Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Multifactorial Inheritance: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mice, Inbred C3HNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred DBAGenomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Penetrance: The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Mice, Inbred BALB CDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.North AmericaChromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary: A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progressive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.

*  BW66 Gene - GeneCards | BW66 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Body Weight QTL 66, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BW66
*  MRX20 Gene - GeneCards | MRX20 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Mental Retardation, X-Linked 20, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MRX20
*  BMIQ14 Gene - GeneCards | BMIQ14 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Body Mass Index QTL14, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BMIQ14
*  MCDR3 Gene - GeneCards | MCDR3 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Macular Dystrophy, Retinal 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... MCDR3 (Macular Dystrophy, Retinal 3) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with MCDR3 include Macular Dystrophy, Retinal, 3. ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MCDR3
*  BWQTL4 Gene - GeneCards | BWQTL4 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Birth Weight QTL4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BWQTL4
*  MRX24 Gene - GeneCards | MRX24 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Mental Retardation, X-Linked 24, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MRX24
*  CORD8 Gene - GeneCards | CORD8 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Cone Rod Dystrophy 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... CORD8 (Cone Rod Dystrophy 8) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with CORD8 include Cone-Rod Dystrophy 8. ... Novel locus for autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy CORD8 mapping to chromosome 1q12-Q24. (PMID: 11053266) Khaliq S. … ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CORD8
*  FGQTL3 Gene - GeneCards | FGQTL3 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Fasting Plasma Glucose Level QTL3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=FGQTL3
*  BW16 Gene - GeneCards | BW16 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Body Weight QTL 16, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... Interacting genetic loci on chromosomes 20 and 10 influence extreme human obesity. (PMID: 12478478) Dong C … Price RA (American ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BW16
*  Mapping the genetic locus for triglycerides
... 29.04.2008. Story appearing in May issue of JLR. Researchers have mapped out a ... While this genetic locus does contain 375 known genes, the researchers highlighted three genes that are especially promising ...
  http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-108940.html
*  MHAC Gene - GeneCards | MHAC Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Microhydranencephaly, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... MHAC (Microhydranencephaly) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with MHAC include Microhydranencephaly. ... The novel genetic disorder microhydranencephaly maps to chromosome 16p13.3-12.1. (PMID: 10762554) Kavaslar GN … Tolun A ( ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MHAC
*  FUSE Gene - GeneCards | FUSE Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Polykaryocytosis Promoter, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=FUSE
*  MYP9 Gene - GeneCards | MYP9 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Myopia 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... MYP9 (Myopia 9) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with MYP9 include Myopia 9 and Myopia. ... A susceptibility locus for myopia in the normal population is linked to the PAX6 gene region on chromosome 11: a genomewide ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=MYP9
*  TELAB1 Gene - GeneCards | TELAB1 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Telangiectasia, Benign 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Autosomal dominant hereditary benign telangiectasia maps to the CMC1 locus for capillary malformation on chromosome 5q14. (PMID ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=TELAB1
*  DYX2 Gene - GeneCards | DYX2 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Dyslexia Susceptibility 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... DYX2 (Dyslexia Susceptibility 2) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with DYX2 include Dyslexia 2 and Dyslexia. ... Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6. (PMID: 7939663) Cardon LR … DeFries JC (Science (New York, N.Y ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=DYX2
*  BSZQTL2 Gene - GeneCards | BSZQTL2 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Bone Size QTL, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BSZQTL2
*  OA8 Gene - GeneCards | OA8 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Osteoarthritis QTL 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=OA8
*  VSPA Gene - GeneCards | VSPA Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... VSPA (Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with VSPA include Spatial Visualization, ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=VSPA
*  OA5 Gene - GeneCards | OA5 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Osteoarthritis QTL 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=OA5
*  DFN8 Gene - GeneCards | DFN8 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Deafness, X-Linked 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... DFN8 (Deafness, X-Linked 8) is a Genetic Locus. Diseases associated with DFN8 include Auditory Neuropathy. ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=DFN8
*  BP7 Gene - GeneCards | BP7 Genetic Locus
Genetic Locus), Blood Pressure QTL 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Genome-wide linkage reveals a locus for human essential (primary) hypertension on chromosome 12p. (PMID: 12761042) Gong M … ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BP7
*  Combinatorial depletion analysis to assemble the network architecture of the SAGA and ADA chromatin remodeling complexes |...
In addition, previous data from a genetic deletion screen showed a negative genetic synergism of Ada2 and Gcn5 with components ... This table contains the locus identification, description, acronym, open reading frame ID (ORF ID) and dNSAF values for all ... Lin YY, Qi Y, Lu JY, Pan X, Yuan DS, Zhao Y, Bader JS, Boeke JD (2008) A comprehensive synthetic genetic interaction network ... Berger SL, Pina B, Silverman N, Marcus GA, Agapite J, Reigier JL, Triezenberg SJ, Guarente L (1992) Genetic isolation of ADA2: ...
  http://msb.embopress.org/content/7/1/503
*  Neanderthal and Denisovan retroviruses in YOU! - erv
... we assume ERV loci become common by genetic drift, and the average time for a neutral allele to go to fixation is 4Ne ... With the exception of co-opted ERV loci such as syncytins [5], which could increase in frequency due to positive selection, ... These researchers hunted through the genetic sequences of individuals whos genomes were sequenced for other reasons (a cancer ... arose from different sources and are not evidence for genetic relatedness. The ERVs discussed here, when found in ancient ...
  http://scienceblogs.com/erv/2013/11/21/neanderthal-and-denisovan-retroviruses-in-you/
*  2003 | ASN
For this purpose, we examined affected patients' perception of tinnitus as an illness, comorbidity, scores on locus of control ... To help develop optimal therapies for tinnitus, it is necessary to characterize the genetic contributors to the pathophysiology ...
  http://www.neurootology.org/archives/date/2003
*  Table of Contents | Genetics
Focused Genetic Recombination of Bacteriophage T4 Initiated by Double-Strand Breaks Victor Shcherbakov, Igor Granovsky, Lidiya ... Coevolution of the S-Locus Genes SRK, SLG and SP11/SCR in Brassica oleracea and B. rapa ... Genetic Analysis of Natural Variations in the Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana Vegetative Leaves ... Rates of R1 and R2 Retrotransposition and Elimination From the rDNA Locus of Drosophila melanogaster ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/162/2

