from qualitative to quantitative. This study analyses 35 manufacturing clusters from the Annual Survey of Industrial Firms (ASIFs) Database of China. Findings show that manufacturing clusters play an important role in the Chinese economy, and mainly concentrate in eastern coastal areas. We identify over a thousand strong clusters, which show economic vitality after the crisis. Aerospace Vehicles and Defense, Automotive and other eight kinds of growing clusters keep high growth and market potential.. Bio: Jie Guo is a Ph.D. candidate of ...
gis.harvard.edu/events/seminar-series/chinese-manufacturing-clusters-panorama

*  Harvard Map Collection | Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University

The Harvard Map Collection is one of the largest and oldest collections of cartographic materials in the United States. It has grown to encompass 400,000 maps, 6,000 atlases, and 5,000 reference books. For detailed information on how to access to Harvard Map Collection, and on finding other map collection resources, please click here.. ...
gis.harvard.edu/resources/labs/harvard-map-collection

*  Scholarships and Honors | Geography

Every year the Department of Geography recognizes the achievements of undergraduates majoring in Geography with junior or senior standing with the Mary Jo Read Scholarship for undergraduates. The Mary Jo Read Undergraduate Award is intended to support geography undergraduate students of outstanding academic merit during their junior and/or senior year(s) of study.. To be eligible, a student majoring in Geography must have junior or senior standing, and must be enrolled in at least 12 credits of classes during the year the award will be paid out. Applications are due early in spring semester. Here is this year's call for applicants: ...
uwm.edu/geography/undergraduate/scholarships-and-honors/

*  Great Marlborough Street Area | British History Online

The eastern part of Millfield, which John Steele had leased in 1704 to Joseph Collens, comprised five acres between Tyburn Road on the north, the wall of Pesthouse Close on the south, the Pollett estate on the east and the western part of Millfield (later the Argyll estate) on the west (fig. 2). A few weeks after he had obtained the lease Collens and Matthew Hopkinson of St. Anne's, scrivener, (fn. 15) who were two of the executors of the will of James Pollett, the former owner of the adjoining estate on the east, petitioned for common sewers to be constructed on both the Pollett estate and the eastern part of Millfield, (fn. 16) evidently with the intention of developing the two estates jointly (see page 244). The extreme eastern end of Great Marlborough Street was, in fact, built on the Pollett estate.. The first part of the street to be built was the south-western arm, which runs into Carnaby Street in a slanting direction. This skewed frontage was probably occasioned by the need to provide ...
british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vols31-2/pt2/pp250-267

*  Geography | Top Universities

The rankings are based upon academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact (click here to read the full methodology).. Use the interactive table below to filter the rankings by location, and click on individual universities for more information. Registered users will also be able to use the site's Compare function to see facts and statistics about multiple universities side-by-side.. Ask the students at the University of Oxford and they'll tell you there's a lot more to geography than just colouring in maps. There has to be, otherwise there's no way they'd still be top of the Geography subject rankings ahead of arch-rivals the University of Cambridge.. Fittingly for a subject with such a global outlook, a wide variety of countries are represented in this year's rankings. 38 different countries have at least one university in this year's top 200.. Interested in other courses besides Geography? The QS World University Rankings by Subject 2017 covers 46 different subjects. Click here ...
topuniversities.com/university-rankings/university-subject-rankings/2017/geography

*  Mapping US ethnicity | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ...

A look at where US immigrants have originated from in the past, and how these patterns could change in the future. | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
scoop.it/t/fchs-ap-human-geography/p/3246719941/2012/11/07/mapping-us-ethnicity

*  9780131015326 - World Regional Geography: A Development | eCampus.com

9780131015326 Our cheapest price for World Regional Geography: A Development Approach is $0.01. Free shipping on all orders over $59.00.
ecampus.com/world-regional-geography-development/bk/9780131015326

*  Geomorphology and physical geography | Cambridge University Press

You are now leaving the Cambridge University Press website. Your eBook purchase and download will be completed by our partner www.ebooks.com. Please see the permission section of the www.ebooks.com catalogue page for details of the print & copy limits on our eBooks.. Continue × ...
cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/earth-and-environmental-science/geomorphology-and-physical-geography

*  Experimental phylogenetics: generation of a known phylogeny - Bioinformatics2011

In order to test the accuracy of various phylogenetic inference methods, an experimental phylogeny was constructed for bacteriophage T7 driven by a mutagen.. All the methods produced the correct branching with the known phylogeny, however, none of them generated the correct distance between taxa. The methods are not able to faithfully predict the branch length because various assumptions do not hold in this experimental phylogeny. UPGMA had the worst performance in predicting phylogenetic distance in this experiment. This distance-based method makes the assumption that there is a constant rate of evolution among lineages. The tested bacteriophage T7 clearly does not have a molecular clock underlying its evolution. Similarly, the other distance-based method - neighbor-joining, is not able to take into account the multiple substitution at a site and therefore generates statistic errors in branch lengths. Maximum parsimony method produced the best result as there is no explicit assumption involved ...
bioinformatics2011.wikidot.com/march-30th

*  The Disillusioned Taxonomist: December 2010

But, as the debate over whale origins showed, I think an interdisciplinary approach can be useful to paleontologists. After all, any phylogeny is a hypothesis that is bound to shift as we learn more. (I can't even count all the phylogenies of theropod dinosaurs there have been...) Phylogenies are definitively provisional, and I think that molecular phylogenies can sometimes be useful in making predictions about relationships that can then be tested with data from the fossil record. If the origin of a particular group is unknown, for example, but a molecular phylogeny shows that two lineages are close together and shared a common ancestor, then paleontologists can examine the fossil evidence to see whether or not this relationship holds up. I don't really think about this debate in terms of which method is superior or inferior. Molecular phylogenies and anatomically-based phylogenies can be used as tools that test and complement each other, so I think a combined approach may continue to be ...
subhumanfreak.blogspot.com.au/2010/12/

*  Leherensuge: December 2009

Bayesian inference (BI) of phylogenetic relationships uses the same probabilistic models of evolution as its precursor maximum likelihood (ML), so BI has generally been assumed to share ML's desirable statistical properties, such as largely unbiased inference of topology given an accurate model and increasingly reliable inferences as the amount of data increases. Here we show that BI, unlike ML, is biased in favor of topologies that group long branches together, even when the true model and prior distributions of evolutionary parameters over a group of phylogenies are known. Using experimental simulation studies and numerical and mathematical analyses, we show that this bias becomes more severe as more data are analyzed, causing BI to infer an incorrect tree as the maximum a posteriori phylogeny with asymptotically high support as sequence length approaches infinity. BI's long branch attraction bias is relatively weak when the true model is simple but becomes pronounced when sequence sites ...
leherensuge.blogspot.com/2009/12/

*  evoss [bioinf]

