Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.

*  Understanding Plant Genes
Mendelian Genes Define the Commitment to Flowering- Understanding Plant Genes-The Cauliflower Gene-The "fruit-full" gene. A ... Understanding Plant Genes. Photos: (1) phenotype of the APETALA1 CAULIFLOWER double mutant. (A) phenotype of the APETALA1 ... Caption: Genes control Flowering Development in Plants: ...
*  Plant Gene Expression Position Announcem
... Don Walters dwalters at DEKALB.COM Wed Mar 25 16:33:21 EST 1998 *Previous message: ... more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. ... Please mention Plant Gene Expression Position in your cover letter. *Previous message: Italian Cypress Aphid ... has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. The successful candidate will join ...
* - plant genes
Researchers discover how plants respond to changes in light at the molecular level. Plants don't have eyes, but they do "see" ... An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to ... Crop gene discovery gets to the root of food security. Researchers from The University of Queensland have discovered that a key ... gene which controls flowering time in wheat and barley crops also directs the plant's root growth. ...
*  Plant Gene Clusters and Opiates | Science
A variety of poppy that produces high amounts of an alkaloid opiate requires a cluster of genes that encode key biosynthetic ... A variety of poppy that produces high amounts of an alkaloid opiate requires a cluster of genes that encode key biosynthetic ...
*  Patent US5925808 - Control of plant gene expression - Google Patents
... and growing a hybrid plant from the hybrid seed. Plant cells, plant tissues, plant seed and whole plants containing the above ... Also a method for making a genetically modified hybrid plant by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that ... a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant ... to a second plant regenerated from a second plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a second gene ...,381,459
*  Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics by El... | WHSmith Books
Buy Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics by Elizabeth A. Kellogg From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on ... Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics provides a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of plant gene expression. Unique in ... Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics also includes: specific examples that highlight when and how plants operate differently from ... Acknowledgements xi Introduction xiii About the Companion Website xix PART I: PLANT GENOMES AND GENES Chapter 1 Plant genetic ...
*  Gene controlling plant cell growth discovered
... hair-like outgrowth on plants , plant cell , plant cell growth , plant cells grow , plant science research , trichome cells , ... plant cell »plant cell growth »plant cells grow »plant science research »trichome cells »young trichomes ... Gene controlling plant cell growth discovered 07.09.2009. Understanding how plant cells grow and develop is essential to ... With their latest discovery, published in the journal The Plant Cell, research teams at the RIKEN Plant Science Center have ...
*  Discovery of plant gene lays groundwork for improved biofuel processing
... have partnered to figure out how to break down plants so that they easily release the simple ... ... "We use plants for everything: We eat plants, we build our homes out of plants, we make all sorts of things with them," York ... Discovery of plant gene lays groundwork for improved biofuel processing. August 28, 2012 by James Hataway, University of ... The team of researchers found that the gene GXMT1 is responsible for directing a key step in the development of the plant ...
*  Parasite plants rob genes from their hosts
... has uncovered the first ever evidence of nuclear gene ... Using large-scale gene analysis, they combed 17,000 genes of ... One gene, ShContig9483, exhibited high similarity to genes in sorghum and rice, yet no relation to genes from Striga ... The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution.. ... The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution. ...
*  Agricultural parasite takes control of host plant's genes | Penn State University
... can silence the expression of genes in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients - the first example of cross- ... Agricultural parasite takes control of host plant's genes. UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. - Dodder, a parasitic plant that causes major ... This cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the host plant's defense against parasites, has ... The gene that codes for this clotting protein has a very similar sequence across many plant species, and the researchers showed ...
*  Developing an Ice Plant Gene Atlas - DOE Joint Genome Institute
Developing an Ice Plant Gene Atlas. The goal is to establish the common or crystalline ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum ... Liverwort Genes and Land Plant Evolution. Genome analysis of the common liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) identified genes and ... By identifying the bacterial genes that can alter how well microbes can colonize a plant, researchers can develop targeted ... gene families that were deemed crucial to plant evolution and have been conserved over millions of years and across plant ...
*  Organ specificity in the circadian control of plant gene expression | Biochemical Society Transactions
Organ specificity in the circadian control of plant gene expression. S. Sullivan, M. Shenton, H.G. Nimmo ... Organ specificity in the circadian control of plant gene expression Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ... Preliminary experiments suggest that the same is true for at least one gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. It will be important to ...
*  Resistance Rodeo: Rounding up the Full Complement of Arabidopsis NBS-LRR Genes | Plant Cell
2 genes) or CC-type (4 genes) NBS regions. In addition, 58 genes were found that contain R gene-related TIR, CC, and/or NBS ... American Society of Plant Biologists. Plant resistance (R) genes encode proteins that mediate the recognition of corresponding ... This is different from the patterns of evolution of these genes in other plant species. In fact, TNL genes appear to be ... found 51 CC-NBS-LRR-encoding (CNL) genes and 92 TIR-NBS-LRR-type (TNL) genes in the Columbia genome, plus 6 additional genes ...
*  Implication of the changing concept of genes on plant breeder's work
