Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Erabutoxins: Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Betalains: Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.XyloseFermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Chemical EngineeringPlastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bioartificial Organs: Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.

*  Genetic engineering - The Full Wiki

Genetic engineering facts, genetic engineering on plants, benifits of genetic engineering, Genetic engineering + cloning, ... Human genetic engineering. See also: Human genetic engineering. .Human genetic engineering can be used to treat genetic disease ... examples of genetic engineering, genetic engineering agriculture, genetic engineering in industry, history of genetic ... Genetic Engineering: Some Upsides There have been some successes in the field of genetic engineering.. * Genetic Engineering: A ...
thefullwiki.org/Genetic_engineering

*  Beyond Biotechnology: The Barren Promise of Genetic Engineering - Craig Holdrege - Google Books

As with debates surrounding stem-cell research, the seemingly endless possibilities of genetic engineering will continue to ... Beyond Biotechnology: The Barren Promise of Genetic Engineering distinguishes between the hype and reality of this technology ... disappointment in the results that genetic engineering actually delivers. The authors explore new developments in genetics, ... Beyond Biotechnology is an accessible introduction to the complicated issues of genetic engineering and its potential ...
https://books.google.com/books?id=EE57SkqdJjEC&sitesec=reviews&rf=su:Goodreads&hl=en

*  Genetic Engineering: Crafting Our Own Evolution

Mehlman book examines direct human evolution and genetic engineering where parents could prevent passing on inherent diseases ... Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering - A process in which recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology is used to introduce desirable ... Although cloning techniques are used in genetic engineering, the two things should not be confused. Genetic engineering is the ... Genetic engineering is also called genetic modification or GM. It is not the same as cloning. ...
https://disabled-world.com/disability/publications/ge.php

*  Genetic engineering using homologous recombination.

... may one day replace standard genetic engineering techniques. Constru.. ... This article was published in Annu Rev Genet and referenced in Advancements in Genetic Engineering. Relevant Expert PPTs. ... may one day replace standard genetic engineering techniques. Constructs can be made on plasmids or directly on the Escherichia ... Engineering physics. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Ashish Runthala. Protein Science and Computational Biology. PPT Version , PDF ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/genetic-engineering-using-homologous-recombination-1139954.html

*  Genetic Engineering Means My Brother Would've Never Existed | Time.com

on the path to human genetic engineering. For the first time in the United States, scientists successfully edited the genes of ... does not result from a single genetic variant, researchers agree that a single gene, named POMGNT1, plays a large role. Perhaps ...
time.com/4892412/gene-editing-crispr-cas9-neurodiversity/?iid=sr-link1

*  Biodiverse Ecological Farming is the Answer, not Genetic Engineering

... breeding which are now being patented and pirated by the genetic engineering industry. Using farmers' varieties as "genetic ... breeding which are now being patented and pirated by the genetic engineering industry. Using farmers' varieties as "genetic ... Genetic engineering is embedded in an industrial model of agriculture based on fossil fuels. It is falsely being offered as a ... Genetic engineering is embedded in an industrial model of agriculture based on fossil fuels. It is falsely being offered as a ...
truth-out.org/opinion/item/91:biodiverse-ecological-farming-is-the-answer-not-genetic-engineering

*  genetic engineering | Insulin and other Therapeutic Proteins ...

Insertion of the human insulin gene into bacteria was accomplished by the pioneer genetic engineering company Genentech. ... genetic engineering - Insulin and other Therapeutic Proteins - The first genetically engineered product approved for human use ... History of Genetic Engineering. How Genetic Engineering Works. Genetic Engineering in Medicine. Insulin and other Therapeutic ... Insertion of the human insulin gene into bacteria was accomplished by the pioneer genetic engineering company Genentech. ...
kids.britannica.com/students/article/genetic-engineering/274518/256538-toc

*  The Ethics of Genetic Engineering and the Futuristic Fate of Domestic Fowl

The genetic engineering of birds and other animals to produce food and practice science can thus be seen together with factory ... Animals used in genetic engineering are further degraded in not even being recognized as whole beings but only insofar as they ... Proponents argue that genetic engineering is "no different in principle from what happens when new hybrids or plant varieties ... Proponents of genetic engineering can reasonably claim that the practice is "no more than the evolution of biological methods, ...
upc-online.org/genetic.html

*  Genetic Engineering - Paradise on Earth or a Descent into Hell?