Ancestral sequence reconstruction has had recent success in decoding the origins and the determinants of complex protein functions. However, attempts to reconstruct extremely ancient proteins and phylogenetic analyses of remote homologues must deal with the sequence diversity that results from extended periods of evolutionary change. In the last twenty years, the number of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank has increased twenty-fold. Using the same principles pioneered by Dayhoff [1], we seize this wealth of structure data and develop a protein secondary structure evolutionary model, based on differences between discrete secondary structure states observed in modern proteins and those hypothesized in their immediate ancestors. We implement maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic inference tools based on our evolutionary model. We apply these tools to the sequence-diverse but structurally-conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains [2] and show that the resulting clades in a ...
bioinf.scmb.uq.edu.au/evoss

*  TreeFam

... (Tree families database) is a database of phylogenetic trees of animal genes. It aims at developing a curated resource that gives reliable information about ortholog and paralog assignments, and evolutionary history of various gene families.. TreeFam defines a gene family as a group of genes that evolved after the speciation of single-metazoan animals. It also tries to include outgroup genes like yeast (S. cerevisiae and S. pombe) and plant (A. thaliana) to reveal these distant members.. TreeFam is also an ortholog database. Unlike other pairwise alignment based ones, TreeFam infers orthologs by means of gene trees. It fits a gene tree into the universal species tree and finds historical duplications, speciations and losses events. TreeFam uses this information to evaluate tree building, guide manual curation, and infer complex ortholog and paralog relations.. The basic elements of TreeFam are gene families that can be divided into two parts: TreeFam-A and TreeFam-B families. TreeFam-B ...
treefam.genomics.org.cn

*  The evolution of the Ecdysozoa | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

The initial support for the Ecdysozoa came from a study of small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) that specifically addressed one problem encountered when using molecular data derived from the C. elegans genome and many other nematodes (Aguinaldo et al. 1997). This problem derives from the fact that the C. elegans genome is rapidly evolving relative to those of other animals and is therefore perceived to be susceptible to the systematic phylogenetic error of long-branch attraction (LBA; Felsenstein 1978). This artefact of tree reconstruction would tend to cause the branch leading to the fast-evolving nematodes to be shifted towards the root of a tree. The use of short-branched nematodes in the analysis of Aguinaldo et al. resulted in the nematodes moving from their position close to the root of the bilaterian tree (one also supported by consideration of their morphology, in particular their lack of a coelomic cavity) to a close relationship with the arthropods and priapulid worms in a ...
rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1529

*  Lucy Ye - Bioinformatics2011

As Hillis et al demonstrated in their 1992 study with their experimental model of the bacteriophage T7, experimental models of phylogeny have allowed us to test the accuracy and capabilities of several commonly used phylogeny inference methods. Bull et al 1997 used replicate lineages of bacteriophage X174 that demonstrated high levels of convergent evolution to suggest that 1) common methods of phylogenetic reconstruction will fail to correctly guess the evolutionary history and 2) these methods may inaccurately calculate statistical significance, as the true tree was rejected as being an inferior fit to the data. This is indeed evident from the results of the experiment, however, the authors noted that the rates of convergence in these lineages were extraordinary, and pertained to a very specific set of properties that do not occur in nature. Convergent evolution does occur to some degree in nature, and it is important to note that inference methods seem incapable of inferring it. However, due ...
bioinformatics2011.wikidot.com/lucy-ye

*  Data from: HExT, a software supporting tree-based screens for hybrid taxa in multilocus datasets, and an evaluation of the...

The homoplasy excess test (HET) is a tree-based screen for hybrid taxa in multilocus nuclear phylogenies. Homoplasy between a hybrid taxon and the clades containing the parental taxa reduces bootstrap support in the tree. The HET is based on the expectation that excluding the hybrid taxon from the data set increases the bootstrap support for the parental clades, whereas excluding non-hybrid taxa has little effect on statistical node support. To carry out a HET, bootstrap trees are calculated with taxon-jackknife data sets, that is excluding one taxon (species, population) at a time. Excess increase in bootstrap support for certain nodes upon exclusion of a particular taxon indicates the hybrid (the excluded taxon) and its parents (the clades with increased support). We introduce a new software program, hext, which generates the taxon-jackknife data sets, runs the bootstrap tree calculations, and identifies excess bootstrap increases as outlier values in boxplot graphs. hext is written in r ...
datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.20t14

*  PLOS Currents Tree of Life

Phylogenetic trees are used by researchers across multiple fields of study to display historical relationships between organisms or genes. Trees are used to examine the speciation process in evolutionary biology, to classify families of viruses in epidemiology, to demonstrate co-speciation in host and pathogen studies, and to explore genetic changes occurring during the disease process in cancer, among other applications. Due to their complexity and the amount of data they present in visual form, phylogenetic trees have generally been difficult to render for publication and challenging to directly interact with in digital form. To address these limitations, we developed PhyloPen, an experimental novel multi-touch and pen application that renders a phylogenetic tree and allows users to interactively navigate within the tree, examining nodes, branches, and auxiliary information, and annotate the tree for note-taking and collaboration. We present a discussion of the interactions implemented in ...
currents.plos.org/treeoflife

*  Genetic Phylogeny

... http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1521-genetic-phylogeny For many evolutionary biologists, the most significant single piece of eviden
reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1521-genetic-phylogeny

*  Nature ID: Thursday, April 30, 2009

In order to provide richness of content for my readers and to track my sources, I frequently embed links to more informative sites. If you prefer that I not link to your site, please let me know and I will promptly and cheerfully remove your links. Additionally, if you find a link does not work or requires a log-in, I'd appreciate if you let me know in the comment section of that particular post. ...
natureid.blogspot.com/2009_04_30_archive.html

*  Arkive's Most Wanted

... campaign - a unique collection of thousands of videos, images and fact-files illustrating the world's species. Find out about our team, media donors, species lists, promotional video, Wildscreen and much more...
arkive.org/most-wanted/species/o/1/

*  Health experts recommend that most Americans get HIV testing | Lubbock Online | Lubbock Avalanche-Journal

Urging a major shift in U.S. policy, some health experts are recommending that virtually all Americans be tested routinely for the AIDS virus, much as they are for cancer and other diseases.
lubbockonline.com/stories/021005/med_021005045.shtml

*  5 Things That Will Kill Your Relationship

What common relationship struggles? Is it more of a physical or emotional? What are natural and effective techniques to overcome them? Find out here.
formalesonly.com/sexual-issues/relationship/5-things-that-will-kill-your-relationship

*  Reproduction To Process Of Meiosis Creates Greater Genetic Diversity More

Free Essays on Reproduction To Process Of Meiosis Creates Greater Genetic Diversity More Quickly Than Asexual Reproduction Does for students. 1 - 30.
papercamp.com/group/reproduction-to-process-of-meiosis-creates-greater-genetic-diversity-more-quickly-than-asexual-reproduction-does/page-0

*  RNA silencing and natural genetic variation

Many of the siRNA loci are associated with transposons and repeated sequence structures in the genome. These genetic elements are highly polymorphic between genotypes and exhibit significant variation between related species. It is conceivable that part of the phenotypic variation between related genotypes or species is due to the effects of these polymorphic siRNA loci. We are exploring this possibility in tomato with the aim of using siRNAs as markers in breeding programmes. It may also be possible to select for variation in small RNA loci or to manipulate the expression of these loci in order to achieve improvement in the crop ...
https://plantsci.cam.ac.uk/research/davidbaulcombe/rna-research/variation

*  Does our DNA determine how well we respond to stem-cell transp... ( SEATTLE Do genetic variations in DN...)

