Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Xenorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Microbial: The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Genome Components: The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.WingRNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.

*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Genome Scale Transcriptomics of Baculovirus-Insect Interactions
We discuss how the two genome-scale transcriptomic tools can be applied for studying such pathways and suggest that proteomics ... The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran ... This review presents current knowledge on the interaction dynamics of the baculovirus-insect system‚ which is relatively well ... While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. ...
*  Horizontal transfer of a non-autonomous Helitron among insect and viral genomes | BMC Genomics | Full Text
Nucleotide conservation at 5′- and 3-′ termini among non-autonomous Hel-2 Helitrons from insect and insect virus genomes. ... evidence presented here may be the initial annotation of real-time HTT between insect and insect viral genomes. Although the ... Highly similar Hel-2 copies were predicted in the genomes of insects and associated viruses, which along with a previous ... For instance, the HTT of DNA transposons between the genomes of animal hosts and their parasitic insects was recently detected ...
*  Uncovering the mysterious function of the most deeply conserved non-coding RNA sequences in insect genomes - PhDposition
Uncovering the mysterious function of the most deeply conserved non-coding RNA sequences in insect genomes ... we compared the genome sequence of insect species and searched for highly conserved sequences as more important sequence ... Our study [1] has discovered intriguing conserved regions in some 5′ UTRs in a large set of genomes. Features, conservation ... You will also carry expression analysis of different tissues and different developmental times in various insects. This ...
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivirus 2 | Notes
The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not ... Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 ... was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames ( ... ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. ...
*  Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional chinese medicine | Genome Biology |...
... insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Here, we report the genome sequence of ... Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human ... The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional ... Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens ...
*  hycu-hr6 , A large homologous region of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus genome, as a powerful and versatile...
... in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HycuNPV) and suggested that hycu-hr6 was the largest baculovirus ... These results indicate that hycu-hr6 is a versatile and superior promoter enhancer in several insect cell lines and favor the ... hycu-hr6, A large homologous region of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus genome, as a powerful and versatile enhancer ... We previously identified a large homologous region (hr), hycu-hr6, in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus ( ...
*  Table of Contents - March 18, 2011, 331 (6023) | Science
Creating a Buzz About Insect Genomes. By Gene E. Robinson, Kevin J. Hackett, Mary Purcell-Miramontes, Susan J. Brown, Jay D. ... the contribution of insect pollinators to global food production, and "hot papers" penned by genomicist Eric Lander. ...
*  Scipio: Using protein sequences to determine the precise exon/intron structures of genes and their orthologs in closely related...
Insect genomes. To develop and test Scipio we used a test set of 16 arthropod genomes and a set of 979 proteins (Figure 3). The ... FO and MK carried out the analysis of the insect genomes and the cross-species searches, OK the comparative tests. All authors ... A list of 9 insect, one fungi, and two primate genomes, searched for kinesin and myosin genes to compare the performance of ... The other genome sequences represent all stages in-between these extreme cases. For example, the genomes of Drosophila ...
*  Longicorn beetle that vectors pinewood nematode carries many Wolbachia genes on an autosome | Proceedings of the Royal Society...
2002b Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 14 ... f) How many Wolbachia genes are located on the insect genome?. Of 214 Wolbachia genes that were subjected to PCR detection with ... Each of the insect pairs was transferred to a fresh rearing container every 3 or 4 days. After removal of the adult insects, ... The ftsZ+ insects and the ftsZ− insects of M. alternatus examined in this study were derived from two distant localities in ...
*  Endogenous Retroviruses | GreenMedInfo | Keyword | Natural Medicine
Suspected endogenous retroviruses from plants have been discovered within insect genomes.Jun 04, 2012. ... About 10 % of the mouse genome is occupied by sequences associated with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs).Nov 29, 2012. ... Retroviruses-derived sequences in the human genome. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs)Dec 31, 2005. ...
*  Center for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences » People
Genome, Bacterial • Genome, Insect • Genomics • Genotype • Geography • Glucose • Glucuronides • Glutathione • Glycine • Glycine ... Insect Hormones • Insect Proteins • Insect Vectors • Insects • Insemination • Insulin • Intestines • Invertebrate Hormones • ... 2) The regulation of organ and body size in insects. Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their ... 2) The regulation of organ and body size in insects. Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their ...
*  CEGG Research Projects | Computational Evolutionary Genomics Group
CEGG has contributed to the analyses of several arthropod genomes, and continues to be involved ... Insect Genome Evolution. The sequencing of twelve insect genomes has enabled us to quantify their divergence using synteny ... Insect Immunity. The sequencing of the Aedes aegypti genome, and the availability of the Anopheles gambiae genome provided the ... Comparative analysis of the Pediculus genome offers new insights into the intriguing biology of this disease-vector insect. ...
*  Frontiers | Novel Routes for Improving Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus Based Bioinoculants | Microbiology