Genetic engineers promise a paradise on earth, to those who control the technology undreamt of riches, or are we on the first ... One World Guides - Genetic Engineering *Genetic Engineering Network *Super Heroes Against Genetics *Council for Responsible ... what little we know of genetic engineering so far teaches us that the only thing that can be predicted is that the impacts are ... What makes genetic engineering biotechnology dangerous, in the first instance, is that it is an unprecedented, close alliance ...
heureka.clara.net/gaia/genetics.htm

*  The Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering by Susan Aldridge and other books | New Scientist

The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering by Susan Aldridge, Cambridge University Press, £16.95/$24.95, ISBN 0 521 ... The Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering by Susan Aldridge and other books'> ... The Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering by Susan Aldridge and other books'> ... The Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering by Susan Aldridge and other books. ...
https://newscientist.com/article/mg15020254-800-the-thread-of-life-the-story-of-genes-and-genetic-engineering-by-susan-aldridge-and-other-books/

*  Arctic Apple Statement on Genetic Engineering | The Dr. Oz Show

... evidence-based discussion is essential when it comes to a topic as complex and important as genetic engineering. While there ... evidence-based discussion is essential when it comes to a topic as complex and important as genetic engineering. While there ...
doctoroz.com/page/arctic-apple-statement-genetic-engineering

*  Genetic Engineering in Agriculture

11th grade lesson to learn about Genetic Engineering in Agriculture. ... What is Genetic Engineering? * 2. Go to: HYPERLINK 'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_engineering' l 'Agriculture' http://en ... Genetic Engineering Webquest Answer Key * 15. 1.Human manipulation of organisms genome(s). Introduction of foreign or synthetic ... Genetic Engineering in Agriculture * 1. Bryan Krueger ,br /,Food Crops and Biotechnology,br /,Grade Level: 11,br /,Objective: ...
https://slideshare.net/blk0930/genetic-engineering-in-agriculture

*  GENETIC ENGINEERING |authorSTREAM

Genetic Engineering: Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering: Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the human altering of ... Basic steps in genetic engineering: Basic steps in genetic engineering Isolate the gene Insert it in a host using a vector ... Genetic Engineering: Genetic Engineering Manipulating an organism's genome to alter microbes, plants, and animals for our ... Programming Language for Genetic Engineering: Programming Language for Genetic Engineering The purpose of synthetic biology is ...
authorstream.com/Presentation/ramyasekaran-1541143-genetic-engineering/

*  Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Tissue Engineering, Parts A, B, & C Tissue Engineering, Parts A, B, & C. The preeminent, biomedical journal bringing together ... the principles of engineering and life sciences to advance the field with cutting-edge research and applications on all aspects ...
liebertpub.com/events/genetic-engineering-and-biotechnology-news/17/

*  Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

... Unveils "Biotech Boulevard" (08/06/2012). *GEN Reports on Growth of Tissue Engineering ... Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News (GEN) Wins 2011 Folio B2B Best Online News Coverage Award (11/09/2011) ... Tissue Engineering, Parts A, B, & C Tissue Engineering, Parts A, B, & C. The preeminent, biomedical journal bringing together ... 2014 World Stem Cell Summit to be Presented by Genetics Policy Institute, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., and Genetic Engineering & ...
liebertpub.com/pressreleases/genetic-engineering-and-biotechnology-news/17/

*  Marching against genetic engineering | Stuff.co.nz

GLOBAL EFFORT: Lynne Brunton joins the worldwide protests on Saturday against Monsanto and genetic engineering. ... dealing primarily with the genetic engineering of crop seeds and production of herbicides. ...
stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/wellington/8720969/Marching-against-genetic-engineering

