Genital Neoplasms, Male: Tumor or cancer of the MALE GENITALIA.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsLymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
Liselotte MettlerPancreatoblastomaCystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms: Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms is a group of tumors.Kidney tumour: Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasmThyroid cancerMyelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases: Myelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases are a category of hematological malignancies disorders created by the World Health Organization which have characteristics of both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative conditions.Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Sialoblastoma: A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously been referred to as congenital basal cell adenoma, embryoma, or basaloid adenocarcinoma.Solution precursor plasma spray: Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) is a thermal spray process where a feedstock solution is heated and then deposited onto a substrate. Basic properties of the process are fundamentally similar to other plasma spraying processes.Goblet cell carcinoid: The goblet cell carcinoid, abbreviated GCC and also known as crypt cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumour with goblet cell differentiation, is a rare biphasic gastrointestinal tract tumour that consists of a neuroendocrine component and a conventional carcinoma, histologically arising from Paneth cells.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm: Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, also mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas and mucinous cystic tumour, is a grouping of cystic neoplasms that arise from the pancreas. They may be benign, malignant or in between.Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Ductal carcinoma: Ductal carcinoma is a type of tumor that primarily presents in the ducts of a gland.Vascular tissue neoplasmIntraocular lymphoma: Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer. Intraocular lymphoma may affect the eye secondarily from a metastasis from a non-ocular tumor or may arise within the eye primarily (primary intraocular lymphoma, PIOL).Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisAggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (also known as a digital papillary adenocarcinoma and papillary adenoma) is a cutaneous condition characterized by an aggressive malignancy involving the digit between the nailbed and the distal interphalangeal joint spaces.Bob ChampionInflammatory myofibroblastic tumourGlandular and epithelial neoplasm: Glandular and epithelial neoplasm is a grouping of tumors arising from the glands and epithelium.Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the lung: Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the lung (MCACL) is a very rare malignant mucus-producing neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled growth of transformed epithelial cells originating in lung tissue.Thyroid adenomaOsteolipochondroma: Osteolipochondroma (osteo, bone, lipos, fat, + chondros, cartilage, oma, tumor) is a cartilaginous tumor containing fatty and bony tissue.Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act: The Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act of 2001 (P.L.Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms: Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms is a group of tumors.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Hidradenocarcinoma: Hidradenocarcinoma (also known as malignant hidradenoma, malignant acrospiroma, clear cell eccrine carcinoma, or primary mucoepidermoid cutaneous carcinoma) is a malignant adnexal tumor of the sweat gland. It is the malignant variant of the benign hidradenoma.World Lymphoma Awareness Day: World Lymphoma Awareness Day (WLAD) is held on September 15 every year and is a day dedicated to raising awareness of lymphoma, an increasingly common form of cancer. It is a global initiative hosted by the Lymphoma Coalition (LC), a non-profit network organisation of 63 lymphoma patient groups from 44 countries around the world.Bone tumorCancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Papillary serous cystadenocarcinomaLittoral cell angioma: Littoral cell angioma, abbreviated LCA, and formally known as littoral cell angioma of the spleen, is a benign tumour of the spleen that arises from the cells that line the red pulp.Ovarian serous cystadenoma: Ovarian serous cystadenoma, also (less precisely) known as serous cystadenoma, is a very common benign ovarian tumour.Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay
(1/148) Phaeochromocytoma of the spermatic cord.
Phaeochromocytoma of the spermatic cord is very rare. It can arise anywhere in the distribution of cells of neural crest origin, but 80-90% arise in the adrenal medulla and only 3% are extra-abdominal. A small tumour may be asymptomatic because insufficient catecholamines are secreted to cause haemodynamic disturbance. (+info)
(2/148) Extragonadal teratocarcinoma in chimeric mice.
Chimeric mice often are created through the genetic manipulation of the mouse embryo in the process of developing animal models of disease. These mice have variable percentages of their somatic and germ cells derived from the donor embryonic stem cells and host blastocysts. In the development of mouse models deficient in the breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (Brca2) or the 70-kd heat shock protein (Hsp70-2), 3-4-week-old chimeras developed single or multiple masses composed of both well-differentiated and poorly differentiated tissues derived from all three germ layers. These cases of extragonadal teratocarcinoma, a rarely reported tumor, may be related to the genetic predisposition of the 129/Ola mouse strain used to generate the embryonic stem cells. (+info)
(3/148) Primary seminal vesicle carcinoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.
Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is an extremely rare neoplasm. Because prompt diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved long-term survival, accurate recognition of this neoplasm is important, particularly when evaluating limited biopsy material. Immunohistochemistry can be used to rule out neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, such as prostatic adenocarcinoma. Previous reports have shown that seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma (SVCA) is negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP); however, little else is known of its immunophenotype. Consequently, we evaluated the utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and cytokeratin (CK) subsets 7 and 20 for distinguishing SVCA from other neoplasms that enter the differential diagnosis. Four cases of SVCA-three cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst-were immunostained for CA-125, CK7, and CK20. Three of four cases of SVCA were CA-125 positive and CK7 positive. All four cases were CK20 negative. All bladder adenocarcinomas and the mullerian duct cyst adenocarcinoma were CK7 positive and negative for CA-125 and CK20. In addition, CA-125 immunostaining was performed in neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (n = 40), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (n = 32), and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 10), and all were negative for this antigen. In conclusion, the present study has shown that the CK7-positive, CK20-negative, CA-125-positive, PSA/PAP-negative immunophenotype of papillary SVCA is unique and can be used in conjunction with histomorphology to distinguish it from other tumors that enter the differential diagnosis, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, PSA/PAP positive), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (CK20 positive, CA-125 negative), rectal adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, CK7 negative, CK20 positive), bladder adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative), and adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst (CA-125 negative). (+info)
(4/148) Spermatic cord metastases from gastric cancer with elevation of serum hCG-beta: a case report.
Spermatic cord metastases from gastric cancer are rare. We here document a case involving a gastric cancer that mimicked primary testicular tumor because of elevation of the serum human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (hCG-beta). The possibility of metastasis or recurrence of prior malignancies should therefore be considered when the clinical features described here are encountered, although elevation of hCG-beta is rare with tumors other than those in testis. (+info)
(5/148) Proliferative lesions and reproductive tract tumors in male descendants of mice exposed developmentally to diethylstilbestrol.
Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with reproductive tract abnormalities, subfertility and neoplasia in experimental animals and humans. Studies using experimental animals suggest that the carcinogenic effects of DES may be transmitted to succeeding generations. To further evaluate this possibility and to determine if there is a sensitive window of exposure, outbred CD-1 mice were treated with DES during three developmental stages: group 1 was treated on days 9-16 of gestation (2.5, 5 or 10 microg/kg maternal body weight) during major organogenesis; group II was treated once on day 18 of gestation (1000 microg/kg maternal body weight) just prior to birth; and group III was treated on days 1-5 of neonatal life (0.002 microg/pup/day). DES-exposed female mice (F(1)) were raised to maturity and bred to control males to generate DES-lineage (F(2)) descendants. The F(2) males obtained from these matings are the subjects of this report; results in F(2) females have been reported previously [Newbold et al. (1998) CARCINOGENESIS:, 19, 1655-1663]. Reproductive performance of F(2) males when bred to control females was not different from control males. However, in DES F(2) males killed at 17-24 months, an increased incidence of proliferative lesions of the rete testis and tumors of the reproductive tract was observed. Since these increases were seen in all DES treatment groups, all exposure periods were considered susceptible to perturbation by DES. These data suggest that, while fertility of the DES F(2) mice appeared unaltered, increased susceptibility for tumors is transmitted from the DES 'grandmothers' to subsequent generations. (+info)
(6/148) First-line high-dose chemotherapy +/- radiation therapy in patients with metastatic germ-cell cancer and brain metastases.