The changing concepts of gene and plant breeding As stressed above, improvement is science as well as art. It is art, ... Lee M (2006) The phenotypic and genotypic eras of plant breeding. In Lamkey KR and Lee M Plant breeding: the Arnel R. Hallauer ... This article discusses possible implications of new insights into the gene concept on the work of plant breeders. Apparently, ... In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. However, ...
*  Context of 'August 6, 1986: Monsanto Files Patent Application in Canada for Glyphosate-Resistant Plant Genes and Cells'
... growing a plant that contains the patented gene does not imply the use of that gene since that gene is not needed for the plant ... Its patent is not on the entire plant, but rather just one of the plant's ingredients. He compares the company's gene to a ... According to Monsanto, it is of no consequence how the gene arrived in Schmeiser's field; his mere planting of the gene ... the insertion of that gene into someone's plant cannot possibly make that plant property of Monsanto. If the pollen produced by ...
*  Induction of Plant Genes by Compatible and Incompatible Virus-Plant Interactions | Springer for Research & Development
cDNAs were cloned to one host mRNA induced by a compatible virus-plant interaction and several host mRNAs induced by an ... incompatible virus-plant interaction. Regulatory sequences in two of the... ... 1990) Induction of Plant Genes by Compatible and Incompatible Virus-Plant Interactions. In: Fraser R.S.S. (eds) Recognition and ... Van Kan JAL (1988) Structure and expression of virus-inducible plant genes. PhD thesis, Leiden UniversityGoogle Scholar ...
*  Haploid Strategies for Functional Validation of Plant Genes, Trends in Biotechnology | 10.1016/j.tibtech.2015.07.005 | DeepDyve
"Haploid Strategies for Functional Validation of Plant Genes, Trends in Biotechnology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... Haploid Strategies for Functional Validation of Plant Genes. Haploid Strategies for Functional Validation of Plant Genes Shen, ... Functional identification of plant genes is generally achieved by a combination of creating genetic modifications and observing ... Functional identification of plant genes is generally achieved by a combination of creating genetic modifications and observing ...
*  A Modified MultiSite Gateway Cloning Strategy for Consolidation of Genes in Plants | SpringerLink
Halpin, C. (2005). Gene stacking in transgenic plants-the challenge for 21st century plant biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology ... We constructed a plant expression vector carrying a reporter gene (GUS), two Bt cry genes in a predetermined pattern by a ... Gene cloning vectors that facilitate the fusion, overexpression or down regulation of genes in plant cells are being used with ... Karimi, M., Bleys, A., Vanderhaeghen, R., & Hilson, P. (2007). Building blocks for plant gene assembly. Plant Physiology, 145, ...
*  How parasites hack victims to seize control of genes in plant-to-plant warfare | EurekAlert! Science News
How parasites hack victims to seize control of genes in plant-to-plant warfare Understanding the communications weaponry system ... How parasites hack victims to seize control of genes in plant-to-plant warfare. Virginia Tech ... The gene that codes for this clotting protein has a very similar sequence across many plant species, and the researchers showed ... "Along with previous examples of small RNA exchange between fungi and plants, our results imply that this cross-species gene ...
*  Parasite plants rob genes from their hosts | RIKEN
One gene, ShContig9483, exhibited high similarity to genes in sorghum and rice, yet no relation to genes from Striga ... The discovery, reported in Science, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution. ... The newly-discovered gene, which encodes a 448 amino acid protein with unknown function, occurs alongside nuclear genes in the ... Using large-scale gene analysis, they combed 17,000 genes of the parasite witchweed Striga hermonthica, a source of devastating ...
*  Developmental and transgenic analysis of two tomato fruit enhanced genes, Plant Molecular Biology | 10.1023/A:1005738910743 |...
Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... "Developmental and transgenic analysis of two tomato fruit enhanced genes, ... GUS protein produced in transgenic plants by both promoter-reporter gene constructs was detected in most tissues of the fruit ... Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Sciences; Plant Pathology. ISSN. 0167-4412. eISSN. 1573-5028. D.O.I.. 10.1023/A: ...
*  Frontiers | Improved Shoot Regeneration, Salinity Tolerance and Reduced Fungal Susceptibility in Transgenic Tobacco...
... which restrict plant growth and development. The complex responses to these stresses are largely regulated by plant hormones, ... which restrict plant growth and development. The complex responses to these stresses are largely regulated by plant hormones, ... The PR-10 protein family is reported to be involved in defence regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. ... The PR-10 protein family is reported to be involved in defence regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. ...
... and uses of such plants. The inventors have determined that the expression and/or activity of POPTR_0014s08530, a gene encoding ... and resistance to stress and pathogens in plants. Plants with lignin synthesis, sugar release, S/G ratio, and resistance to ... methods of selecting plants with such desirable levels of lignin synthesis, sugar release, S/G ratio, and resistance to stress ... This disclosure provides plants having desirable levels of lignin synthesis, sugar release, S/G ratio, and resistance to stress ...
*  Genome-enabled discovery and characterization of type III effector-encoding genes of plant symbiotic bacteria
... Public Deposited ... carotae M081, the plant commensal, Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6, and six strains from the plant mutualists Sinorhizobium fredii ... in this thesis describes genome-enabled approaches for characterizing type III effector genes across the range of plant ... Using high-throughput sequencing technology, draft genome sequences were generated for the plant pathogen, Xanthomonas hortorum ...
*  Circadian and senescence-enhanced expression of a tobacco cysteine protease gene, Plant Molecular Biology | 10.1023/A...
Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... "Circadian and senescence-enhanced expression of a tobacco cysteine protease gene, ... A light-enhanced circadian clock controls transcription of several plant genes. Giuliano, G.; Hoffman, N.E.; Ko, K.; Scolnik, P ... The involvement of cysteine proteases and protease inhibitor genes in the regulation of programmed cell death in plants ...

Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.PhytomedicineMedicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Aureusidin synthase: Aureusidin synthase (, AmAS1) is an enzyme with system name 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside:oxygen oxidoreductase.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].The Werewolf (1956 film): The Werewolf is a low-budget American 1956 science fiction horror film, produced by Sam Katzman and directed by Fred F. Sears from a script by Robert E.Stoma: In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomate (plural "stomates") (from Greek ["mouth"[http://www.perseus.AmborellaTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.List of poisonous plantsPotometerBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Sun-dried tomato: Sun-dried tomatoes are ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.Flower box: __NOTOC__Opine: Opine biosynthesis is catalyzed by specific enzymes encoded by genes contained in a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA'), which is part of the Ti plasmid, inserted by the bacterium into the plant genome. The opines are used by the bacterium as an important source of nitrogen and energy.Shatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Thief of ThievesOctadecanoid pathway: The octadecanoid pathway is a reasonably well-characterized biosynthetic pathway for the production of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), an important hormone for induction of defense genes. JA is synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid, which can be released from the plasma membrane by certain lipase enzymes.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Carl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch ( Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".CyclopentaneAuxin binding protein: In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. They are located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).Superior (potato): 'Superior' is a white-skinned and white-fleshed, midseason potato variety. It was released by the University of Wisconsin potato breeding program in 1962 and is not under plant variety protection.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Dorjee KhanduEcosystemAlizarine Yellow RJacalin: Jacalin is a plant based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins such as mucins and IgA1, for potential applications in human immunology.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Arbuscular mycorrhiza: An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.College of Practitioners of PhytotherapyPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.LeucoplastCytoplasmic male sterility: Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes.PollenRalph Gretzmacher: Ralph Gretzmacher is an Austrian scientist, professor of botany, zoology and an expert on tropical and subtropic agronomy.Imbibition: Imbibition is a special type of diffusion when water is absorbed by solids-colloids-causing them to enormously increase in volume. The classical examples of imbibition are absorption of water by seeds and dry wood.Tithonia diversifoliaRice bran oilCS-BLASTBreeding for drought stress toleranceHardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Mushy peasPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Wheat middlings: Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) is the middle of three grades into which flour and meal are classified: patents, middlings, and clears. Middlings are often used in animal feed.Phaseic acidPlant stanol ester: Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events.Nitrogen deficiencyLeaf rust (barley): Leaf rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia hordei. It is also known as brown rust and it is the most important rust disease on barley.Gamma-150 RNA motif: The gamma-150 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that is found in bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales. Because gamma-150 RNAs are not consistently in 5' UTRs, the gamma-150 motif is presumed to correspond to a non-coding RNA.International Moss Stock CenterGrow lightProtoplastMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Red chlorophyll catabolite reductase: In molecular biology, the red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) family of proteins consists of several red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCC reductase) proteins. Red chlorophyll catabolite (RCC) reductase (RCCR) and pheophorbide (Pheide) a oxygenase (PaO) catalyse the key reaction of chlorophyll catabolism, porphyrin macrocycle cleavage of Pheide a to a primary fluorescent catabolite (pFCC).Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase: Mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase (, mannosylfructose-6-phosphate synthase, MFPS) is an enzyme with system name GDP-mannose:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-alpha-D-mannosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionStromule: A stromule is a microscopic structure found in plant cells. Stromules (stroma-filled tubules) are highly dynamic structures extending from the surface of all plastid types, including proplastids, chloroplasts, etioplasts, leucoplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.RhizobiaPeat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.To Kau Wan: To Kau Wan () is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay.Cytokinin