*  Advances in Tree Genetic Engineering in China

1.1 Genetic engineering targeted at insect resistance. The application of genetic engineering technology for insect resistance ... Advances in Tree Genetic Engineering in China. Su Xiao-hua[1], Zhang Bing-yu, Huang Qin-jun, Huang Lie-jian and Zhang Xiang-hua ... So, the genetic engineering of lignin biosynthesis has bright prospects in its application in tree breeding for pulping and ... An important target for tree genetic engineering is to find out and obtain the gene that could kill Cerambycidae effectively. ...
fao.org/docrep/ARTICLE/WFC/XII/0280-B2.HTM

*  Tagmash: gender, genetic engineering, horror, paranormal, polyamory | LibraryThing

Tagmash: gender, genetic engineering, horror, paranormal, polyamory. Nobody has made this tagmash before. Unfortunately, this ...
librarything.com/tag/gender, genetic engineering, horror, paranormal, polyamory

*  Genetics & Genetic Engineering - Android Apps on Google Play

Introduction & History of Genetic Engineering. * Genetic Engineering Techniques. * Genetic Engineering Experiments. * Molecular ... Plant Genetic Engineering. * Genetic Screening for Human Diseases. * Synthetic Biology. QVprep Lite Genetic Engineering is ... QVprep Genetic Engineering is useful for. * Exam preparation in genetics and genetic engineering. * Revision of concepts to aid ... QVprep Lite Genetic Engineering is FREE and has limited content. The app gives you the option to buy the paid QVprep Genetic ...
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.pjp.qvprep.geneticengineering.lite

*  The Future of Genetic Engineering: Mini-chromosomes

This article describes the benefits and future of genetic engineering with a particular focus on mini-chromosomes. ... Future of Genetic Engineering. Genetic engineering is the process of directly manipulating the genes of an organism. In order ... The Future of Genetic Engineering: Mini-chromosomes. written by: ushasista•edited by: Paul Arnold•updated: 4/29/2009 ... This genetic engineering technique should create crops with many beneficial traits such as multiple resistance, that is, crops ...
brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/33346.aspx

*  Genetic Engineering-Animals by John Rumble on Prezi

Transcript of Genetic Engineering-Animals. Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering. Genetic engineering is the process of ... Thoughts on Genetic Engineering. There are positives and negatives to Genetic Engineering. Some people think that its okay to ... Genetic engineering changes the DNA sequence, thus changing your genes.. Information. Genetic engineering works by transferring ... If successfully done in humans, it could give protection against genetic diseases.. History. Genetic engineering has been going ...
https://prezi.com/he8b4mwrinmi/genetic-engineering-animals/

*  Can Genetic Engineering Save Endangered Rhinos? - MIT Technology Review

The potential exists to take genetic intervention a step further, however.. Whether or not to use genetic engineering to give ... Can Genetic Engineering Save Endangered Rhinos?. Endangered rhinos are being killed for their horns. Some researchers think ... Genetic techniques that would have been inaccessible even a few decades ago help scientists to preserve as much of a species' ... It's not made explicit in the article, but extensive genetic analysis and monitoring is de rigueur for both captive and wild ...
https://technologyreview.com/s/542886/can-genetic-engineering-save-endangered-rhinos/

*  Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, partnered with | Downstream Processing

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, partnered with - Everything biopharma needs to know to recover, purify and ... Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News (GEN) is the longest-running, most widely read, and largest circulated global ...
terrapinn.com/conference/downstream-processing-usa/partner-genetic-engineering--biotechnology-news.stm

*  Genetic Engineering Learn Test - Android Apps on Google Play

QVprep Genetic Engineering. Covers. * Introduction & History of Genetic Engineering. * Genetic Engineering Techniques, ... Plant Genetic Engineering. * Genetic Screening for Human Diseases. * Synthetic Biology. QVprep Genetic Engineering is ideal for ... QVprep Genetic Engineering is useful for. * Exam preparation in genetics & genetic engineering. * Revision of concepts to aid ... History of Genetic Engineering: Milestones, Experiments, Applications, Concerns, Regulations. Genetic Engineering Techniques: ...
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.pjp.qvprep.geneticengineering