Zdobnov, E. M., and Bork, P. (2007). Quantification of insect genome divergence. Trends Genet. 23, 16-20. doi: 10.1016/j.tig. ... The core genome formed by the 35 B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and 3 B. methylotrophicus genomes consists of 2295 CDS ... plantarum core genome but absent in the B. amyloliquefaciens core genome (Hossain et al., 2015). Among these genetic loci there ... Its 3,918-kb genome, lacks extended phage insertions, which occur ubiquitously in the related Bacillus subtilis 168 genome ( ...
*  Genome Profiling GP Method Based Classification of Insects: Congruence with That of Classical Phenotype-Based One - pdf...
Genome Profiling GP Method Based Classification of Insects: Congruence with That of Classical Phenotype-Based One. . Biblioteca ... Genome Profiling GP Method Based Classification of Insects: Congruence with That of Classical Phenotype-Based One - Descarga ... Genome Profiling GP Method Based Classification of Insects: Congruence with That of Classical Phenotype-Based One. ... To our surprise, use of a single probe in GP was sufficient to identify the relationships between the insect species, making ...
*  Biology Letters
2011 Creating a buzz about insect genomes. Science 331, 1386. (doi:10.1126/science.331.6023.1386). ... 4. Outlook: kin selection and social insect genomics. The revolution in social insect genomics [12-14] now allows rates of ... 3. Caste-antagonistic pleiotropy in social genomes. Extending Hamilton's ideas to genome evolution requires the development of ... 2010 Sociality Is linked to rates of protein evolution in a highly social insect. Mol. Biol. Evol. 27, 497-500. (doi:10.1093/ ...
*  Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an end to males: News tips from the American ... ( Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an...)
... insect,inbreeding,signals,an,end,to,males:,News,tips,from,the,American,Naturalist,biological,biology news articles,biology news ... Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an end to males ...A bizarre form of inbreeding could spell the end of males in one insec... ... Biocides that attack only insects. 9. Entomologists launch the 5,000 Insect Genome Project (i5k). 10. Small insects attacks and ... Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an end to males. A bizarre form of inbreeding could spell the end of males in one insect ...
*  Similar articles for PubMed (Select 22696527) - PubMed - NCBI
Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation.. Soria-Carrasco V, Gompert Z, Comeault AA, Farkas ... Genome-wide association mapping of phenotypic traits subject to a range of intensities of natural selection in Timema cristinae ... Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow. ... Genomic consequences of multiple speciation processes in a stick insect.. Nosil P, Gompert Z, Farkas TE, Comeault AA, Feder JL ...
*  Frontiers | Small RNAs from Bemisia tabaci Are Transferred to Solanum lycopersicum Phloem during Feeding | Plant Science
Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated. ... Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated. ... These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating ... These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating ...
*  Professor Edward Holmes - The University of Sydney
Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes. Virology, 427(2), 77-79. [More Information] ... Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes. Virology, 427(2), 77-79. [More Information] ... Genome Biology, 15(12), 1-13. [More Information]. *Kovaliski, J., Sinclair, R., Mutze, G., Peacock, D., Strive, T., Abrantes, J ... Genome Biology, 15(12), 1-13. [More Information]. *Kovaliski, J., Sinclair, R., Mutze, G., Peacock, D., Strive, T., Abrantes, J ...
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | アゲハ幼虫の擬態紋様形成を制御する分子機構の網羅
The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori2008. *. Author(s). The International Silkworm Genome ... Journal Article] Genome-wide identification of cuticular protein genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori2008. *. Author(s). ...
*  Viruses and Other Gene Transfer Mechanisms. by Brig Klyce
17 Apr 2017: Together, our results establish HTT as a major force shaping insect genome.. Integration site selection by ... 7 Jan 2015: When a mobile genetic element inserts into the host genome, it inevitably modifies that genome.... - Koonin and ... In situ structures of the genome and genome-delivery apparatus in a single-stranded RNA virus, by Xinghong Dai et al., doi: ... 04 Feb 2016: The bed bug genome contains more than 800 genes that apparently come from bacteria.. Genome-Wide Analysis of ...
*  A variant of blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus associated with red lesions in blueberry, Archives of Virology | 10.1007...
Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes. Cui, J; Holmes, EC ... The genome organization of this variant, BNRBV-RL, is the same as that of BNRBV: four genomic segments and seven ORFs (one ORF ... The genome organization of this variant, BNRBV-RL, is the same as that of BNRBV: four genomic segments and seven ORFs (one ORF ... The complete genome of a variant of the multi-segmented (+) RNA virus blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus (BNRBV), which has ...
*  One-of-a-kind? Or not. USU geneticist studies formation of new species | EurekAlert! Science News
... including sequencing of more than 1,000 genomes, to study speciation. ... Using stick insects of the Timema genus, a multi-institution research team combined field experiments with genomics, ... They sequenced more than 1,000 stick insect genomes - the genetic material of each organism. Gompert says the size of their ... they are either quite distinct across the entire genome or only distinct in a few regions of the genome," he says. "This could ...
*  Loss of PLS3 orthologs enhances SMN loss of function de | Open-i
Genome, Helminth/genetics. *Genome, Insect/genetics. *Humans. *Male. *Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics/physiopathology ... First, a genome-wide RNAi screen for C. elegans SMN modifier genes was undertaken, yielding four genes. Second, we tested the ... First, a genome-wide RNAi screen for C. elegans SMN modifier genes was undertaken, yielding four genes. Second, we tested the ...
*  Mir-2 microRNA precursor - Wikipedia
Marco, A; Hui, JH; Ronshaugen, M; Griffiths-Jones, S (2010). "Functional shifts in insect microRNA evolution". Genome Biol Evol ... Most other insect genomes host five mir-2 loci although the number varies in other invertebrates. Mir-13 subfamily emerged from ... Mir-2 microRNAs are organized in a large cluster in most insects. This cluster has typically 5 members of the mir-2 family plus ... The number of mir-2 sequences differs among invertebrate lineages although they remain tightly clustered in the genome. A ...

Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesGlobal microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.NADH-QBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).PolyhedrinSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Antheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Coles PhillipsOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.PlasmoDB: PlasmoDB is a biological database for the genus Plasmodium. The database is a member of the EuPathDB project.Silverleaf whiteflyProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Prothoracicotropic hormone: Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered. It was originally described simply as "brain hormone" by early workers such as Stefan Kopeć (1922) and Vincent Wigglesworth (1934),Wigglesworth, V.BacMamRID Insect Repellent: RID is an Australian brand of personal insect repellent sold and distributed in Australia, New Zealand, worldwide and online.Andesobia jelskiiChromosome regionsCS-BLASTAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Insect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).Chrysomya albiceps: Chrysomya albiceps is a species belonging to the blow fly family, Calliphoridae. It is of great medical and sanitary importance, being associated with myiasis in Africa and America although it plays a more significant role as a predator of other dipteran larvae.Open reading frame: In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the potential to code for a protein or peptide. An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that do not contain a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Genetic variation: right|thumbHemolymph: Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues. It is composed of a fluid plasma in which hemolymph cells called hemocytes are suspended.Cancer Genome Project: The Cancer Genome Project, based at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, aims to identify sequence variants/mutations critical in the development of human cancers. Like The Cancer Genome Atlas project within the United States, the Cancer Genome Project represents an effort in the War on Cancer to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention through a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.List of locust species: This is a list of locust species. These are Orthoptera that swarm and cause significant economic losses to agricultural crops.Strider Knives: Strider Knives, Inc. is a custom and production knifemaking facility headed by Mick Strider and Duane Dwyer based in San Marcos, California.ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.List of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Polistes dominula: The European paper wasp (Polistes dominula, often misspelled as dominulus) is one of the more common and well-known species of social wasps in the genus Polistes. Its diet is more diverse than that of most Polistes species (many genera of insects versus mainly caterpillars in other Polistes), making it superior over many others during the shortage of resources.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.MealwormLarch sawfly: The larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) is a species of sawfly. The adult sawfly resembles a black wasp, is about ½ inch in length with a thick waist and has brown to orangish markings on the abdomen.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Cynthia (Gaba girl): Cynthia was a plaster mannequin of the 1930s created by Lester Gaba.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Harmening High Flyer: The Harmening High Flyer is an American powered parachute that was designed and produced by Harmening's High Flyers of Genoa, Illinois.Cliche, Andre: Ultralight Aircraft Shopper's Guide 8th Edition, page D-7.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Periplanone BGene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Mac OS X Server 1.0Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Teleogryllus oceanicus: Teleogryllus oceanicus, commonly known as the Australian, Pacific or oceanic field cricket, is a cricket found across Oceania and in coastal Australia from Carnarvon in Western Australia and Rockhampton in north-east Queensland Otte, D. & Alexander, R.Sequence clustering: In bioinformatics, sequence clustering algorithms attempt to group biological sequences that are somehow related. The sequences can be either of genomic, "transcriptomic" (ESTs) or protein origin.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Thermal cyclerCamponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionTy5 retrotransposon: The Ty5 is a type of retrotransposon native to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae organism.Rice weevilRhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?