Chromosome regionsGenetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Population stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Coles PhillipsSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Genetic variation: right|thumbIridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type: Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type (type 1, IRID1) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Signature-tagged mutagenesis: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a genetic technique used to study gene function. Recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed us to catalogue a large variety of organisms' genomes, but the function of the genes they contain is still largely unknown.Gene polymorphismRecombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Thermal cyclerAmplified fragment length polymorphismPremature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Genetic heterogeneity: Genetic heterogeneity is a phenomenon in which a single phenotype or genetic disorder may be caused by any one of a multiple number of alleles or non-allele (locus) mutations.Turnpenny and Ellard, Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics, 13th Edition.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Congenic: In genetics, two organisms that differ in only one locus and a linked segment of chromosome are defined as congenic. Similarly, organisms that are coisogenic differ in one locus only and not in the surrounding chromosome.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asImmunogenetics (journal): Immunogenetics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering immunogenetics, the branch of medical research that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. This journal publishes original research papers, brief communications and reviews in: immunogenetics of cell interaction, immunogenetics of tissue differentiation and development, phylogeny of alloantigens and of immune response, genetic control of immune response and disease susceptibility, and genetics and biochemistry of alloantigens.CP 55,940Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Cousin couple: A cousin couple is a pair of cousins who are involved in a romantic or sexual relationship.Alternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.

(1/3144) Spontaneous regression over time of the germinal epithelium in a Y chromosome-microdeleted patient: Case report.

Azoospermia factor (AZF) region microdeletions, which account for about 10-15% of patients with oligoazoospermia, seem to lack a close genotype-testicular phenotype correlation. Although many genetic and non-genetic factors may contribute to this outcome, it was thought that a spontaneous regression of testicular germ cells might also play a relevant role. The opportunity for carrying out two different testicular biopsies one year apart in an AZFc-microdeleted patient enabled corroboration of this possibility. Indeed, the first biopsy showed a spermatocyte maturation arrest with mean Johnsen scores of 4 and 3.9 in the right and left testes respectively. One year later, the right testicular biopsy showed a picture of Sertoli cell-only syndrome in 90% of the tubules examined, and of spermatogonial maturation arrest in the remaining tubules, with a mean Johnsen score of 2.1. The almost complete absence of germinal cells was confirmed by four left testicular sperm aspirations (TESA), conducted at the same time as the biopsy during an intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, which showed the almost exclusive presence of Sertoli cells (85% of the whole cell population). No spermatozoa could be retrieved by TESA or testicular biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a spontaneous regression of the germinal cell epithelium over time in a patient with a Yq microdeletion without the apparent intervention of any cause known to affect the germinal epithelium.  (+info)

(2/3144) High deletion frequency of the complete AZFa sequence in men with Sertoli-cell-only syndrome.