*  Genetic engineering: The world's greatest scam? | GREENPEACE New Zealand

Genetic engineering is a threat to food security, especially in a changing climate, this video explains how. ... Genetic engineering: The world's greatest scam? Video , August 11, 2009 Genetic engineering is a threat to food security, ...
greenpeace.org/new-zealand/en/Multimedia/Videos/Genetic-engineering-The-worlds-greatest-scam/?activeid=328081

Chromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.Protein engineering: Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins. It is a young discipline, with much research taking place into the understanding of protein folding and recognition for protein design principles.Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society is an international learned society. Its goal is the worldwide advancement of both the science and technology of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.Tank chassis: Tank container chassis, also referred to as tank chassis, drop frame chassis or tank trailers, are a form of intermodal transportation for portable bulk liquid containers or ISO tank containers. They are characteristically longer and have lower deck height ideal for transporting constantly shifting payloads.Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering: The Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) was founded in 1962 at the University of Toronto (U of T). IBBME is home to the common research and teaching interests of the faculties of Applied Science and Engineering, Dentistry, and Medicine at the U of T.American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry: The American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry (AMBOR) is a registry for mixed-breed dogs to enable them to compete in obedience and dog agility.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Coles PhillipsCanadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.Unnatural Selection (The Outer Limits)IndicaxanthinList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Surface modification of biomaterials with proteins: Biomaterials are materials that are used in contact with biological systems. Biocompatibility and applicability of surface modification with current uses of metallic, polymeric and ceramic biomaterials allow alteration of properties to enhance performance in a biological environment while retaining bulk properties of the desired device.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Agricultural engineering: Agricultural engineering in forestryProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.D-xylose reductase: D-xylose reductase (, XylR, XyrA, msXR, dsXR, monospecific xylose reductase, dual specific xylose reductase, NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase, xylose reductase) is an enzyme with system name xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLactic acid fermentationFlux (metabolism): Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway. Flux is regulated by the enzymes involved in a pathway.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase: Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase (, mannosylfructose-6-phosphate synthase, MFPS) is an enzyme with system name GDP-mannose:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-alpha-D-mannosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionOutline of chemical engineering: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemical engineering:Stromule: A stromule is a microscopic structure found in plant cells. Stromules (stroma-filled tubules) are highly dynamic structures extending from the surface of all plastid types, including proplastids, chloroplasts, etioplasts, leucoplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts.Streptomyces peucetius: Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Pyruvate decarboxylase: Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme () that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotes. It is also called 2-oxo-acid carboxylase, alpha-ketoacid carboxylase, and pyruvic decarboxylase.Conditional gene knockout: ==Conditional gene knockout==Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Breeding for drought stress toleranceConiferyl aldehydeReaction coordinatePlant lipid transfer proteinsParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Synthetic genomics: Synthetic genomics is a nascent field of synthetic biology that uses aspects of genetic modification on pre-existing life forms with the intent of producing some product or desired behavior on the part of the life form so created.Weedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Porosity: Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e.RhizobiaPhotosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.BiodegradationScottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine: The Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) is a stem cell research centre at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, dedicated to the study and development of new regenerative treatments for human diseases. The £54 million facility is part of a total £600 million joint investment in stem cell biology and medicine by the Scottish Government and the University of Edinburgh.BrittlenessBioreactorZinc fingerDeletion (genetics)Polyester resin: Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. Polyester resins are used in sheet moulding compound, bulk moulding compound and the toner of laser printers.PollenChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesHuman embryonic stem cells clinical trials: ==Human Embryonic Stem Cell Clinical Trials==Planktothrix: Planktothrix is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (often called blue-green algae). P.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.CS-BLASTCitrine (colour): Citrine is a colour], the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of [[quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.Polyaniline nanofibers

(1/3961) Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

(2/3961) Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides.

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

(3/3961) Metabolic engineering of a 1,2-propanediol pathway in Escherichia coli.