(1/863) Comparison of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) nuclear genes in the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae.

BACKGROUND: In eukaryotic cells, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) uses the products of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes to generate cellular ATP. Interspecies comparative analysis of these genes, which appear to be under strong functional constraints, may shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms that act on a set of genes correlated by function and subcellular localization of their products. RESULTS: We have identified and annotated the Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae orthologs of 78 nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation by a comparative analysis of their genomic sequences and organization. We have also identified 47 genes in these three dipteran species each of which shares significant sequence homology with one of the above-mentioned OXPHOS orthologs, and which are likely to have originated by duplication during evolution. Gene structure and intron length are essentially conserved in the three species, although gain or loss of introns is common in A. gambiae. In most tissues of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae the expression level of the duplicate gene is much lower than that of the original gene, and in D. melanogaster at least, its expression is almost always strongly testis-biased, in contrast to the soma-biased expression of the parent gene. CONCLUSIONS: Quickly achieving an expression pattern different from the parent genes may be required for new OXPHOS gene duplicates to be maintained in the genome. This may be a general evolutionary mechanism for originating phenotypic changes that could lead to species differentiation.  (+info)

(2/863) Quantitative genomics of starvation stress resistance in Drosophila.

BACKGROUND: A major challenge of modern biology is to understand the networks of interacting genes regulating complex traits, and the subset of these genes that affect naturally occurring quantitative genetic variation. Previously, we used P-element mutagenesis and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Drosophila to identify candidate genes affecting resistance to starvation stress, and variation in resistance to starvation stress between the Oregon-R (Ore) and 2b strains. Here, we tested the efficacy of whole-genome transcriptional profiling for identifying genes affecting starvation stress resistance. RESULTS: We evaluated whole-genome transcript abundance for males and females of Ore, 2b, and four recombinant inbred lines derived from them, under control and starved conditions. There were significant differences in transcript abundance between the sexes for nearly 50% of the genome, while the transcriptional response to starvation stress involved approximately 25% of the genome. Nearly 50% of P-element insertions in 160 genes with altered transcript abundance during starvation stress had mutational effects on starvation tolerance. Approximately 5% of the genome exhibited genetic variation in transcript abundance, which was largely attributable to regulation by unlinked genes. Genes exhibiting variation in transcript abundance among lines did not cluster within starvation resistance QTLs, and none of the candidate genes affecting variation in starvation resistance between Ore and 2b exhibited significant differences in transcript abundance between lines. CONCLUSIONS: Expression profiling is a powerful method for identifying networks of pleiotropic genes regulating complex traits, but the relationship between variation in transcript abundance among lines used to map QTLs and genes affecting variation in quantitative traits is complicated.  (+info)

(3/863) Genome-wide survey of V-ATPase genes in Drosophila reveals a conserved renal phenotype for lethal alleles.

V-ATPases are ubiquitous, vital proton pumps that play a multiplicity of roles in higher organisms. In many epithelia, they are the major energizer of cotransport processes and have been implicated in functions as diverse as fluid secretion and longevity. The first animal knockout of a V-ATPase was identified in Drosophila, and its recessive lethality demonstrated the essential nature of V-ATPases. This article surveys the entire V-ATPase gene family in Drosophila, both experimentally and in silico. Adult expression patterns of most of the genes are shown experimentally for the first time, using in situ hybridization or reporter gene expression, and these results are reconciled with published expression and microarray data. For each subunit, the single gene identified previously by microarray, as upregulated and abundant in tubules, is shown to be similarly abundant in other epithelia in which V-ATPases are known to be important; there thus appears to be a single dominant "plasma membrane" V-ATPase holoenzyme in Drosophila. This provides the most comprehensive view of V-ATPase expression yet in a multicellular organism. The transparent Malpighian tubule phenotype first identified in lethal alleles of vha55, the gene encoding the B-subunit, is shown to be general to those plasma membrane V-ATPase subunits for which lethal alleles are available, and to be caused by failure to accumulate uric acid crystals. These results coincide with the expression view of the gene family, in which 13 of the genes are specialized for epithelial roles, whereas others have spatially or temporally restricted patterns of expression.  (+info)