Health,... SEATTLE Do genetic variations in DNA determine the outcome and succe... John Hansen M.D. a member of the Hutchinson Center's Clinical Resea...The new study will expand upon earlier research begun in 2006 and will...Among the study's goals are to identify genetic variations among patie...,Does,our,DNA,determine,how,well,we,respond,to,stem-cell,transplantation?,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/Does-our-DNA-determine-how-well-we-respond-to-stem-cell-transplantation-3F-78549-1/

*  Genetic Variation<...

Download Genetic Variation Ringtones for Verizon, AT&T, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile, TracFone, U.S. Cellular, MetroPCS, Cricket and other cell phones. Download Genetic Variation ringtones and true MP3 music tones.
iphone.ringostation.com/ringtones/Genetic_Variation/1/

*  Autism linked to common gene variants that affect the connections between neurons - Not Exactly Rocket Science

But the hunt for mutations that predispose people to autism has been long and fraught. By looking at families with a history of ASDs, geneticists have catalogued hundreds of genetic variants that are linked to the conditions, each differing from the standard sequence by a single 'letter'. But all of these are rare. Until now, no one has discovered a variant that affects the risk of autism and is common in the general population. And with autistic people being so different from one another, finding such mutations seemed increasingly unlikely. Some studies have come tantalisingly close, narrowing down the search to specific parts of certain chromosomes, but they've all stopped short of actually pinning down individual variants. This week, American scientists from over a dozen institutes have overcome this final hurdle. By looking all over the genomes of over 10,000 people, the team narrowed their search further and further until they found not one but six common genetic variants tied to ASDs. This ...
scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/2009/04/28/autism-linked-to-common-gene-variants-that-affect-the-connec/

*  Scientific Data - Genetic Diversity: Techniques

Scientists use several different tools to examine human genetic diversity. Most of these tools involve genetic sequences that are not subject to recombination, which would complicate the analysis of the data.
godandscience.org/evolution/sld026.html

*  Optimal spliced alignments of short sequence reads | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text

Next generation sequencing technologies open exciting new possibilities for genome and transcriptome sequencing. While reads produced by these technologies are relatively short and error-prone compared to the Sanger method, their throughput is several magnitudes higher. We present a novel approach, called QPALMA, for computing accurate spliced alignments of short sequence reads that take advantage of the read's quality information as well as computational splice site predictions. In computational experiments we illustrate that the quality information as well as the splice site predictions [1] help to considerably improve the alignment quality. Our algorithms were optimized and tested using artificially spliced genomic reads produced with the Illumina Genome Analyzer for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
https://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-9-S10-O7

*  Complete genome sequence of Xylanimonas cellulosilytica type strain (XIL07T)

The genome was sequenced using a combination of Sanger and 454 sequencing platforms. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing performed at the JGI can be found at Web Site. 454 Pyrosequencing reads were assembled using the Newbler assembler version 1.1.02.15 (Roche). Large Newbler contigs were broken into 4,321 overlapping fragments of 1,000 bp and entered into assembly as pseudo-reads. The sequences were assigned quality scores based on Newbler consensus q-scores with modifications to account for overlap redundancy and to adjust inflated q-scores. A hybrid 454/Sanger assembly was made using Arachne assembler. Possible mis-assemblies were corrected and gaps between contigs were closed by custom primer walks from sub-clones or PCR products. Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, custom primer walk or PCR amplification. A total of 437 Sanger finishing reads were produced to close gaps, to resolve repetitive regions, and to raise the quality of the finished ...
standardsingenomics.org/content/2/1/1/

*  PhD Proposal: Genome scaffolding using emerging sequencing technologies and graph based methods | UMD Department of Computer...

Genome assembly is a critical step in most biological sequence analysis as it gives a nearly complete picture of the genome sequence. All the current sequencing technologies share the fundamental limitation that sequences read from the genome using a sequencer are much smaller than an entire genome.
ssltest.cs.umd.edu/event/2017/04/phd-proposal-genome-scaffolding-using-emerging-sequencing-technologies-and-graph-based

*  Next-Gen Sequencing Is A Numbers Game | August 18, 2014 Issue - Vol. 92 Issue 33 | Chemical & Engineering News

As new technologies such as Pacific Biosciences' rise, others are falling by the wayside. In late 2013, after an unsuccessful $6.8 billion attempt to acquire Illumina, Roche decided to close down its 454 Life Sciences NGS business and sunset its midrange sequencers by the end of 2016. The business still accounts for about 10% of the NGS market. Roche acquired 454 Life Sciences in 2007, two years after 454 launched the first NGS instrument based on a sequencing-by-synthesis method. It is called pyrosequencing and uses a luciferase to detect the release of pyrophosphate and emit light that is detected by a camera.. ...
cen.acs.org/articles/92/i33/Next-Gen-Sequencing-Numbers-Game.html

*  Genomic structure of nucleotide diversity among Lyon rat models of metabolic syndrome | BMC Genomics | Full Text

In this paper we report a simple technique to distinguish genomic regions of identity-by-descent (IBD) from those with different ancestry using genome resequencing results from a group of rat strains that shares a common origin but were selectively inbred for differing phenotypes. Genetic studies in phenotype-selected inbred rodent strains derived from a common ancestor are a common strategy to map loci for many complex disorders, ranging from anxiety [24, 25] to hypertension [26]. The similar genetic background strains minimizes the heterogeneity outside of the regions phenotypically selected, making identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping a means to eliminate disease-causing regions of the genome. However, their similar genetic backgrounds also present problems to the investigator, as their similarities result in a paucity of polymorphic markers available to attain an acceptable marker resolution for mapping. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to resequence the genomes of these ...
https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-15-197

*  Kraken Manual

Kraken is a taxonomic sequence classifier that assigns taxonomic labels to short DNA reads. It does this by examining the k-mers within a read and querying a database with those k-mers. This database contains a mapping of every k-mer in Kraken's genomic library to the lowest common ancestor (LCA) in a taxonomic tree of all genomes that contain that k-mer. The set of LCA taxa that correspond to the k-mers in a read are then analyzed to create a single taxonomic label for the read; this label can be any of the nodes in the taxonomic tree. Kraken is designed to be rapid, sensitive, and highly precise. Our tests on various real and simulated data have shown Kraken to have sensitivity slightly lower than Megablast with precision being slightly higher. On a set of simulated 100 bp reads, Kraken processed over 1.3 million reads per minute on a single core in normal operation, and over 4.1 million reads per minute in quick operation.. The latest released version of Kraken will be available at the Kraken ...
ccb.jhu.edu/software/kraken/MANUAL.html

*  DNA Sequencing | Contexo.Info

DNA carries the instructions for the processes of life from generation to generation. The goal of DNA research is to decode and understand those instructions
contexo.info/dna_basics/dna_analysis/dna_sequencing/

*  The Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks: Network thinking in phylogeography?