1,2-Propanediol (1,2-PD) is a major commodity chemical that is currently derived from propylene, a nonrenewable resource. A goal of our research is to develop fermentation routes to 1,2-PD from renewable resources. Here we report the production of enantiomerically pure R-1,2-PD from glucose in Escherichia coli expressing NADH-linked glycerol dehydrogenase genes (E. coli gldA or Klebsiella pneumoniae dhaD). We also show that E. coli overexpressing the E. coli methylglyoxal synthase gene (mgs) produced 1,2-PD. The expression of either glycerol dehydrogenase or methylglyoxal synthase resulted in the anaerobic production of approximately 0.25 g of 1,2-PD per liter. R-1,2-PD production was further improved to 0.7 g of 1,2-PD per liter when methylglyoxal synthase and glycerol dehydrogenase (gldA) were coexpressed. In vitro studies indicated that the route to R-1,2-PD involved the reduction of methylglyoxal to R-lactaldehyde by the recombinant glycerol dehydrogenase and the reduction of R-lactaldehyde to R-1, 2-PD by a native E. coli activity. We expect that R-1,2-PD production can be significantly improved through further metabolic and bioprocess engineering.  (+info)

(4/3961) Multiple genetic modifications of the erythromycin polyketide synthase to produce a library of novel "unnatural" natural products.

The structures of complex polyketide natural products, such as erythromycin, are programmed by multifunctional polyketide synthases (PKSs) that contain modular arrangements of functional domains. The colinearity between the activities of modular PKS domains and structure of the polyketide product portends the generation of novel organic compounds-"unnatural" natural products-by genetic manipulation. We have engineered the erythromycin polyketide synthase genes to effect combinatorial alterations of catalytic activities in the biosynthetic pathway, generating a library of >50 macrolides that would be impractical to produce by chemical methods. The library includes examples of analogs with one, two, and three altered carbon centers of the polyketide products. The manipulation of multiple biosynthetic steps in a PKS is an important milestone toward the goal of producing large libraries of unnatural natural products for biological and pharmaceutical applications.  (+info)

(5/3961) E-CELL: software environment for whole-cell simulation.

MOTIVATION: Genome sequencing projects and further systematic functional analyses of complete gene sets are producing an unprecedented mass of molecular information for a wide range of model organisms. This provides us with a detailed account of the cell with which we may begin to build models for simulating intracellular molecular processes to predict the dynamic behavior of living cells. Previous work in biochemical and genetic simulation has isolated well-characterized pathways for detailed analysis, but methods for building integrative models of the cell that incorporate gene regulation, metabolism and signaling have not been established. We, therefore, were motivated to develop a software environment for building such integrative models based on gene sets, and running simulations to conduct experiments in silico. RESULTS: E-CELL, a modeling and simulation environment for biochemical and genetic processes, has been developed. The E-CELL system allows a user to define functions of proteins, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions, regulation of gene expression and other features of cellular metabolism, as a set of reaction rules. E-CELL simulates cell behavior by numerically integrating the differential equations described implicitly in these reaction rules. The user can observe, through a computer display, dynamic changes in concentrations of proteins, protein complexes and other chemical compounds in the cell. Using this software, we constructed a model of a hypothetical cell with only 127 genes sufficient for transcription, translation, energy production and phospholipid synthesis. Most of the genes are taken from Mycoplasma genitalium, the organism having the smallest known chromosome, whose complete 580 kb genome sequence was determined at TIGR in 1995. We discuss future applications of the E-CELL system with special respect to genome engineering. AVAILABILITY: The E-CELL software is available upon request. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The complete list of rules of the developed cell model with kinetic parameters can be obtained via our web site at: http://e-cell.org/.  (+info)

(6/3961) Yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis chimeric viruses: construction and biological properties.