(1/9588) Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis.

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

(2/9588) UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells.

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

(3/9588) Patterns of evolutionary rate variation among genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is responsible for the production of anthocyanin pigments in plant tissues and shares a number of enzymes with other biochemical pathways. The six core structural genes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized in two taxonomically diverse plant species (maize and snapdragon). We have recently cloned these genes for a third species, the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea. This additional information provides an opportunity to examine patterns of evolution among genes within a single biochemical pathway. We report here that upstream genes in the anthocyanin pathway have evolved substantially more slowly than downstream genes and suggest that this difference in evolutionary rates may be explained by upstream genes being more constrained because they participate in several different biochemical pathways. In addition, regulatory genes associated with the anthocyanin pathway tend to evolve more rapidly than the structural genes they regulate, suggesting that adaptive evolution of flower color may be mediated more by regulatory than by structural genes. Finally, for individual anthocyanin genes, we found an absence of rate heterogeneity among three major angiosperm lineages. This rate constancy contrasts with an accelerated rate of evolution of three CHS-like genes in the Ipomoea lineage, indicating that these three genes have diverged without coordinated adjustment by other pathway genes.  (+info)

(4/9588) The origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins.

The Viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the Chlorophyta, which includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; and the Streptophyta, which includes the Charophyceae and all land plants. Within the Streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. Previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex gene families. We address the origin and diversification of land plant actin genes by studying the phylogeny of actins within the green algae, ferns, and fern allies. Partial genomic sequences or cDNAs encoding actin were characterized from Cosmarium botrytis (Zygnematales), Selaginella apoda (Selaginellales), Anemia phyllitidis (Polypodiales), and Psilotum triquetrum (Psilotales). Selaginella contains at least two actin genes. One sequence (Ac2) diverges within a group of fern sequences that also includes the Psilotum Ac1 actin gene and one gymnosperm sequence (Cycas revoluta Cyc3). This clade is positioned outside of the angiosperm actin gene radiation. The second Selaginella sequence (Ac1) is the sister to all remaining land plant actin sequences, although the internal branches in this portion of the tree are very short. Use of complete actin-coding regions in phylogenetic analyses provides support for the separation of angiosperm actins into two classes. N-terminal "signature" sequence analyses support these groupings. One class (VEG) includes actin genes that are often expressed in vegetative structures. The second class (REP) includes actin genes that trace their ancestry within the vegetative actins and contains members that are largely expressed in reproductive structures. Analysis of intron positions within actin genes shows that sequences from both Selaginella and Cosmarium contain the conserved 20-3, 152-1, and 356-3 introns found in many members of the Streptophyta. In addition, the Cosmarium actin gene contains a novel intron at position 76-1.  (+info)

(5/9588) Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci.

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties.  (+info)

(6/9588) Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions.

Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome.  (+info)

(7/9588) Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype.

White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state.  (+info)

(8/9588) Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme.