As phylogeography moves into the era of next-generation sequencing, the specter of reticulation at several levels - within loci and genomes in the form of recombination and across populations and species in the form of introgression - has raised its head with a prominence even greater than glimpsed during the nuclear gene PCR era ... We discuss a variety of forces generating reticulate patterns in phylogeography, including introgression, contact zones, and the potential selection-driven outliers on next-generation molecular markers. We emphasize the continued need for demographic models incorporating reticulation at the level of genomes and populations ...
phylonetworks.blogspot.pt/2016/08/network-thinking-in-phylogeography.html

*  Phylogeny & Phylogeography of Mammals Lab - Institut de Biologia Evolutiva - CSIC UPF (UPF)

Our main goal is the application of phylogenetic and genomic analyses to the study of animal biodiversity and evolution, with specific interest in mammals. Using next-generation sequencing techniques and advanced bioinformatic tools, we are analyzing the population divergence and speciation process in different species complexes in order to obtain a better description of our biological diversity. We also use these modern methodologies to understand the evolutionary history of some species of great conservation importance. We are therefore working on two main research topics: ...
https://ibe.upf-csic.es/castresana

*  Neuronal Cluster Analysis

Classification of Neuronal Data by Brian Halabisky with help from A. D. Gordon (1999) and Hair et al. (1998). All you really need to know (i.e. just what I know) about performing cluster analysis on your data.. These are some objectives that I hope will be met by writing this page:. 1) Describe what cluster analysis is in a general non-mathematical way. 2) Identify whether or not you need/want to perform cluster analysis on your data. 3) Give a good method on determining which particular data variables to include. 4) Validation of the clustering method chosen. 5) What kind of information you can glean from your data after cluster analysis has been performed. What Is Cluster Analysis?. What Can Cluster Analysis Do For You?. How Does Cluster Analysis Work?. Adding Multiple Dimensions. Measuring Dis/Similarities. 'n'-Dimensional Measurements. Scaling Variables. Proximity Matrix (Euclidean Distances). Forming Clusters. Error Sum of Squares (SSE). Making a Dendrogram. OK, How Many Clusters Do I ...
hlab.stanford.edu/brian/CA.html

*  Preemptive: How to - Use the Cluster Analysis tool to run a Cluster Analysis and spot problems

If you have Clustered servers, run the Cluster Analysis Tool. If you've never run it or it's been a long time since you did run it, there's a very good chance you will spot some problems ranging from databases with no replicas (that you want to have replicas of) to replicas with wildly differing ACL settings that may prevent users from accessing them or getting a consistent experience when they do. ...
ab1osborne.blogspot.com/2012/08/how-to-use-cluster-analysis-tool-to-run.html

*  Cluster Analysis - Is it Really Useful for Literature Discovery? - Quertle

Cluster analysis - grouping similar objects together - is frequently used in data analysis and visualization. I've been seeing various types of clustering used for finding relevant documents more and more, both for visualizing document sets (essentially providing a landscape for the user to explore) and for finding related documents (essentially "more like this"). But, these clustering methods may not be giving you what you expect!. First, the good news. Modern artificial intelligence methods can direct you to relevant documents with much greater precision and recall than clustering. So, if you are using an application like Qinsight™, you're in good shape. But, if you are stuck with generic document clustering, here is what you need to look out for.. There are many different types of clustering algorithms including hierarchical clustering (generating a tree structure), centroid-based clustering (for example, k-means), and even fuzzy methods wherein one object may belong, to varying degrees, to ...
quertle.com/cluster-analysis-is-it-really-useful-for-literature-discovery/

*  cluster analysis needed to be done | Excel

Excel Projects for ₹100 - ₹400. 1. Open the HEART dataset and create some visualizations to get familiar with the data. (Note: You do not need to submit these visualizations to Moodle for this problem.) 2. Create clusters over patie...
https://freelancer.in/projects/Excel/cluster-analysis-needed-done-12022511/

*  Managing Clusters

is set such that two cluster keys can fit in one data block, any amount of the available data block space can still be used by either of the cluster keys.. By default, the database stores only one cluster key and its associated rows in each data block of the cluster data segment. Although block size can vary from one operating system to the next, the rule of one key for each block is maintained as clustered tables are imported to other databases on other systems.. If all the rows for a given cluster key value cannot fit in one block, the blocks are chained together to speed access to all the values with the given key. The cluster index points to the beginning of the chain of blocks, each of which contains the cluster key value and associated rows. If the cluster ...
docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e25494/clustrs.htm

*  Newest 'kubernetes' Questions - Stack Overflow

I am trying to connect to a pod running inside a GKE cluster - I can ssh into the nodes within the cluster, but when I try the following command to get into a bash within a pod, I get an error ...
stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/kubernetes

*  Identification of a cDNA clone that contains the complete coding sequence for a 140-kD rat NCAM polypeptide. | JCB

Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are cell surface glycoproteins that appear to mediate cell-cell adhesion. In vertebrates NCAMs exist in at least three different polypeptide forms of apparent molecular masses 180, 140, and 120 kD. The 180- and 140-kD forms span the plasma membrane whereas the 120-kD form lacks a transmembrane region. In this study, we report the isolation of NCAM clones from an adult rat brain cDNA library. Sequence analysis indicated that the longest isolate, pR18, contains a 2,574 nucleotide open reading frame flanked by 208 bases of 5' and 409 bases of 3' untranslated sequence. The predicted polypeptide encoded by clone pR18 contains a single membrane-spanning region and a small cytoplasmic domain (120 amino acids), suggesting that it codes for a full-length 140-kD NCAM form. In Northern analysis, probes derived from 5' sequences of pR18, which presumably code for extracellular portions of the molecule hybridized to five discrete mRNA size classes (7.4, 6.7, 5.2, 4.3, ...
jcb.rupress.org/content/105/5/2335

*  Localization of Nox2 N-terminus using polyclonal antipeptide antibodies | Biochemical Journal