We have developed a rapid screening protocol for deletion analysis of the complete AZFa sequence (i.e. 792 kb) on the Y chromosome of patients with idiopathic Sertoli-cell-only (SCO) syndrome. This Y deletion was mapped earlier in proximal Yq11 and first found in the Y chromosome of the SCO patient JOLAR, now designated as the AZFa reference patient. We now show that similar AZFa deletions occur with a frequency of 9% in the SCO patient group. In two multiplex polymerase chain reaction experiments, deletions of the complete AZFa sequence were identified by a typical deletion pattern of four new sequence-tagged sites (STS): AZFa-prox1, positive; AZFa-prox2, negative; AZFa-dist1, negative; AZFa-dist2, positive. The STS were established in the proximal and distal neighbourhoods of the two retroviral sequence blocks (HERV15yq1 and HERV15yq2) which encompass the break-point sites for AZFa deletions of the human Y chromosome. We have found deletions of the complete AZFa sequence always associated with a uniform SCO pattern on testicular biopsies. Patients with other testicular histologies as described in the literature and in this paper have only partial AZFa deletions. The current AZFa screening protocols can therefore be improved by analysing the extension of AZFa deletions. This may provide a valuable prognostic tool for infertility clinics performing testicular sperm extraction, as it would enable the exclusion of AZFa patients with a complete SCO syndrome.  (+info)

(3/3144) Y-chromosome microdeletions and cytogenetic findings in unselected ICSI candidates at a Danish fertility clinic.

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and type of microdeletions on the Y chromosome, and to evaluate cytogenetic findings in unselected ICSI candidates at a Danish Fertility Clinic. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, which were collected prospectively from 400 ICSI candidates attending the Fertility Clinic at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty-five sequence tagged sites (STSs) spanning the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions of the Y chromosome were amplified in 5 multiplex sets to investigate Y microdeletions. Semen analysis, karyotype analysis, and histological evaluation of testicular biopsies were also performed. RESULTS: Y microdeletions were detected in 3 (0.75%) of 400 unselected ICSI candidates. The frequency of Y microdeletions was found higher in azoospermic men (2%) than in oligozoospermic men (0.6%). Two patients having oligozoospermia had Y microdeletions in the AZFc region only, whereas the patient having azoospermia had Y microdeletions spanning the AZFb and AZFc regions. No microdeletion was detected in the AZFa region. Chromosomal anomalies were found in 6.1% of azoospermic men and in 2.7% of oligozoospermic men. A high frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities was found in normozoospermic men with fertilization failure (7.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of Y microdeletions both in the unselected ICSI candidates and subgroups classified as azoospermic and oligozoospermic seems rather low compared to results of previous studies, which have been quite varying. It is possible that in addition to patient selection criteria, ethnical and geographical differences may contribute to these variations. Cytogenetic evaluation of normozoospermic men with fertilization failure seems indicated because of a high frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities.  (+info)

(4/3144) Absence of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and M2A immunoreactivities in Sertoli cell-only syndrome and maturation arrest with and without AZF microdeletions.

BACKGROUND: Some genes identified in the AZF locus are expressed only in germinal cells; others are ubiquitous. AZF microdeletions seem to occur at the earliest stages of ontogenetic development, and one might therefore assume that Sertoli cells preserve some immature characteristics and that their immunophenotype may be modified by the existence of a molecular defect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two immunohistological markers of Sertoli cell immaturity [anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and M2A] were tested in two histopathological groups (maturation arrest at spermatocyte I stage and Sertoli cell-only syndrome). We analysed 68 testicular samples obtained from 39 patients with non-obstructive azoospermia associated or not with AZF microdeletions. RESULTS: The absence of M2A and AMH immunoreactivity in adult gonads was observed without any correlation to spermatogenetic impairment or molecular deficit in the AZF region. In the samples of these two series, Sertoli cells showed a mature phenotype for AMH and M2A markers. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AZF microdeletions, the genotype-phenotype correlations seem to be more complex than has been suggested previously; more detailed characterization of the immunohistochemical phenotype associated with the molecular defect may be useful in understanding the spermatogenic failure mechanism.  (+info)

(5/3144) Natural transmission of a partial AZFb deletion of the Y chromosome over three generations: case report.

The natural transmission of microdeletions of the Y chromosome is occasionally reported in the literature. Here we describe the natural transmission of a partial AZFb deletion over three generations. PCR amplification of several sequence tagged site markers in the three AZF regions of the Y chromosome was carried out in a patient with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, his father and his naturally conceived son. The deletion was confirmed by Southern blotting. The propositum, his father and his son showed a probably identical, partial deletion of the distal part of the AZFb region, involving sY130 and sY143. The deletion was confirmed by Southern blotting using the sY130 probe. Partial AZFb microdeletions can be associated with moderate oligozoospermia allowing natural conception and therefore natural transmission of this genetic anomaly. Further studies are needed to define the pathogenetic significance of microdeletions involving sY130 and sY143.  (+info)

(6/3144) Clinical characterization of 42 oligospermic or azoospermic men with microdeletion of the AZFc region of the Y chromosome, and of 18 children conceived via ICSI.