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

  • genome
  • This text covers topics ranging from plant genome structure and the key control points in how genes are expressed, to the mechanisms by which proteins are generated and how their activities are controlled and altered by posttranslational modifications. (
  • The newly-discovered gene, which encodes a 448 amino acid protein with unknown function, occurs alongside nuclear genes in the Striga hermonthica genome, thus presenting the first clear case for nuclear HGT. (
  • Despite the wealth of information on the structure and function of NBS-LRR genes that has come from numerous primary research and review articles in recent years, this comprehensive analysis offers novel insights into genome evolution in general and R gene evolution in particular and provides a useful World Wide Web-based resource for other researchers in the field. (
  • started their analysis by manually reannotating all previously identified NBS-LRR genes and searching the genome sequence for genes missed in the earlier annotations. (
  • found 51 CC-NBS-LRR-encoding (CNL) genes and 92 TIR-NBS-LRR-type (TNL) genes in the Columbia genome, plus 6 additional genes that lacked a TIR or a CC region but were classified as having TIR-type (2 genes) or CC-type (4 genes) NBS regions. (
  • The recent genome sequencing of some species has accumulated evidence that for a large number of traits, the control and action of genes are far more complex than previously thought. (
  • Lübberstedt, Thomas 2015-10-01 00:00:00 Increasing knowledge of plant genome sequences requires the development of more reliable and efficient genetic approaches for genotype-phenotype validation. (
  • Functional identification of plant genes is generally achieved by a combination of creating genetic modifications and observing the according phenotype, which begins with forward-genetic methods represented by random physical and chemical mutagenesis and move towards reverse-genetic tools as targeted genome editing. (
  • The genome information is offering opportunities to manipulate genes, polygenic characters and multiple traits in plants. (
  • These features include: inconsistency between phylogeny across genetic elements, high DNA or amino acid similarity from phylogenetically distant organisms, irregular distribution of genetic elements in a variety of species, similar genes shared among species within a specific habitat or geography independent of their phylogenetic relationship, and gene characteristics inconsistent with the resident genome such as high guanine and cytosine content, codon usage, and introns. (
  • A phylogeny was constructed from 1689 identified genes and all homologs available from the rice genome (3177 gene families). (
  • Plant shikimate pathway enzymes share similarities to prokaryote homologs and could have ancestry from a plastid progenitor genome. (
  • The Plant Genome 9, published online March 11, 2016. (
  • Comparison of DNA samples allowed scientists to work on the Human Genome Project, which maps out many of the genes on human DNA. (
  • In humans the relevant genes are called GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and GLUD2 (glutamate dehydrogenase 2), and there are also at least 8 GLDH pseudogenes in the human genome as well, probably reflecting microbial influences on eukaryote evolution. (
  • In 1970 Hamilton Smiths lab discovered restriction enzymes, enabling scientists to isolate genes from an organism's genome. (
  • species
  • A research team at RIKEN, Japan's flagship research organization, has uncovered the first ever evidence of nuclear gene transfer from host to parasite plant species. (
  • The transfer of genetic material between non-mating species, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), has attracted growing attention as a powerful mechanism for genetic evolution. (
  • The research team set out to determine whether HGT occurs between parasite and host plant species, where implications for evolution would be particularly profound. (
  • Using large-scale gene analysis, they combed 17,000 genes of the parasite witchweed Striga hermonthica, a source of devastating damage to sorghum and rice crops in Africa, for traces of transfer from host species. (
  • This is the first example of cross-species gene regulation observed in a parasitic plant. (
  • This cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the host plant's defense against parasites, has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (
  • The gene that codes for this clotting protein has a very similar sequence across many plant species, and the researchers showed that the microRNA from dodder targets regions of the gene sequence that are the most highly conserved across plants. (
  • Because of this, dodder can probably silence this clotting protein in, and therefore parasitize, a wide variety of plant species. (
  • Along with previous examples of small RNA exchange between fungi and plants, our results imply that this cross-species gene regulation may be more widespread in other plant-parasite interactions," said Axtell. (
  • White Rot Fungi's Size Explained by Breadth of Gene Families Involved "Armillaria species are some of the most devastating forest pathogens, responsible for forest decline in many temperate regions. (
  • A large number of R genes have been characterized from numerous plant species that collectively confer resistance to a wide range of pathogens, including viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, and even to some nematodes and insects. (
  • Another ramification of this observation is that the isolation of NBS-LRR R genes from other species based on degenerate primers may miss entire subgroups of R genes. (
  • This is different from the patterns of evolution of these genes in other plant species. (
