Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Forensic Genetics: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Genetic Phenomena: The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.Multifactorial Inheritance: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Genotyping Techniques: Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.EuropeDisease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary: The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Penetrance: The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.United StatesSchizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.

*  Principles of population genetics - Daniel L. Hartl - Google Books

... genetics.html?id=m2fwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-sharePrinciples of population genetics. ... Principles of Population Genetics. Daniel L. Hartl,Andrew G. Clark. No preview available - 1997. ... Principles of Population Genetics. Daniel L. Hartl,Andrew G. Clark. No preview available - 2007. ... Principles of population genetics. Daniel L. Hartl,Andrew G. Clark. Snippet view - 1989. ...

*  More articles from Population and evolutionary genetics | Genetics

The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers ... Cis- and Trans-regulatory Effects on Gene Expression in a Natural Population of Drosophila melanogaster ... Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. ... The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data Open Access ... and evolutionary genetics

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Projects and Results : The population genetics and conservation of the saiga antelope

The population genetics and conservation of the saiga antelope. Project ID: INTAS-1997-11197. Funded under: IC-INTAS ... The population genetics and conservation of the saiga antelope. From 1999-04-01 to 2001-03-31 ...

*  The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data | Genetics

Population and Evolutionary Genetics. *. Untangling Heteroplasmy, Structure, and Evolution of an Atypical Mitochondrial Genome ... 2007 Reduced X-linked diversity in derived populations of house mice. Genetics 175: 1911-1921. ... Supplemental material is available online at ... and a population structure analysis suggested that they represent a single population (Halligan et al. 2010). Halligan et al. ( ...

*  Biology-Online • View topic - Population Genetics Lab (Palladino)

Population Genetics Lab (Palladino). Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects. ... Population Genetics Lab (Palladino). by overthehead » Sun Jul 17, 2011 8:39 pm ... pressure

*  Clustering models in population genetics - DTU Orbit

Clustering models in population genetics. Publication: Research - peer-review › Conference abstract for conference - Annual ...

*  Section for Population Ecology and Genetics - Projects - DTU Orbit

Section for Population Ecology and Genetics ...

*  British Library EThOS: Population genetics and epidemiology of the sheep scab mite : development of a suite of microsatellite...

Population genetics and epidemiology of the sheep scab mite : development of a suite of microsatellite markers for Psoroptes ...

*  Organic Eprints - Genetics of sow efficiency in the Finnish landrace and large white populations

Genetics of sow efficiency in the Finnish landrace and large white populations ... Serenius, Timo (2004) Genetics of sow efficiency in the Finnish landrace and large white populations. Thesis, MTT Agrifood ...

*  PLOS Genetics: Transcriptome Sequencing from Diverse Human Populations Reveals Differentiated Regulatory Architecture

However, these efforts have been limited to a small set of well-studied populations. By leveraging the high resolution of RNA ... We also find that population-specific variance is mostly due to transcription variability rather than the configuration of ... These data and results serve as a resource cataloging the wide array of gene expression regulation affecting population ... Additionally, known common regulatory variants have similar effects across populations including those we study here. ...

*  NGS-resources: Fwd: ngsTools: methods for population genetics analyses from next-generation sequencing data

there is considerable statistical uncertainty in the assignment of genotypes because of random sampling of homologous base pairs in heterozygotes and sequencing or alignment errors. Recently, several probabilistic methods have been proposed to account for this uncertainty and make accurate inferences from low quality and/or coverage sequencing data.. We present ngsTools, a collection of programs to perform population genetics analyses from next-generation sequencing data. The methods implemented in these programs do not rely on single-nucleotide polymorphism or genotype calling and are particularly suitable for low sequencing depth data.. Availability: Programs included in ngsTools are implemented in C/C++ and are freely available for noncommercial use at ...

*  Gillespie, Population Genetics

and this is a textbook, I'll stick to mundane details here. Gillespie builds up population genetics in a fairly traditional order, starting with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (essentially a result saying that, in the absence of mutation, selection, or finite-size effects, gene frequencies do not change). Next (ch. 2) he introduces genetic drift --- in finite populations, gene frequencies can change merely due to the luck of the draw, individuals becoming parents more or less by chance, without any selective pressures. After that (ch. 3) comes the keystone, selection in randomly-mating populations, including Fisher's ``fundamental theorem of natural selection'' (which almost never applies). Chapter four drops the assumption of random mating, which makes the life of the geneticist harder; out of all the kinds of non-random mating which must be considered, Gillespie picks out inbreeding and semi-isolated sub-populations. Chapter ...