Nox2/gp91phox (where phox is phagocyte oxidase) is the catalytic membrane subunit of the NADPH oxidase, an enzyme complex found in phagocytic leucocytes which catalyses the formation of superoxide anion (O2•−), a reactive oxygen species involved in the host defence against pathogens. It is an integral membrane protein of 570 amino acids, which is predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains [1,2]. The N-terminal part of the protein was shown to be involved in haem binding through histidine residues 101, 115, 209 and 222, located in helices III (101 and 115) and V (209 and 222) [3]. After proteolytic treatment of partially purified cytochrome b558, a spectrally stable fragment comprising the whole N-terminus and ending at amino acids 320 or 363 was recovered [4]. gp91phox has been proposed to contain the binding sites for the NADPH oxidase prosthetic group, FAD, and the substrate, NADPH [5,6]. Based on a weak primary structure similarity between the C-terminal domain of gp91phox and ...
biochemj.org/content/382/3/981

*  Homeo domain of the yeast repressor alpha 2 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain but is not sufficient for repression -...

The alpha 2 protein, the product of the MAT alpha 2 gene, is a regulator of cell type in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It represses transcription of a group of cell type-specific genes by binding to an operator located upstream of each target gene. Fifteen in-frame deletions within the coding region of the MAT alpha 2 gene were constructed. The deletion alleles were examined for phenotypes conferred in vivo, and the encoded mutant proteins were assayed for ability to bind specifically to the operator in vitro. This analysis has revealed that the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of alpha 2 is located within a region of 68 amino acids. This region of alpha 2 has significant homology with the homeo domain, a conserved sequence found in the products of several Drosophila homeotic and segmentation genes. In addition, there is a class of mutant alpha 2 proteins that binds tightly and specifically to the operator in vitro, but fails to repress transcription in vivo ...
edoc.unibas.ch/5418/

*  Plus it

alpha 1-Adrenergic receptor (alpha 1-AR) subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) play a critical role in vascular smooth muscle contraction and circulatory homeostasis. Transcripts for these guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors are extremely low in abundance, however, and isolation of their cDNAs is difficult. We have developed a novel technique for identifying rare clones in a cDNA library, which has been used successfully to isolate a cDNA clone encoding an alpha 1D-AR. A 564-bp polymerase chain reaction product encoding a region between the third and sixth transmembrane domains of the alpha 1D-AR was first generated using rat brain mRNA as template and highly degenerate primers. The primers corresponded to those domains but contained mismatches to the alpha 1B-AR sequences. A 3-kb transcript was identified with this polymerase chain reaction probe, by Northern analysis of rat hippocampus. However, traditional plaque hybridization failed to identify a cDNA in a rat hippocampus lambda ...
molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/40/6/876

*  A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails. Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding...

Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor sequestration through interactions, mainly with the C-terminal intracellular tails of the receptors. A library of tails from 59 representative members of the super family of seven-transmembrane receptors was probed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins for interactions with four different adaptor proteins previously proposed to be involved in post-endocytotic sorting of receptors. Of the two proteins suggested to target receptors for recycling to the cell membrane, which is the route believed to be taken by a majority of receptors, ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin)-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) bound only a single receptor tail, i.e. the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, whereas N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ...
forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/9502549

*  Info - Immune Response - Barnard Health Care

chromosomes, although some members are genetically linked together. For example CD90(Thy-l), CD-56(NCAM) and CD3e, y and 8 are all found on chromosome 11 at band position q23.. One commonly used approach for sequence comparisons with known members of the superfamily utilizes the Dayhoff ALIGN program which scores similarities between the candidate sequence and several sequences from accepted Ig gene superfamily members. The alignments used for such sequence comparisons need careful consideration, taking into account such factors as the 3 strand/loop organization and the repertoire of conserved amino acids. No residue is invariant in all Ig-related domains and the primary structure of the Ig-type domains can be very different. This is vividly illustrated by the Ig variable region genes where even proteins encoded by the same gene family are sometimes ,20% similar. Three domain patterns have been identified in the Ig gene superfamily, namely the V-, CI- and C2-related domains. Each domain consists ...
https://barnardhealth.us/immune-response/info-mij.html

*  The promoter context is a decisive factor in establishing selective responsiveness to nuclear class II receptors | The EMBO...

A major unanswered question concerning control of gene expression is how diverse regulatory proteins bound to their cognate response elements transmit their transactivating or transrepressing signals to the general transcription machinery. Answering this question includes determining the number and character of factors that are involved in transmission of the signal, as well as the spatial relationships and constraints that operate at the promoter for these interactions. Recent evidence from many laboratories indicates a growing complexity of protein-protein as well as protein-DNA interactions, and that the combinatorial aspects, involving cell type‐ and/or factor‐specific co‐activators and co‐repressors, are critical determinants of whether a particular transcription factor elicits a cellular response.. Among many model systems, the ligand‐activated transcription factors that are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily have been of particular importance in the continuing ...
emboj.embopress.org/content/16/10/2861

*  No effect of cancer-associated SNP rs6983267 in the 8q24 region on co-expression of MYC and TCF7L2 in normal colon tissue |...

The strongest correlation between MYC and TCF7L2 expression was observed for assay "ex13-14" of TCF7L2 (r = 0.57- 0.60, p , 10-6), followed by assay "ex11-13" (r = 0.52-0.54, p , 10-6). The weakest correlation was detected for assay "ex11-13a" (r = 0.10 - 0.15, p = 0.12 - 0.28) (Table 1). These assays detect alternative splicing forms that include combinations of exons 11-13-14 and 11-13a-14 in the C-terminal end of the TCF7L2 transcripts (GenBank accession numbers FJ010174 and FJ010167). Both protein isoforms encoded by these splicing forms have long C-terminal reading frames (E-tails) with binding sites for the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) involved in post-translational regulation of TCF7L2 expression [21, 22]. Protein fragments encoded by the alternative exons 13 and 13a share 68% identity (17 amino acids of 25, Figure 2). The form with exons 11-13-14 encodes a 30-amino-acid highly conserved motif with a CRAR F signature protein sequence, while in the form with exons 11-13a-14 this ...
https://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-4598-8-96

*  New information on the waste-disposal units of li... ( Important new information on one of ...)