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of first-line high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CTX) in patients with advanced metastatic germ-cell tumors (GCT) and brain metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with brain metastases at initial diagnosis were identified within a cohort of two hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with advanced metastatic disease, entered on a German multicenter trial between January 1993 and July 1998. All patients received first-line HD-CTX with cisplatin-etoposide-ifosfamide (HD-VIP) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Brain irradiation (BRT) with 30-50 Gy +/- 10 Gy boost was applied in patients with symptomatic CNS disease or as consolidation in case of residual CNS lesions after HD-CTX. RESULTS: A median number of 4 HD-CTX cycles (range 2-5) were applied to the 22 patients. Ten patients received HD-CTX alone and twelve patients were treated with HD-CTX plus BRT. Median duration of WHO grade 4 granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia was seven and five days after each cycle, respectively. Non-hematologic toxicity consisted mainly of mucositis/enteritis (WHO grade 3-4 32%). Two early deaths occurred in twenty-two patients (one CNS-bleeding/one sepsis). Fourteen of twenty patients achieved a CR/PRm- status. Twenty patients (91%) responded in the brain (55% CR/36% PR). Two-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 72% and 81%, respectively. These survival rates are substantially higher compared to the available data in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support +/- BRT appears to be feasible without increased therapy-related mortality in patients with advanced metastatic GCT and brain metastases. The results achieved emphasize the high chemosensitivity of CNS metastases from GCT and suggest a potential role for dose intensification. The dose of BRT in addition to HD-CTX may be tailored to the presence of clinical symptoms and the response of CNS metastases to chemotherapy. (+info)
(7/148) Erythroplasia of queyrat: coinfection with cutaneous carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 8 and genital papillomaviruses in a carcinoma in situ.
Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ that mainly occurs on the glans penis, the prepuce, or the urethral meatus of elderly males. Up to 30% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of erythroplasia of Queyrat is largely unknown. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA has previously been detected only in very few distinctly characterized patients. We have investigated 12 paraffin-embedded biopsies from eight patients with penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and control biopsies of inflammatory penile lesions, of genital Bowen's disease, and of premalignant/malignant cervical or vulvar lesions by 10 different polymerase chain reaction protocols for the presence of cutaneous and genital/mucosal human papillomaviruses. Human papillomavirus typing was performed by sequencing (cloned) polymerase chain reaction products. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and in none of the controls with inflammatory penile lesions. The rare cutaneous carcinogenic epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus type 8 was present in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and the genital high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 in seven of eight patients (88%). In addition to human papillomavirus type 8 and human papillomavirus type 16, four patients carried the genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 39 and/or type 51. All human papillomavirus type 8 sequences found in erythroplasia of Queyrat showed some polymorphism among each other and differed in specific nucleotide exchanges from the human papillomavirus type 8 reference sequence. Viral load determinations (human papillomavirus copies/beta-globin gene copies) by realtime polymerase chain reactions showed that the human papillomavirus type 16 levels in the erythroplasia of Queyrat biopsies were one to five orders of magnitude higher than the human papillomavirus type 8 levels. Human papillomavirus type 8 was not detected in cervical or vulvar precancerous and cancerous lesions and in Bowen's disease lesions that carried genital human papillomavirus types. The data suggest that in erythroplasia of Queyrat, in contrast to other genital neoplasias, a coinfection with human papillomavirus type 8 and carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus types occurs. The presence or absence of human papillomavirus type 8 might help to distinguish between penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's diseases. (+info)
(8/148) Common metastatic carcinoma of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): evidence of genital origin and association with novel gammaherpesvirus.
Tissues from 10 adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, seven females and three males) that had metastatic carcinoma in sublumbar area lymph nodes were examined histologically. A distinctive epithelial proliferative lesion interpreted as intraepithelial neoplasia was found in genital tracts of all ten animals; in vagina (5/7), cervix (7/7), uterus (3/7), penis (3/3) and prepuce (3/3). Intraepithelial neoplasia closely resembled metastatic carcinomas and was directly contiguous with invasive carcinoma in one animal. Rare eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in penile and preputial intraepithelial neoplasia (one animal), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (one animal), invasive cervical carcinoma (one animal) and metastatic carcinoma (two animals). Electron microscopic examination of tissues from two sea lions (one with intraepithelial neoplasia and one with metastatic carcinoma) demonstrated viral particles consistent with a herpesvirus. An immunohistochemical stain for the latent membrane protein of Epstein-Barr virus was positive in intraepithelial neoplasia in one sea lion. Herpesvirus DNA sequences were detected by consensus primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in metastatic carcinomas from all four sea lions from which unfixed tumor samples were available. Results of sequencing were consistent with a novel gammaherpesvirus in the genus Rhadinovirus. DNA extracted from the four metastatic carcinomas also was tested for papillomavirus by Southern blot and PCR with consensus papillomavirus primers; all samples were negative by both methods. These findings support the genital origin of the sea lion carcinoma and implicate a novel gammaherpesvirus as a possible cause. (+info)