*  Characterization of Allelic Association - Bruce Weir

This project is concerned with developing new statistical methodology for population genetic data. Attention will be focused on three main areas concerned with...

Walter Reed Army Institute of ResearchPanmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.David FulkerDda (DNA-dependent ATPase): Dda (short for DNA-dependent ATPase; also known as Dda helicase and Dda DNA helicase) is the 439-amino acid 49,897-atomic mass unit protein coded by the Dda gene of the bacteriophage T4 phage, a virus that infects enterobacteria.Genetic variation: right|thumbPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.National Society of Film Critics Awards 1977: 12th NSFC AwardsSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Chromosome regionsGenetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Return of results: Return of results is a concept in research ethics which describes the extent of the duty of a researcher to reveal and explain the results of research to a research participant.Population stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Eugenics in the United States: Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.Hereditary Disease Foundation: The Hereditary Disease Foundation (HDF) aims to cure genetic disorders by supporting basic biomedical research.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asGene polymorphismDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Coles PhillipsBernd BrinkmannUniparental inheritance: Uniparental inheritance is a non-mendelian form of inheritance that consists of the transmission of genotypes from one parental type to all progeny. That is, all the genes in offspring will originate from only the mother or only the father.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary -, a part of The New York Times Company.Cancer Genome Project: The Cancer Genome Project, based at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, aims to identify sequence variants/mutations critical in the development of human cancers. Like The Cancer Genome Atlas project within the United States, the Cancer Genome Project represents an effort in the War on Cancer to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention through a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease.Pharmacogenetics: Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. The term pharmacogenetics is often used interchangeably with the term pharmacogenomics which also investigates the role of acquired and inherited genetic differences in relation to drug response and drug behavior through a systematic examination of genes, gene products, and inter- and intra-individual variation in gene expression and function.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentExtracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Michael K. Denk: Michael K. Denk (or Karl Michael Denk) is a Professor of chemistry at the University of Guelph, Ontario.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Deterministic system (philosophy): A deterministic system is a conceptual model of the philosophical doctrine of determinism applied to a system for understanding everything that has and will occur in the system, based on the physical outcomes of causality. In a deterministic system, every action, or cause, produces a reaction, or effect, and every reaction, in turn, becomes the cause of subsequent reactions.Genetic predisposition: A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,What does it mean to have a genetic predisposition to a disease?Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}The Flash ChroniclesTrisomic rescue: Trisomic rescue (also known as trisomy rescue or trisomy zygote rescue) is a genetic phenomenon in which a fertilized ovum containing three copies of a chromosome loses one of these chromosomes to form a normal, diploid chromosome complement. If both of the retained chromosomes came from the same parent, then uniparental disomy results.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesDrosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Plant breedingIndy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Genetic heterogeneity: Genetic heterogeneity is a phenomenon in which a single phenotype or genetic disorder may be caused by any one of a multiple number of alleles or non-allele (locus) mutations.Turnpenny and Ellard, Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics, 13th Edition.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Mac OS X Server 1.0Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Chromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Microevolution: Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population.Microevolution: What is microevolution?Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Acromelanism: Acromelanism is a genetically determined, temperature-dependent pigmentation pattern, with full expression only occurring on legs, ears, tail and face. Seen in Siamese and Himalayan cats, rats, and rabbits.Nutrigenetics: Nutrigenetics is a branch of nutritional genomics which aims to identify genetic susceptibility to diseases and genetic variation in the effects of nutrient intake on the genome. Nutrigenetics is not to be confused with nutrigenomics, which focuses on the role specific foods have in activating genes that affect susceptibility to certain illnesses such as Alzheimer’s Disease and cancer.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Newington Green Unitarian ChurchThe Otwell Twins: The Otwell Twins are an American singing duo made up of identical twin brothers Roger and David, born August 2, 1956, in Tulia, Texas. They are best known as members of The Lawrence Welk Show from 1977-1982.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?OpsismodysplasiaClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.