...Important new information on one of the most critical protein machines... Using electron microscopy and a revolutionary new system for protein ...Says the team's other co-principal investigator and corresponding auth...Nogales who holds appointments with Berkeley Lab UC Berkeley and th...,New,information,on,the,waste-disposal,units,of,living,cells,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/New-information-on-the-waste-disposal-units-of-living-cells-23262-1/

*  Sense of touch/nerve research( le to use a host of experiments to iden...)

le to use a host of experiments to identify other protein parts of the... This work provides an important first step toward understanding t... The study was supported by the HHMI. ......,Sense,of,touch/nerve,research,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
news.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-2/Sense-of-touch-nerve-research-10869-3/

*  Site directed mutagenesis - Molecular Cloning

Hej guys. I have a big problem with my mutagenesis. I'm supposed to create 12 mutants, each of them one single point mutation. Unfortunateley it doesn't work and I'm very desperate now.. I designed my primers with the Quick change sdm programme. And all of them are above 80°C.And reverse and forward primers bind to the same sequence on opposite strands.. I have two plasmids one 8.5kb and the other one 7.9kb. So I make 6 mutations separatley in each of them. I followed the kit instructions (without having the kit, but having Pfu Turbo) and I could create 2 mutants in the 7.9kb plasmid and one in the 8.5kb very easily. After that eveything went down. I didn't get any colonies or I got some, which I couldn't recover in liquid media.. I begged my supervisor to buy the kit, but even with the kit it didn't work.. I started to optimise my PCR using normal Pfu and DMSO. And running the cycles 20 times (in the kit it says 12 times) to see if I can detect bands on agarose gel and yes I can (correct ...
protocol-online.org/biology-forums-2/posts/29972.html

*  Plus it

Interactions between GPCRs and their cognate G proteins are known to involve several different domains on both the receptor and the G protein heterotrimer. Within Gα, the best characterized GPCR contact site is the extreme C terminus where residues at positions -3 and -4 are particularly important for specific receptor recognition (Conklin et al., 1993, 1996; Kostenis et al., 1997c; Bahia et al., 1998; Blahos et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2002). We have recently demonstrated the importance of the linker I region of Gαq proteins in constraining the fidelity of receptor recognition. A highly conserved glycine residue in linker I (glycine 66) regulates coupling selectivity indirectly by playing a role in the specificity of nucleotide exchange within Gαq induced by ligand-activated GPCRs (Heydorn et al., 2004). Here, we analyzed 1) the relationship between the linker I region and the extreme C terminus of Gα in determining selective GPCR coupling and 2) whether different GPCRs use different Gα ...
jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/313/1/78

*  Biology-Online • View topic - A question about what living organisms are made up of.

I know that living organisms are made up of carbon-based molecules and other molecules, I am wondering what is meant by carbon-based molecules? Is it meant that it consists of more carbon than other elements? What other molecules are a living organism made up of ...
biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-161451.html

*  Recombinant Mouse GRO alpha protein (ab124601) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Mouse GRO alpha protein. Ab124601 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. Abcam…
abcam.com/recombinant-mouse-gro-alpha-protein-ab124601.html

*  Microbiology | OMNINOGGINOMNINOGGIN

Deoxyribosenucleic acid, as you know in humans and in other eukaryotic organisms codes our chromosomes and makes us the way we are!. Similarly, in prokaryotes, like bacteria, DNA makes up their genetic code or in other words what they are. This includes their function and their appearance.. Universally, DNA contains purines (adenosine, guanine) and pyrimidines (cysteine, thymine, uracil (found in RNA)). These guys are the bases, in which three of it together will code for a codon, that signifies an amino acid. A sequence of these codons assist with making up a peptide chain. As you know, peptides together, after having been rearranged into a 3D structure is a protein.. As you can see in the picture, DNA's backbone is connected by phosphodiester bonds (I can get into this later and why its called what its called). These bonds help create the phosphate backbone of DNA. Since phosphate groups (PO4-) are negatively charged, a chunk of PO4- used as the backbone of the DNA will make the DNA a highly ...
omninoggin.com/category/microbiology/

*  Amy E. Keating | MIT Biology

The α-helical coiled coil is the simplest of all protein-protein interaction motifs. Coiled coils consist of two or more α-helices that wrap around each other with a superhelical twist. They are characterized by a repeating sequence of seven amino acids, (abcdefg)n, in which the a- and d-position residues are predominantly hydrophobic and the e- and g-position residues are usually polar or charged. The regular sequence makes it possible to predict the occurrence of coiled coils in genomic sequence data. We estimate that ,5% of all proteins in S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, A. thaliana and D. melanogaster contain a coiled-coil region. It is likely that many of these coiled coils mediate protein-protein interactions or oligomerization. An important, unanswered question about coiled coils is how their interaction specificity is encoded in their sequences. We call this the "partnering problem" for coiled coils and are studying it using both computational and experimental approaches.. Our experimental ...
https://biology.mit.edu/people/amy_keating

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20031872 - Identification of a novel domain at the N terminus of caveolin-1 that controls...

When cells are migrating, caveolin-1, the principal protein component of caveolae, is excluded from the leading edge and polarized at the cell rear. The dynamic feature depends on a specific sequence motif that directs intracellular trafficking of the protein. Deletion mutation analysis revealed a putative polarization domain at the N terminus of caveolin-1, between amino acids 32-60. Alanine subs
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20031872.html

*  What are various biochemical tests to identify bacteria? | Reference.com

Biochemical tests for identifying bacteria generally break down into two categories: gram positive tests and gram negative tests. Many tests exist in these two general categories; gram positive tests...
https://reference.com/science/various-biochemical-tests-identify-bacteria-12308e008ba65285

*  Recombinant human IL1 alpha protein (ab73567) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant human IL1 alpha protein. Ab73567 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-il1-alpha-protein-ab73567.html

*  Recombinant mouse Urokinase protein (ab92644) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant mouse Urokinase protein. Ab92644 is an active full length protein produced in Insect cells and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
abcam.com/Recombinant-mouse-Urokinase-protein-ab92644.html

*  Recombinant Human p73 beta protein (ab102553) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human p73 beta protein. Ab102553 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-p73-beta-protein-ab102553.html

*  Recombinant Human FOXA1 protein (ab98301) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human FOXA1 protein. Ab98301 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-foxa1-protein-ab98301.html

*  Recombinant Human Ran (mutated Q69 L) protein (ab90208)

Buy our Recombinant Human Ran (mutated Q69 L) protein. Ab90208 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-ran-mutated-q69-l-protein-ab90208.html

*  Recombinant human IL8 protein (ab73858) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant human IL8 protein. Ab73858 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, FuncS, SDS-PAGE…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-il8-protein-ab73858.html

*  Recombinant Human MAPK11 protein (ab45159) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human MAPK11 protein. Ab45159 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert support…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-mapk11-protein-ab45159.html

*  Gene Expression Literature Summary - MGI

J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/marker/MGI:1919643

*  Recombinant Human KAT3B / p300 protein (ab82235) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human KAT3B / p300 protein. Ab82235 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-kat3b-p300-protein-ab82235.html