(4/863) Molecular distinction between populations of Gonatocerus morrilli, egg parasitoids of the glassy-winged sharpshooter from Texas and California: do cryptic species exist?

Two molecular methods were utilized to distinguish geographic populations of Gonatocerus morrilli (Howard) from Texas and California and to test the possibility that this species could exist as a species-complex. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat-Polymerase Chain Reactions (ISSR-PCR) were performed with a 5'-anchored ISSR primer. Twenty-five markers were generated with four populations (40 individuals) of G. morrilli. Twenty-three were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 92%. Most markers could be considered diagnostic since there was no band sharing between the Texas and California populations. Such differences typically are not found unless the populations are reproductively isolated. Exact tests for population differentiation indicated significant differences in marker frequencies among the populations. Comparison of other genetic differentiation estimates, which evaluate the degree of genetic subdivision, demonstrated excellent agreement between GST and theta values, 0.92 and 0.94, respectively, indicating that about 92 to 94% of the variance was distributed among populations. The average genetic divergence (D), as measured by genetic distance, was extremely high (Nei = 0.82 and Reynolds = 2.79). A dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance separated the Texas and California populations into two clusters, respectively. Amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer-1 (ITS-1) region showed no size differences, whereas the ITS-2 DNA fragment varied in size between the two geographic populations. The ITS-2 fragment sizes were about 865 and 1099 base pairs for the California and Texas populations, respectively. The present study using the two molecular methods provides novel data critical to the glassy-winged sharpshooter/Pierce's disease biological control program in California.  (+info)

(5/863) Patterns of synonymous codon usage in Drosophila melanogaster genes with sex-biased expression.

The nonrandom use of synonymous codons (codon bias) is a well-established phenomenon in Drosophila. Recent reports suggest that levels of codon bias differ among genes that are differentially expressed between the sexes, with male-expressed genes showing less codon bias than female-expressed genes. To examine the relationship between sex-biased gene expression and level of codon bias on a genomic scale, we surveyed synonymous codon usage in 7276 D. melanogaster genes that were classified as male-, female-, or non-sex-biased in their expression in microarray experiments. We found that male-biased genes have significantly less codon bias than both female- and non-sex-biased genes. This pattern holds for both germline and somatically expressed genes. Furthermore, we find a significantly negative correlation between level of codon bias and degree of sex-biased expression for male-biased genes. In contrast, female-biased genes do not differ from non-sex-biased genes in their level of codon bias and show a significantly positive correlation between codon bias and degree of sex-biased expression. These observations cannot be explained by differences in chromosomal distribution, mutational processes, recombinational environment, gene length, or absolute expression level among genes of the different expression classes. We propose that the observed codon bias differences result from differences in selection at synonymous and/or linked nonsynonymous sites between genes with male- and female-biased expression.  (+info)

(6/863) African sequence variation accounts for most of the sequence polymorphism in non-African Drosophila melanogaster.

We compared the sequence polymorphism of 12 genomic fragments in six geographically dispersed African populations to one European Drosophila melanogaster population. On the basis of one African and one European population half of these fragments have strongly reduced levels of variability outside of Africa. Despite this striking difference in European variation, we detected no significant difference in African variation between the two fragment classes. The joint analysis of all African populations indicated that all high-frequency European alleles are of African origin. We observed a negative Tajima's D in all African populations, with three populations deviating significantly from neutral equilibrium. Low, but statistically significant, population differentiation was observed among the African populations. Our results imply that the population structure and demographic past of African D. melanogaster populations need to be considered for the inference of footprints of selection in non-African populations.  (+info)

(7/863) Cross-species comparison of Drosophila male accessory gland protein genes.