  • With the advent of biotechnology, selection became possible directly in the genotype by means of molecular marker techniques and by gene introduction into unrelated species through recombinant DNA technology. (
  • Hooft van Huijsduijnen RAM, Alblas SW, De Rijk RH, Bol JF (1986a) Induction by salicylic acid of pathogenesis-related proteins and resistance to alfalfa mosaic virus infection in various plant species. (
  • The assailant utilizes a highly sophisticated method of disarming its victims involving cross-species gene manipulation that has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (
  • Nonphagotrophic mechanisms have been seen in the transmission of transposable elements, plastid-derived endosymbiotic gene transfer, prokaryote-derived gene transfer, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA transfer, cross-species hybridization events, and gene transfer between mitochondrial genes. (
  • There is a seed laboratory for testing seed quality for local use and for export, and a plant gene bank to collect, preserve, and evaluate plant species indigenous to Israel, including landraces and primitive cultivars. (
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. (
  • Gene targeting methods are established for several model organisms and may vary depending on the species used. (
  • In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. (
  • Several natural mechanisms allow gene flow across species. (
  • regulation
  • However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. (
  • Some success has been achieved, but much remains to be done and recent findings on gene action and regulation allow the identification of some difficulties, particularly with regard to biotechnological methods, to contribute effectively to the establishment of new cultivars. (
  • The purpose of this review is to approach the changing concept of genes and specifically discuss the implications of current insights into gene regulation and action on the work of plant breeders in the coming years. (
  • Boiler T (1988) Ethylene and the regulation of antifungal hydrolases in plants. (
  • Gene cloning vectors that facilitate the fusion, overexpression or down regulation of genes in plant cells are being used with various degree of success. (
  • Roger Brent (born December 28, 1955) is an American biologist known for his work on gene regulation and systems biology. (
  • Brent's use of prokaryotic repressor proteins and use of them in chimeric proteins to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes was the subject of basic patents (including U.S. Patent 4,833,080, Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression, with Mark Ptashne). (
  • Genetics
  • DEKALB Genetics Corporation, the fastest growing agricultural seed company in the U.S., has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. (
  • Dr Joseph Chappell joined the faculty at the University of Kentucky in 1985, where he has developed an internationally recognized research program pioneering the molecular genetics and biochemistry of natural products in plants.Dr Elizabeth Kellogg is a Member of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri, and was formerly the E. Desmond Lee and Family Professor of Botanical Studies at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. (
  • Unique among plants, this procedure for reverse genetics is as efficient as in yeast. (
  • Processes that look at a phenotype and then try and identify the gene responsible for it are called forward genetics. (
  • Researchers
  • Researchers from The University of Queensland have discovered that a key gene which controls flowering time in wheat and barley crops also directs the plant's root growth. (
  • In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. (
  • 2007, researchers at the BioEnergy Science Center, one of three Department of Energy-funded research centers, have partnered to figure out how to break down plants so that they easily release the simple sugars that can be processed into biofuels. (
  • The team of researchers found that the gene GXMT1 is responsible for directing a key step in the development of the plant polymer xylan, a principal component of cell walls in woody biomass that make it resistant to biofuel conversion. (
  • But plants have evolved powerful defenses against the microbes researchers use to break down biomass for fermentation. (
  • In their paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers identified a mutant GXMT1 plant that produces structurally modified xylan that is more easily released when the biomass is treated with hot water. (
  • If researchers can find ways to capitalize on this mutant version of the plant and alter this gene without compromising the structural integrity of the wood, they can begin the process of developing plants specifically designed for biofuel conversion. (
  • Understanding this system could provide researchers with a method to engineer plants to be resistant to the parasite. (
  • The researchers sequenced all of the microRNAs in tissue from the parasite alone, the host plant alone, and a combination of two. (
  • By identifying the bacterial genes that can alter how well microbes can colonize a plant, researchers can develop targeted approaches to improve plant health and growth for a number of applications, including increased biomass yield for biofuel production. (
  • First the researchers inserted a gene for the blue plant pigment delphinidin cloned from the pansy into a purplish-red Old Garden rose 'Cardinal de Richelieu', resulting in a dark burgundy rose. (
  • The researchers then used RNA interference (RNAi) technology to depress all other color production by endogenous genes by blocking a crucial protein in color production, called dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and adding a variant of that protein that would not be blocked by the RNAi but that would allow the color of the delphinidin to show. (