*  PROSITE

All these proteins share a number of conserved sequence motifs. Some of them are specific to this family while others are shared by other ATP-binding proteins or by proteins belonging to the helicases `superfamily' [4]. One of these motifs, called the 'D-E-A-D-box', represents a special version of the B motif of ATP-binding proteins. Some other proteins belong to a subfamily which have His instead of the second Asp and are thus said to be 'D-E-A-H-box' proteins [3,5,6]. Proteins currently known to belong to this subfamily are: ...
prosite.expasy.org/doc/PS00039

*  Recombinant Human SMARCA6 protein (ab114875) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human SMARCA6 protein. Ab114875 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-smarca6-protein-ab114875.html

*  Recombinant human CLK3 protein (ab85759) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant human CLK3 protein. Ab85759 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-clk3-protein-ab85759.html

*  Recombinant human MNK2 protein (ab51441) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant human MNK2 protein. Ab51441 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in FuncS…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-mnk2-protein-ab51441.html

*  Recombinant human DCAMKL1 protein (ab101777) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant human DCAMKL1 protein. Ab101777 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus and has been validated in WB, FuncS. Abcam…
abcam.com/recombinant-human-dcamkl1-protein-ab101777.html

*  Plus it

Annexin II can be found in vivo as p36, p36p11, and p362p112, and is involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, and membrane trafficking (8) . p36 belongs to a family of calcium- and lipid-binding proteins and is a substrate for receptor and nonreceptor protein kinases (9 , 10) . Recently, membrane p36 has been shown to mediate steroid rapid action (11) . p11 is a small calcium binding protein and shares sequence homologies with the S-100 family (12) . Overexpression of p36 increases p11 protein level with no change in its mRNA levels (13) , suggesting that p36 has a post-translational stabilizing effect on p11 protein. Thus, it is possible that the lack of p36 in prostate cancer gives rise to substantial degradation of p11 so that the rate of translation from p11 mRNA fails to compensate. The observation that negative p36 expression coexists with a weak expression of p11 in a small number of cancer cells may represent the early stage of p11 degradation. As the loss of p36 and subsequently p11 in ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/61/17/6331

*  Plus it

Preparation of human Ln-γ2 protein. Human Ln-5 and monomeric Ln-γ2 proteins were purified from culture medium of human gastric carcinoma STKM-1 and malignant melanoma Mum2B cells, respectively, as described previously ( 13).. Construction and expression of DIII, DIII/V, and DI/II. The cDNA of human Ln-γ2 was used as a template to generate DNA fragments encoding DI/II (nucleotides 1830-3580), DIII (nucleotides 1303-1737), and DIII/V (nucleotides 1-1820) by PCR. These PCR products were subcloned into the pcDNA3.1+ expression vector (Invitrogen), and their nucleotide sequences were confirmed. For transient expression of the encoded proteins, each expression plasmid (4 μg) was transfected into COS7 cells (100 mm dish) using Fugene 6 (Roche Diagnostics) and cells were cultured for 48 h in serum-free DMEM after 12 h of transfection. Conditioned medium was collected and concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Precipitates containing recombinant proteins were collected and dissolved in 20 ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/2/530

*  NIOD - Multi-Molecular Hyaluronic Complex | Ron Robinson LA

This advanced serum combines 12 forms of hyaluronic compounds in a peptide-charged delivery system to offer hydration and to help skin surface look plump, comfortable and uniform. Shop Ron Robinson for Niod serums and more today!
https://ronrobinson.com/niod-multi-molecular-hyaluronic-complex-110111.html

*  Channelpedia

The homology between Slack and Slick is high, especially within the putative six transmembrane domains and proximal carboxy terminal (Bhattacharjee et al., 2003 [1141]). Both channels resemble the Ca2+-activated K+ 'Slowpoke' (Slo) channel by containing very large carboxy termini in addition to the transmembrane domains (Salkoff et al., 2006 [1140]). The large carboxy termini of Slack, Slick and Slo contain "regulate the conductance of K+ (RCK) domains" (Bhattacharjee and Kaczmarek, 2005 [1137]; Salkoff et al., 2006 [1140]). These RCK domains are thought to be essential for ligand binding and concomitant gating for this class of potassium channel (Jiang et al., 2002 [625]; Ye et al., 2006 [1142]). ...
channelpedia.epfl.ch/ionchannels/69

*  Colony Screening PCR - OpenWetWare

We should have assembled Gene 68 and the vector together into one DNA construct which was transformed into bacterial cells to produce colonies. While each colony ought to have the correct DNA construct, both the assembly process and the process of Assembly PCR (templateless and finish PCR) that we used to create Gene 68 are not perfect and do, in fact, produce many smaller DNA fragments. We therefore always need to screen the bacterial colonies to verify that they contain a correct DNA construct. Colonies are checked first by colony PCR, which verifies the size of the gene, and then by DNA sequencing, which verifies that there are no mutations in the DNA sequence. When screening, we want to start with several clones to maximize the likelihood that we have at least one clone that is correct. We will therefore be setting up 8 PCR reactions (6 different DNA clones (bacterial colonies) plus positive and negative controls. Colony PCR is a commonly used method to quickly and directly screen bacterial ...
openwetware.org/wiki/Colony_Screening_PCR

*  SHUFFLE! / Characters - TV Tropes

These are the main and secondary characters that appeared in the SHUFFLE! Visual Novel and anime. The Protagonist of the series, Rin Tsuchimi started off …
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Characters/Shuffle

*  Kelly McEvers | WUNC

Kelly McEvers is co-host of All Things Considered, NPR's award-winning afternoon newsmagazine. She hosts the program from NPR West in Culver City,
wunc.org/people/kelly-mcevers

*  CNN.com - Transcripts

Return to Transcripts main page. JOHN KING, USA. Note: This page is continually updated as new transcripts become available. If you cannot find a specific segment, check back later.. ...
cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/jkusa.html

*  Homo sapiens integrin subunit beta 3 (ITGB3), mRNA - Nucleotide - NCBI

Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nucleotide/47078291

*  Tactio - ReadWrite

Wearables are now a significant part of corporate wellness and remote patient monitoring programs. However, long-term investment from seniors remains a challenge, despite an increasing need for seniors to have better healthcare options. See Also: Richer, sicker seniors to drive medical wearables market growth Garmin and Tactio Health Group, two major companies involved in telehealth… Read more » ...
readwrite.com/tag/tactio/

*  Foods May Block Drug - tribunedigital-sunsentinel

Dear People's Pharmacy: What drugs interact with Glucophage? I take Glucophage at supper, but it's not controlling my blood sugar as well as the doctor thought it would. If I can't get my blood
articles.sun-sentinel.com/1997-08-21/lifestyle/9708200140_1_blood-sugar-glucophage-zoloft

*  Normal and Pathologic Functions of CTCF and Its Distinct Classes of DNA-targets - Victor Lobanenkov