Drosophila melanogaster males transfer seminal fluid proteins along with sperm during mating. Among these proteins, ACPs (Accessory gland proteins) from the male's accessory gland induce behavioral, physiological, and life span reduction in mated females and mediate sperm storage and utilization. A previous evolutionary EST screen in D. simulans identified partial cDNAs for 57 new candidate ACPs. Here we report the annotation and confirmation of the corresponding Acp genes in D. melanogaster. Of 57 new candidate Acp genes previously reported in D. melanogaster, 34 conform to our more stringent criteria for encoding putative male accessory gland extracellular proteins, thus bringing the total number of ACPs identified to 52 (34 plus 18 previously identified). This comprehensive set of Acp genes allows us to dissect the patterns of evolutionary change in a suite of proteins from a single male-specific reproductive tissue. We used sequence-based analysis to examine codon bias, gene duplications, and levels of divergence (via dN/dS values and ortholog detection) of the 52 D. melanogaster ACPs in D. simulans, D. yakuba, and D. pseudoobscura. We show that 58% of the 52 D. melanogaster Acp genes are detectable in D. pseudoobscura. Sequence comparisons of ACPs shared and not shared between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura show that there are separate classes undergoing distinctly dissimilar evolutionary dynamics.  (+info)

(8/863) Polygenic mutation in Drosophila melanogaster: Mapping spontaneous mutations affecting sensory bristle number.

Our ability to predict long-term responses to artificial and natural selection, and understand the mechanisms by which naturally occurring variation for quantitative traits is maintained, depends on detailed knowledge of the properties of spontaneous polygenic mutations, including the quantitative trait loci (QTL) at which mutations occur, mutation rates, and mutational effects. These parameters can be estimated by mapping QTL that cause divergence between mutation-accumulation lines that have been established from an inbred base population and selected for high and low trait values. Here, we have utilized quantitative complementation to deficiencies to map QTL at which spontaneous mutations affecting Drosophila abdominal and sternopleural bristle number have occurred in 11 replicate lines during 206 generations of divergent selection. Estimates of the numbers of mutations were consistent with diploid per-character mutation rates for bristle traits of 0.03. The ratio of the per-character mutation rate to total mutation rate (0.023) implies that >2% of the genome could affect just one bristle trait and that there must be extensive pleiotropy for quantitative phenotypes. The estimated mutational effects were not, however, additive and exhibited dependency on genetic background consistent with diminishing epistasis. However, these inferences must be tempered by the potential for epistatic interactions between spontaneous mutations and QTL affecting bristle number on the deficiency-bearing chromosomes, which could lead to overestimates in numbers of QTL and inaccurate inference of gene action.  (+info)