(1/6490) An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

(2/6490) Evolutionary analysis of TATA-less proximal promoter function.

Many molecular studies describe how components of the proximal promoter affect transcriptional processes. However, these studies do not account for the likely effects of distant enhancers or chromatin structure, and thus it is difficult to conclude that the sequence variation in proximal promoters acts to modulate transcription in the natural context of the whole genome. This problem, the biological importance of proximal promoter sequence variation, can be addressed using a combination of molecular and evolutionary analyses. Provided here are molecular and evolutionary analyses of the variation in promoter function and sequence within and between populations of Fundulus heteroclitus for the lactate dehydrogenase-B (Ldh-B) proximal promoter. Approximately one third of the Ldh-B proximal promoter contains interspersed regions that are functionally important: (1) they bind transcription factors in vivo, (2) they effect a change in transcription as assayed by transient transfection into two different fish cell lines, and (3) they bind purified transcription factors in vitro. Evolutionary analyses that compare sequence variation in these functional regions versus the nonfunctional regions indicate that the changes in the Ldh-B proximal promoter sequences are due to directional selection. Thus, the Ldh-B proximal promoter sequence variations that affect transcriptional processes constitute a phenotypic change that is subject to natural selection, suggesting that proximal promoter sequence variation affects transcription in the natural context of the whole genome.  (+info)

(3/6490) Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

(4/6490) X chromosome evidence for ancient human histories.

Diverse African and non-African samples of the X-linked PDHA1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) locus revealed a fixed DNA sequence difference between the two sample groups. The age of onset of population subdivision appears to be about 200 thousand years ago. This predates the earliest modern human fossils, suggesting the transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population. The base of the PDHA1 gene tree is relatively ancient, with an estimated age of 1.86 million years, a late Pliocene time associated with early species of Homo. PDHA1 revealed very low variation among non-Africans, but in other respects the data are consistent with reports from other X-linked and autosomal haplotype data sets. Like these other genes, but in conflict with microsatellite and mitochondrial data, PDHA1 does not show evidence of human population expansion.  (+info)

(5/6490) Maximum-likelihood generalized heritability estimate for blood pressure in Nigerian families.

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is more common in relatives of hypertensives than in relatives of normotensives, indicating familial resemblance of the BP phenotypes. Most published studies have been conducted in westernized societies. To assess the ability to generalize these estimates, we examined familial patterns of BP in a population-based sample of 510 nuclear families, including 1552 individuals (320 fathers, 370 mothers, 475 sons, and 387 daughters) from Ibadan, Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in this community is low (body mass index: fathers, 21.6; mothers, 23.6; sons, 19.2; and daughters=21.0 kg/m2). The BP phenotype used in all analyses was created from the best regression model by standardizing the age-adjusted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to 0 mean and unit variance. Heritability was estimated by use of the computer program SEGPATH from the most parsimonious model of "no spouse and neither gender nor generation difference" as 45% for SBP and 43% for DBP. The lack of a significant spouse correlation is consistent with little or no influence of the common familial environment. However, the heritability estimate of <50% for both SBP and DBPs reinforces the importance of the nonshared environmental effect.  (+info)

(6/6490) DnaSP version 3: an integrated program for molecular population genetics and molecular evolution analysis.

DnaSP is a Windows integrated software package for the analysis of the DNA polymorphism from nucleotide sequence data. DnaSP version 3 incorporates several methods for estimating the amount and pattern of DNA polymorphism and divergence, and for conducting neutrality tests. AVAILABILITY: For academic uses, DnaSP is available free of charge from: CONTACT:  (+info)

(7/6490) Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds.

A panel of cattle bones excavated from the 1000-year-old Viking Fishamble Street site in Dublin was assessed for the presence of surviving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eleven of these bones gave amplifiable mtDNA and a portion of the hypervariable control region was determined for each specimen. A comparative analysis was performed with control region sequences from five extant Nordic and Irish cattle breeds. The medieval population displayed similar levels of mtDNA diversity to modern European breeds. However, a number of novel mtDNA haplotypes were also detected in these bone samples. In addition, the presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe.  (+info)

(8/6490) Freezer anthropology: new uses for old blood.