  • phenotype
  • A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated. (
  • The evident changes in the available concept of genes confirmed what the past experience had shown, i.e, selection should focus on the phenotype, under the same conditions as the plant is to be cultivated in. (
  • Advanced vocational training of plant breeders must be continuously maintained, focusing on phenotype-based selection in as accurate as possible experiments. (
  • Ever since the domestication of plants, selection has been based on the phenotype. (
  • proteins
  • Bol JF, Van Kan JAL (1988) The synthesis and possible functions of virus-induced proteins in plants. (
  • Coraelissen BJC, Horowitz J, Van Kan JAL, Goldberg RB, Bol JF (1987) Structure of tobacco genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins from the PR-1 group. (
  • Keller B, Sauer N, Lamb CJ (1988) Glycine-rich cell wall proteins in bean: gene structure and association of the protein with the vascular system. (
  • In work there he cloned the E. coli LexA repressor and showed how it controlled the cell's response to DNA damage, used LexA as a repressor in yeast, and created fusion proteins that used LexA to bring portions of yeast Gal4 and other transcription regulatory proteins to synthetic reporter genes in yeast. (
  • Brent's use of prokaryotic repressor proteins in eukaryotes, and development of chimeric proteins containing prokaryotic DNA binding domains, enabled identification of other transcription regulatory domains and gene regulatory technologies including tetracycline-repressor controlled transcriptional repression and the Gal4 and LexA UAS systems used in other model organisms. (
  • recombination
  • First, the CNL and TNL classes can be divided into a number of subgroups within each class, and there appears to be little or no recombination among genes of different subgroups. (
  • We developed Gateway entry ( pGATE ) vectors containing attL sites flanking multiple cloning sites and plant expression vector ( pKM12GW ) with specific recombination sites carrying different plant and bacterial selection markers. (
  • zinc finger nu
  • Zinc finger nucleases have also been used in a mouse model of haemophilia and a clinical trial found CD4+ human T-cells with the CCR5 gene disrupted by zinc finger nucleases to be safe as a potential treatment for HIV/AIDS. (
  • The frequency of gene targeting can be significantly enhanced through the use of engineered endonucleases such as zinc finger nucleases, engineered homing endonucleases, and nucleases based on engineered TAL effectors. (
  • eukaryotes
  • Horizontal gene transfer research often focuses on prokaryotes because of the abundant sequence data from diverse lineages, and because it is assumed not to play a significant role in eukaryotes. (
  • Fungus-plant-mediated horizontal gene transfer can occur via phagotrophic mechanisms (mediated by phagotrophic eukaryotes) and nonphagotropic mechanisms. (
  • Evidence for gene transfer between fungi and eukaryotes is discovered indirectly. (
  • It is possible that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom have their ancient origins in eukaryotes or were conveyed by eukaryote-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Crop
  • Monsanto claims that in 1998, Schmeiser planted 1,030 acres with seed from his 1997 canola crop containing a gene or cell that was protected by Monsanto's 1993 (see February 23, 1993 ) patent on glyphosate-resistant plants and that he did so without permission from Monsanto. (
  • Terry Zakreski, Schmeiser's attorney, does not deny that the some of the canola plants in Schmeiser's 1998 crop contained Monsanto's patent-protected Roundup-resistant gene. (
  • While the origin of the plants on Schmeiser's farm in 1997 remains unclear, the trial judge found that with respect to the 1998 crop, "none of the suggested sources [proposed by Schmeiser] could reasonably explain the concentration or extent of Roundup Ready canola of a commercial quality" ultimately present in Schmeiser's 1998 crop. (
  • Techniques such as crop rotation, companion planting (also known as intercropping or mixed cropping), and the selective breeding of pest-resistant cultivars have a long history. (
  • The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. (
  • parasite
  • The findings suggest a greater role for HGT in the relationship between parasite plants and their hosts, with deep implications for our understanding of plant evolution. (
  • The parasite inserts microRNAs into the host that can silence the expression of host genes. (
  • What was really interesting is that the microRNAs specifically target host genes that are involved in the plant's defense against the parasite. (
  • When a plant is attacked by a parasite it initiates a number of defense mechanisms. (
  • In one of these mechanisms, similar to blood clotting after a cut, the plants produce a protein that clots the flow of nutrients to the site of the parasite. (
  • Evidence points to the fact that these targeted genes are the same genes a parasite would need to silence in order to establish dominance. (
  • 2002
  • The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as 'the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit' (Bernardo 2002). (
  • traits
  • Although a number of approaches have been developed to manipulate traits in plants, technical hurdles make the process difficult. (
  • molecular
  • Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. (
  • We want to develop strains of plants that are strong and grow well but break down easily when we want them to," said York, who is also a professor of biochemistry and molecular biology in the UGA Franklin College of Arts and Sciences and a member of the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. (