  • species
  • While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. (
  • The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran species, and especially the availability of two genome-scale analysis tools, namely oligonucleotide microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS), have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. (
  • The movement of mobile elements among species by horizontal transposon transfer (HTT) influences the evolution of genomes through the modification of structure and function. (
  • A non-autonomous Helitron independently annotated as BmHel-2 from Bombyx mori and the MITE01 element from Ostrinia nubilalis was predicted in the genomes of 24 species in the insect Order Lepidoptera. (
  • In many instances, the comparison of haplotype variants in a species or sophisticated computer algorithms are relied upon to predict the myriad of variant Helitron integrations in or among genomes. (
  • This dramatic sequence and structural conservation among Helitrons in the genomes of divergent insect species was surmised by some to be a consequence of a rapid burst in transposition within and among genomes that has been facilitated by HTT. (
  • A recent collaborative study of the Tauber (Leicester) and Ott (Warwick) research teams, we compared the genome sequence of insect species and searched for highly conserved sequences as more important sequence elements are more likely to be conserved over time than less important sequence elements, leaving behind a 'footprint' of functionality. (
  • Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. (
  • Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris . (
  • Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps / Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. (
  • Scipio was tested with 979 protein queries against 16 arthropod genomes (intra species search). (
  • Apart from being able to find genes in the genome that encode the query protein, Scipio can also be used to annotate genes in closely related species. (
  • We continue to employ newly sequenced genomes of additional vertebrate species to investigate properties such as the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes and their encoded genes. (
  • Here, we describe a simple and powerful approach for species classification called genome profiling GP. (
  • For demonstration, we classified 26 species of insects using GP and 18S rDNA-sequencing approaches. (
  • To our surprise, use of a single probe in GP was sufficient to identify the relationships between the insect species, making this approach more straightforward. (
  • Social insects often exhibit phenotypically distinct castes, the evolution of which may be hampered by caste-antagonistic pleiotropy, particularly in species where queens mate with multiple males such as A. mellifera and V. maculifrons (see text for details). (
  • A bizarre form of inbreeding could spell the end of males in one insect species, according to researchers from Oxford University. (
  • Gynaephora groenlandica, a species of Arctic moth whose larvae can survive temperatures below -60 °C Wēkiu bug, an insect that can survive cold temperatures in the highlands of Hawaii Jacobs, [J.-Ch.] (1900). (
  • In 2011, a comprehensive genome-wide study of the extent and evolutionary origins of orphan genes in plants was conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana " Genes can be tentatively classified as orphans if no orthologous proteins can be found in nearby species. (
  • Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect. (
  • All mealybug species investigated so far have endosymbionts: symbiotic bacteria that live inside their bodies and synthesize useful compounds such as amino acids that the insect can utilize. (
  • The western honey bee was one of the first domesticated insects, and it is the primary species maintained by beekeepers to this day for both its honey production and pollination activities. (
  • Completion of the honey bee genome and other model organism genomes has made further between-species sociogenomic comparisons possible. (
  • In order to discover how foraging in bees is genetically encoded, the honey bee genome was searched for genes that may be shared by other species. (
  • This trend continues within groups of eusocial species, highly eusocial species have highly recombinant genomes. (
  • genes
  • Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. (
  • In this study, we examined the enhancement activity of hycu-hr6 against two promoters from constitutive baculovirus immediate early genes, the HycuNPV ie1 (hycu-ie1) and the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid (M) NPV ie2 (op-ie2), and against a promoter from the inducible Drosophila heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) in five lepidopteran (BmN-4, Ld652Y, Sf9, SpIm, and TN368) and one dipteran (S2) insect cell lines. (
  • It identifies intron-exon borders and splice sites and is able to cope with sequencing errors and genes spanning several contigs in genomes that have not yet been assembled to supercontigs or chromosomes. (
  • Exhaustive PCR surveys revealed that 31 and 30 of 214 Wolbachia genes examined were detected from the two insect populations, respectively. (
  • We then present a new theory aimed at understanding the evolution of genes involved in the development of social insects. (
  • It also has the smallest known insect genome as of 2014, with only 99 million base pairs of nucleotides (and about 13,500 genes). (
  • Orphan genes may arise through a variety of mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer, duplication and rapid divergence, and de novo origination, and may act at different rates in insects, primates, and plants. (
  • Orphan genes were first discovered when the yeast genome-sequencing project began in 1996. (
  • Orphan genes accounted for an estimated 26% of the yeast genome, but it was believed that these genes could be classified with homologues when more genomes were sequenced. (
  • However, orphan genes continued to persist as the quantity of sequenced genomes grew, eventually leading to the conclusion that orphan genes are ubiquitous to all genomes. (
  • Lethal genes cause death in an organism, and RIDl genes only kill young insects, usually larvae or pupae. (
  • Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) - Wolbachia Maternal Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest (Medea) X-Shredder There are concerns about using tetracycline on a routine basis for controlling the expression of lethal genes. (
  • There are plausible routes for resistance genes to develop in the bacteria within the guts of GM-insects fed on tetracycline and from there, to circulate widely in the environment. (
  • The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium reported in 2006 that there are nine genes for nine MRJPs. (
  • sequences