The first US patent issued for CTCF in October 1999 included full length cDNAs sequences coding for exceptionally conserved gene ubiquitously expressed in somat...
grantome.com/grant/NIH/ZIA-AI000860-14

*  Data Model

Life on the cellular level is a network of molecular interactions. Molecules are synthesized and degraded, undergo a bewildering array of temporary and permanent modifications, are transported from one location to another, and form complexes with other molecules. Reactome represents all of this complexity as reactions in which input physical entities are converted to output entities. These reactions can occur spontaneously or be facilitated by physical entities acting as catalysts, and their progress can be modulated by regulatory effects of other physical entities. Reactions are linked together by shared physical entities: a product from one reaction may be a substrate in another reaction and may catalyze yet a third. It is often convenient, if sometimes arbitrary, to group such sets of interlinked reactions into pathways.. The functions of macromolecular entities such as proteins are often determined not only by their primary sequences but by chemical modifications they have undergone. In ...
reactomedev.oicr.on.ca/pages/documentation/data-model/

*  Tools to Calm --or Warn--Parents-to-Be - latimes

For most expecting families, few experiences match the first glimpse of the baby through an ultrasound. For women, it's often a sign that the baby is fine. For fathers, it's sometimes the first
articles.latimes.com/1998/sep/07/health/he-20253

*  Zhou: Shrinkage Estimation of Log Odds Ratios for Comparing Mobility Tables

Zhou: Statistical analysis of mobility tables has long played a pivotal role in comparative stratification research. In this article, I propose a shrinkage ...
https://psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs/8809

*  Life Since Harlie: October 2014

Anyway, the next thing I know Murphy says, "Oh, 134? That's my event!" Oh no. Murphy was in the first heat! There was no way he was going to make it if they were announcing the event already! I told him to run (through a crowded building) but he did not make it. There was no way. Ugh. I wanted to cry. I went over to that area, and he didn't return. I saw his coach doing a lot of talking with a few people. It looked like they were talking about him. So, I was crossing my fingers that they could work him into another heat. When she appeared to be alone for a sec, I went over to her and told her that I was Murphy's mom and that I was really sorry that he missed his event. She was very kind and understanding and said it happens. She said they were looking for a place to put him, but all the heats were full. I stood by the pool and waited while the meet continued, praying that they would work this out for him. To think we sat there for three hours - for nothing?! Ugh! And I knew Tom was never going ...
lifesinceharlie.blogspot.com/2014/10/

*  A Simple Application to Record Current Geographic Location and Display in Web - CodeProject

Discusses a technique to record current geographic location from mobile and display in web pages (with Location History Browsing); Author: |b|Amit Kumar Dutta|/b|; Updated: 18 Jun 2011; Section: Mobile Development; Chapter: Mobile Development; Updated: 18 Jun 2011
https://codeproject.com/Articles/209616/A-Simple-Application-to-Record-Current-Geographic-

*  Mister Rhys Mysteries: NaNoWriMo, Day 0: A Prelude to November

And I know all of the events! That's good, isn't it? It's nice to build to something. I spent about three quarters of my last novel alluding to something that I had made up yet, and it just kind of meandered to a conclusion that I scrapped together from what I'd sort of laid down in all of the building up. I don't think it was great. This time, I know the ending, and how the main character arrives there. Yay me ...
misterrhys.blogspot.com/2011/10/nanowrimo-day-0-prelude-to-november.html

*  The In along with Out of Std's. | Osteomed

STD'S are a concern that lots of nowadays's youths are experienced. STD's are made up of any kind of sort of kind of type of problem that is gotten largely
osteomed-lyon.com/the-in-along-with-out-of-std/

*  University of Allahabad

Uh oh! It looks like we can't find your location. If you're using an Adblocker, it may block our ability to find your location. Please type your city into the search box above ...
allduniv.ac.in/home/tender/339

*  in common

... definition, belonging equally to, or shared alike by, two or more or all in question: common property; common interests. See more.
dictionary.com/browse/in--common

*  Durkheim - The Work - Functional Explanation

The determination of function is . . . necessary for thecomplete explanation of the phenomena. . . . To explain a socialfact it is not enough to show the cause on which it depends; wemust also, at least in most cases, show its function in theestablishment of social order.'26. Durkheim separated functional analysis from two otheranalytical procedures, the quest for historical origins andcauses and the probing of individual purposes and motives. Thesecond seemed to him of only peripheral importance forsociological inquiry since men often engage in actions when theyare unable to anticipate the consequences. The quest for originsand historical causes, however, was to Durkheim as essential andlegitimate a part of the sociological enterprise as was theanalysis of functions. In fact, he was convinced that the fullexplanation of sociological phenomena would necessarily utilizeboth historical and functional analysis. The latter would revealhow a particular item under consideration had certainconsequences ...
media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/DSS/Durkheim/DURKW5.HTML

*  How To Translate Client Coordinates to Screen Coordinates

To determine the screen coordinates for the client area of a window, call the ClientToScreen function to translate the client coordinates returned by GetClientRect into screen coordinates. The following code demonstrates how to use the two functions together ...
https://support.microsoft.com/uk-ua/help/11570/how-to-translate-client-coordinates-to-screen-coordinates

*  Faronics Anti-Executable Product Specs - Faronics

Version 5.2 System Requirements Faronics Anti-Executable can be installed on the 32 bit edition of Windows XP SP3 and 64 bit edition of Windows XP SP2, 32
faronics.com/en-uk/document-library/document/faronics-anti-executable-product-spec-sheet/

Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Genetic variation: right|thumbDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Coles PhillipsList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Tamarix aphylla: Tamarix aphylla is the largest known species of Tamarix (height: to18 metres—60 ft) . The species has a variety of common names, including Athel pine, Athel tree, Athel tamarisk, and saltcedar.Thermal cyclerMiss Asia Pacific 2005Cyprus Mines CorporationSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.GA²LENFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Amplified fragment length polymorphismTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityWater supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.List of tallest buildings in Chile: This is a list of the 10 tallest buildings in Chile including buildings that are under construction.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Miami-Dade County Corrections and Rehabilitation Department: The Miami-Dade County Corrections and Rehabilitation Department is an agency of the government of Miami-Dade County, Florida. It has its headquarters in the Gladeview census-designated place in an unincorporated area.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Australian National BL classAmerican Medical Student AssociationCanadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.RAPD: RAPD (pronounced "rapid") stands for 'Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA'. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009EcosystemBritish Columbia Medical Journal: The British Columbia Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed general medical journal covering scientific research, review articles, and updates on contemporary clinical practices written by British Columbian physicians or focused on topics likely to be of interest to them, such as columns from the BC Centre for Disease Control and the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia. Although it is published by the British Columbia Medical Association (BCMA), it maintains distance from the BCMA in order to encourage open debate.Vietnamese New ZealanderHaplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Gene polymorphismIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.BacitracinHyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.