BACKGROUND: Severe spermatogenic compromise may be the result of a Y-chromosomal deletion of the AZFc region. Prior studies are limited to relatively small numbers of AZFc-deleted men. In this study, we have fully characterized 42 infertile men with a Y chromosome microdeletion strictly confined to the AZFc region, and we report on 18 children conceived through the use of ICSI. METHODS: A total of 42 oligospermic or azoospermic men had AZFc deletions. History, physical examination, karyotype, FSH, LH, testosterone, testis histology and results of ICSI using ejaculated or testis sperm were retrospectively accumulated in two academic clinical practices. RESULTS: All men were somatically healthy. Karyotypes were 46,XY in all but two men. FSH, LH, testosterone and testis histology could not differentiate those with oligospermia or azoospermia, nor could they predict whether sperm could be found in harvested testis tissue. Paternal age was not increased. Sperm production appeared stable over time. The results of ICSI were not affected by the AZFc deletion. All but one of the offspring were healthy. The sons inherited the AZFc deletion with no increase in length. CONCLUSIONS: AZFc-deleted men are somatically healthy, will most likely have useable sperm, will have stable sperm production over time and will have a good chance to experience biological paternity, but their sons will also be AZFc-deleted.  (+info)

(7/3144) AZF microdeletions associated with idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases with cryptorchidism and varicocele.

AIM: To identify submicroscopic interstitial deletions in azoospermia factor (AZF) loci in idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases of male infertility in Indians. METHODS: One hundred and twenty two infertile males with oligozoospermia or azoospermia were included in this study. Semen analysis was done to determine the sperm density, i.e., normospermia (>20 million/mL), oligozoospermia (<20 million/mL) or azoospermia. They were subjected to detailed clinical examination and endocrinological and cytogenetic study. Thirty G-banded metaphases were analyzed in the 122 cases and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microdeletion analysis was done in 70 cytogenetically normal subjects. For this genomic DNA was extracted using peripheral blood. The STS primers tested in each case were sY84, sY86 (AZFa); sY127, sY134 (AZFb); sY254, sY255 (AZFc). PCR amplifications found to be negative were repeated at least 3 times to confirm the deletion of a given marker. The PCR products were analyzed on a 1.8 % agarose gel. RESULTS: Eight of the 70 cases (11.4 %) showed deletion of at least one of the STS markers. Deletions were detected in cases with known and unknown aetiology with bilateral severe testiculopathy and also in cryptorchid and varicocele subjects. CONCLUSION: AZF microdeletions were seen in both idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases with cryptorchidism and varicocele. The finding of a genetic aetiology in infertile men with varicocele and cryptorchidism suggests the need for molecular screening in non-idiopathic cases.  (+info)

(8/3144) PCR analysis of Yq microdeletions in infertile males, a study from South India.

AIM: To estimate the frequency of microdeletions in the long arm of Y-chromosome of 20 infertile males from South India. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using Y-specific STS of azoospermia factor (AZF) regions i.e., SY 84 for AZFa, SY 127 for AZFb and SY 254 for AZFc. RESULTS: Of the 20 infertile subjects 3 (15 %), one azoospermic and two oligozoospermic, showed microdeletions in the AZF region of Y-chromosome. CONCLUSION: The frequency of deletions involving AZF region of the Y-chromosome is 15 % in azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic infertile men. PCR amplification of AZF locus is useful for the diagnosis of microdeletions in the Y-chromosome.  (+info)



  • variants
  • Title: Genome-wide associations studies with complex phenotypes: How statistics can help Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), or studies to identify genetic variants that are associated with a particular phenotype or disease, can be performed trivially using available software given sufficient numbers of individuals and simple quantitative or case-control phenotypes. (princeton.edu)
  • studies
  • In both studies, we identified loci with potential associations that also have interesting implications in terms of the mechanism of both phenotypes. (princeton.edu)
  • study
  • Thirty loci were followed up by in silico replication (1,160 asthmatic and 10,858 nonasthmatic participants: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, the Framingham Heart Study, the British 1958 Birth Cohort, and the Dutch Asthma Study). (rti.org)
  • So far, to our knowledge, no large-scale genetic study of dementia with Lewy bodies has been done. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • To better understand the genetic basis of dementia with Lewy bodies, we have done a genome-wide association study with the aim of identifying genetic risk factors for this disorder. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Interpretation Despite the small sample size for a genome-wide association study, and acknowledging the potential biases from ascertaining samples from multiple locations, we present the most comprehensive and well powered genetic study in dementia with Lewy bodies so far. (nottingham.ac.uk)