A system has been developed for generating chimeric yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis (YF/JE) viruses from cDNA templates encoding the structural proteins prM and E of JE virus within the backbone of a molecular clone of the YF17D strain. Chimeric viruses incorporating the proteins of two JE strains, SA14-14-2 (human vaccine strain) and JE Nakayama (JE-N [virulent mouse brain-passaged strain]), were studied in cell culture and laboratory mice. The JE envelope protein (E) retained antigenic and biological properties when expressed with its prM protein together with the YF capsid; however, viable chimeric viruses incorporating the entire JE structural region (C-prM-E) could not be obtained. YF/JE(prM-E) chimeric viruses grew efficiently in cells of vertebrate or mosquito origin compared to the parental viruses. The YF/JE SA14-14-2 virus was unable to kill young adult mice by intracerebral challenge, even at doses of 10(6) PFU. In contrast, the YF/JE-N virus was neurovirulent, but the phenotype resembled parental YF virus rather than JE-N. Ten predicted amino acid differences distinguish the JE E proteins of the two chimeric viruses, therefore implicating one or more residues as virus-specific determinants of mouse neurovirulence in this chimeric system. This study indicates the feasibility of expressing protective antigens of JE virus in the context of a live, attenuated flavivirus vaccine strain (YF17D) and also establishes a genetic system for investigating the molecular basis for neurovirulence determinants encoded within the JE E protein.  (+info)

(7/3961) A small catalytic RNA motif with Diels-Alderase activity.

BACKGROUND: The 'RNA world' hypothesis requires that RNA be able to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. In vitro selection from combinatorial RNA libraries has been used to identify several catalytic activities, most of which have resulted in a self-modification of RNA at one of its constituents. The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is considered an essential prerequisite for a complex metabolism based on RNA. RESULTS: We describe the selection and characterization of new ribozymes that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation by Diels-Alder reaction of a biotinylated maleimide with an RNA-tethered anthracene. Secondary structure analysis identified a 49-nucleotide RNA motif that accelerates the reaction about 20,000-fold. The motif has only 11 conserved nucleotides that are present in most of the selected sequences. The ribozyme motif is remarkably adaptable with respect to cofactor and metal-ion requirements. The motif was also re-engineered to give a 38-mer RNA that can act as a 'true' catalyst on short external substrate oligonucleotide-anthracene conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a small, highly abundant RNA motif that can solve the complex task of forming two carbon-carbon bonds between two reactants in trans, a catalytic capacity useful for creating prebiotically relevant molecules. This is the smallest and fastest RNA catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation reported to date.  (+info)

(8/3961) Heterologous expression of alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B-276.

Alkene monooxygenase (AMO) from Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B-276 is a three-component enzyme system encoded by the four-gene operon amoABCD. AMO catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of aliphatic alkenes, yielding primarily R enantiomers. The presumed site of alkene oxygenation is a dinuclear iron centre similar to that in the soluble methane monooxygenases of methanotrophic bacteria, to which AMO exhibits a significant degree of amino acid sequence identity. The AMO complex was not expressed in Escherichia coli, at least partly because that host did not produce all of the AMO polypeptides. Expression of AMO was achieved in Streptomyces lividans by cloning the AMO genes into the thiostrepton-inducible expression plasmid pIJ6021. No background of AMO activity was detected in S. lividans cells without amoABCD and expression of AMO activity, at a level comparable to that from wild-type R. rhodochrous B-276, coincided with appearance of the AMO subunits. Recombinant AMO activity in cell-free extracts of S. lividans was stimulated by the addition of NADH and produced R-epoxypropane with comparable enantiomeric excess to AMO purified from the original organism. Although the whole AMO complex could not be expressed in E. coli, the functional coupling protein (AmoB) and reductase (AmoD) were expressed individually in E. coli as fusions with glutathione S-transferase. The expression systems described here now allow structure/function studies on AMO to be carried out by site-directed mutagenesis.  (+info)



Biomedical Engineering


  • He then worked as a post-doctoral associate in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Center for Biomedical Engineering at MIT from July 2009 to Sept. 2012. (drexel.edu)
  • He will start his assistant professor position in the School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems at Drexel University in November 2012. (drexel.edu)
  • Dr. Han joined the faculty of Drexel's School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems in November 2012. (drexel.edu)
  • Using examples drawn from biomedicine and biomedical engineering, this essential reference book brings you comprehensive coverage of all the major techniques currently available to build computer-assisted decision support systems. (wiley.com)
  • Neural Networks and Artificial Intelligence for Biomedical Engineering offers students and scientists of biomedical engineering, biomedical informatics, and medical artificial intelligence a deeper understanding of the powerful techniques now in use with a wide range of biomedical applications. (wiley.com)