Archived blood fractions (plasma, settled red cells, white cells) have proved to be a rich and valuable source of DNA for human genetic studies. Large numbers of such samples were collected between 1960 and the present for protein and blood group studies, many of which are languishing in freezers or have already been discarded. More are discarded each year because the usefulness of these samples is not widely understood. Data from DNA derived from 10-35-year-old blood samples have been used to address the peopling of the New World and of the Pacific. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from studies using this source DNA support a single wave of migration into the New World (or a single source population for the New World), and that Mongolia was the likely source of the founding population. Data from Melanesia have shown that Polynesians are recent immigrants into the Pacific and did not arise from Melanesia.  (+info)

PLOS Genetics

  • Though you undoubtedly inherited your distinctive nose from your parents, its shape was sculpted over time by adaptations to your ancestors' local climate, suggests a study published in the journal PLOS Genetics on Thursday. (


  • The remainder of AP Biology consists of genetics, evolution, and ecology. (


  • We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. (


  • Genes vary within populations, so organisms show heritable differences (variation) in their traits. (


  • It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. (
  • Patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in a sample of individuals drawn from a population can be used to infer variation in the rate of recombination across the genome. (
  • There's a great variety in nose variation from person to person, yet if you look at different ethnic populations, you will see differences across groups. (
  • There is a growing interest in the patterns and processes associated with geographical variation in population genetic structure across species' ranges since these often shift, expand and contract over time [ 1 - 4 ]. (


  • To complicate matters, it is increasingly recognized that isolated populations at the edge of species' distributions might not have dispersed, or become isolated, naturally but instead might have been assisted by humans. (


  • In fact, genetic differences between various population groups is not that great. (
  • Using noses as just one example, said Shriver, "the surface, the appearance of people in different populations is much greater than what the genetic differences show on average. (
  • So what accounts for the differences in nose shape across population groups? (


  • Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects. (
  • In biology , evolution is the change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms through successive generations. (
  • Another cause of evolution is genetic drift , an independent process that produces entirely random changes in how common traits are in a population. (


  • Each Mendelian population may contain several other smaller Mendelian population within it.The largest Mendelian population is a species because species do not share the same gene pool.They are distinct and are closed genetic system. (
  • [ 1 ] When a population splits into smaller groups, these groups evolve independently and develop into new species . (
  • As a consequence, marginal populations tend to show greater than expected isolation by distance and have lower genetic diversity than populations located within the species' range [ 3 ]. (


  • We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. (


  • It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. (


  • Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. (
  • Experiments in laboratory strains or managed populations that examine the inheritance of markers through pedigrees have produced direct estimates of crossing-over rates in different genomic regions. (


  • Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. (
  • We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. (
  • There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (H O , H E and A R ) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. (
  • Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. (
  • Historical and contemporary changes to population size and gene flow influence genetic diversity and population differentiation [ 3 , 5 ]. (
  • As a consequence of human-mediated dispersal and resulting admixture, marginal populations might actually show higher genetic diversity than geographically more central populations [ 8 , 9 ]. (

genetic structure

  • Population Genetics is concerned with the determination of the genetic structure of human population and the analysis of the factors that maintain or alter their genetic structure.The web of genetic relationships among consanguinity,mating patterns,gene flow and natural selection are all significant in the study of human populations. (
  • In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis , on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. (


  • The determination of gene frequencies depends on sampling,counting and statistical manipulation of numbers.The estimation of gene frequencies is based on Mendel's two principles and on the Equilibrium Law that describes population gene frequencies under certain conditions. (


  • So it's easy to understand why many people, past and present, "have this sense that human populations are very distinct and have been separated for a long time," said Mark D. Shriver, lead author of the study and a professor of anthropology at Penn State University. (

Natural Population

  • In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus . (


  • Still, he noted, "human populations have always split and come back together, split and come back together, so there's no separate origin. (
  • Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. (


  • This has the potential to result in genetic admixture when animals are introduced from multiple source populations. (


  • The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. (


  • The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. (


  • Two main processes cause variants to become more common or rare in a population. (


  • These changes are particularly important in populations at geographical range limits, since these populations experience more rapid cycles of extinction, recolonization (with the associated founder events), severe population bottlenecks and asymmetric gene flow [ 3 ]. (