  • Even in cases when there are many sequencing errors, or when incomplete genome assemblies lead to hits that stretch across multiple target sequences, it very often provides the user with the correct determination of intron-exon borders and splice sites, showing an improved prediction accuracy compared to BLAT and Exonerate. (
  • After mapping the sequences to a viral reference genome and inferring haplotype composition, we use methods to reconstruct phylogenetic trees to infer evolutionary paths a virus may take during the course of an infection in a single individual, or to analyse the genetic diversity of a virus by comparing samples from many individuals. (
  • Mir-13 subfamily emerged from mir-2 sequences before the insect radiation. (
  • The number of mir-2 sequences differs among invertebrate lineages although they remain tightly clustered in the genome. (
  • arthropods
  • The members of the genus Wolbachia are rickettsial endosymbitic bacteria belonging to the α- Proteobacteria , whose infections are prevalent among arthropods, including over 60 per cent of insects and some filarial nematodes. (
  • DDT) and pyrethroid insecticides in insects and other arthropods that result from reduced sensitivity of the nervous system caused by point mutations in the insect population's genetic makeup. (
  • gene
  • Baculovirus-insect cell technologies are applied in the production of complex proteins, veterinary and human vaccines, gene delivery vectors‚ and biopesticides. (
  • Scipio is a tool based on the alignment program BLAT to determine the precise gene structure given a protein sequence and a genome sequence. (
  • The ftsZ gene titres in homozygotic ftsZ + insects were nearly twice as high as those in heterozygotic ftsZ + insects. (
  • At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for comparison, so a lack of detectable homologues was thought to be most likely due to a lack of sequencing data and not due to a true lack of homology. (
  • Release of Insects carrying Dominant Lethals (RIDL) is a control strategy using genetically engineered insects that have (carry) a lethal gene in their genome (an organism's DNA). (
  • Similar to how inheritance of brown eyes is dominant to blue eyes, this lethal gene is dominant so that all offspring of the RIDL insect will also inherit the lethal gene. (
  • This lethal gene has a molecular on and off switch, allowing these RIDL insects to be reared. (
  • The lethal gene is turned off when the RIDL insects are mass reared in an insectory, and turned on when they are released into the environment. (
  • To examine higher insect social order, researchers looked into the potential evolutionary history of a "foraging gene" in honey bees (Apis mellifera). (
  • Apis
  • The behaviours of social insects, such as ( a ) the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ), ( b ) the fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta ) and ( c ) the yellowjacket wasp ( Vespula maculifrons ) have been shaped extensively by the process of kin selection. (
  • In October 2006, a collection of biologists, led by Robinson, successfully published the sequence of the honey bee Apis mellifera together with the Baylor Human Genome Sequencing Center (HGSC). (
  • baculovirus
  • Better understanding of how baculoviruses and insect cells interact would facilitate baculovirus-based production. (
  • We previously identified a large homologous region (hr), hycu-hr6, in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HycuNPV) and suggested that hycu-hr6 was the largest baculovirus promoter enhancer hr identified so far. (
  • proteins
  • Eukaryotic RepHels show strong homology with Rep domain-containing proteins encoded by ssDNA geminiviruses such that they are presumed to have been acquired by HTT [ 6 ], and mediate RCR of autonomous as well as non-autonomous Helitron elements in the same genome. (
  • About 5% of the human genome is under purifying selection although only 1.5% of the genome encodes proteins. (
  • larval
  • The sawflies have been found to sequester glucosinolates like many insects in larval stages. (
  • He went on to discover another hormone, called the juvenile hormone, which prevented the development of adult characteristics in R. prolixus until the insect had reached the appropriate larval stage. (
  • genetically
  • A genetically modified (GM) insect is an insect that has been genetically modified, either through mutagenesis, or more precise processes of transgenesis, or cisgenesis. (
  • Comparative
  • Comparative genomic analysis of the Aedes mosquito, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, with a genome at ~1.38 Gbp is ~5-fold larger in size than the genome of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (
  • Recently, multilocus genotyping and even whole genome sequencing-based technologies have been adopted in ambitious comparative biology studies. (
  • larvae
  • The diet and physical upbringing vary among the colony's larvae and is known to determine the physical characteristics of the adult insect. (
  • genetic
  • Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect. (
  • Motivations for using GM insects include biological research purposes and genetic pest management. (
  • Insect genomes can be found in genetic databases such as NCBI, and databases more specific to insects such as FlyBase, VectorBase, and BeetleBase. (
  • They are also the model genetic organism for historical reasons, being one of the first model organism and have a high quality completed genome. (
  • Queen and worker morphological forms both come occur from the same genome, royal jelly nourishment is the non-genetic determiner. (
  • vectors
  • Comparison of the enhancement efficiency of hycu-hr6 with that of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) hr5, an enhancer commonly used to improve the activity of AcMNPV ie1 promoter in many insect expression vectors, established that hycu-hr6 was a more efficient enhancer. (
  • These results indicate that hycu-hr6 is a versatile and superior promoter enhancer in several insect cell lines and favor the incorporation of hycu-hr6 into insect expression vectors to maximize promoter activity. (
  • determination
  • His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. (
  • contrast
  • In contrast to protein-coding regions that are relatively easy to identify (e.g. by looking for open-reading frames), other functional elements such as transcriptional and translational regulatory regions may be short and lacking a clear sequence motif that would allow them to be detected in a single genome. (
  • novel
  • Nascent Helitron copies integrate at novel genome locations between AT or TT di-nucleotides and do not produce target site duplications. (
  • coherent
  • Instead of producing a set of hits with varying confidence, Scipio gives the user a coherent summary of locations on the genome that code for the query protein. (
  • research
  • Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. (