  • In: Smith CJ (ed) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plant-pathogen interactions. (
  • Striga
  • One gene, ShContig9483, exhibited high similarity to genes in sorghum and rice, yet no relation to genes from Striga hermonthica's own family of flowering plants (eudicots). (
  • protein
  • 5. A method according to claim 3, wherein the first gene encodes ribosomal inhibitor protein (RIP). (
  • Before their discovery, GXMT1 was categorized in scientific literature as a protein of unknown function, but it is now the first enzyme shown to catalyze the formation of methyl-glucuronic acid, a key structural component of xylan in plant biomass. (
  • From the phylogenetic analysis, horizontal gene transfer events could have contributed to the L-fucose permease sugar transporter, zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase, membrane transporter, phospholipase/carboxylesterase, iucA/iucC family protein in siderophore biosynthesis, DUF239 domain protein, phosphate-response 1 family protein, a hypothetical protein similar to zinc finger (C2H2-type) protein, and another conserver hypothetical protein. (
  • mechanisms
  • An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to sudden death syndrome. (
  • Its discovery constitutes a key step toward understanding the mechanisms of plant cell growth, offering new directions for research and promising further advances in agricultural production. (
  • 1997
  • Schmeiser claimed that he did not plant the initial Roundup Ready canola in 1997, and that his field of custom-bred canola had been accidentally contaminated. (
  • expression
  • Please mention Plant Gene Expression Position in your cover letter. (
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant that causes major damage to crops in the U.S. and worldwide every year, can silence the expression of genes in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients. (
  • We were able to show that, in addition to the nutrients that flow into dodder from the host plant across the haustoria, dodder passes microRNAs into its host plant that regulate the expression of host genes in a very direct way. (
  • Dodder seems to turn on the expression of these microRNAs when it comes into contact with the host plant," said James H. Westwood, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science at Virginia Tech and another author of the paper. (
  • Memelink J (1988) Altered gene expression in T-DNA transformed tobacco tissues. (
  • His highest cited paper is "Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants" at 355 times, according to Google Scholar. (
  • Chakrabarti, M., Dinkins, R. D., and Hunt, A. G. (2016) De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic spatial gene expression analysis in red clover (Trifolium pratense). (
  • Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants. (
  • In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. (
  • humans
  • Ultimately, York and his collaborators hope that their research will open the door to new ways of manipulating plants and making them more useful to humans. (
  • In humans, the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is controlled through ADP-ribosylation, a covalent modification carried out by the gene sirt4. (
  • Hybridization most likely first occurred when humans first grew similar, yet slightly different plants in close proximity. (
  • overexpression
  • pGreenII 0229 62-SK is derived from pGreenII 0229, the LacZ blue/white cloning selection has been replaced with a 35S-MCS-CaMV cassette that allows the insertion of a gene of interest into a 35S overexpression cassette. (
  • Monsanto
  • Monsanto files a patent application in Canada for a technology that makes plants resistant to glyphosate herbicides such as Monsanto's Roundup. (
  • Though Canada's Plant Breeders' Rights Act protects the intellectual property rights of seed developers, Monsanto felt a patent would provide more protection since it would deny farmers the right to save and re-use seeds containing the company's patented genes and cells. (
  • Whether Schmeiser's possession of the gene was a result of deliberate action or uninvited contamination has no bearing on the question of infringement, according to Monsanto. (
  • Regarding the question of patent rights and the farmer's right to use seed taken from his fields, Monsanto said that because they hold a patent on the gene, and on canola cells containing the gene, they have a legal right to control its use, including the intentional replanting of seed collected from plants with the gene which grew accidentally. (
  • pathway
  • The modified multisite vector system developed is ideal for stacking genes and pathway engineering in plants. (
  • Plant-fungus interactions could play a part in a multi-horizontal gene transfer pathway among many other organisms. (
  • A fungus-plant pathway has been demonstrated in rice (Oryza sativa) through ancestral lineages. (
  • The evolutionary history of the pathway could have been influenced by a prokaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer event. (
  • parasitic plant
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant, attached to a host plant from which it obtains water and nutrients. (
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant that levies millions of dollars' worth of damage on crops each year is a stealthy invader with the ability to wage war on the genes of its host plants. (
  • control
  • Caption: Genes control Flowering Development in Plants: Mendelian Genes Define the Commitment to Flowering- Understanding Plant Genes-The Cauliflower Gene-The "fruit-full" gene. (
  • Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in soya bean ( Glycine max ) exhibits the unusual property that its control is organ-specific - it is under circadian control in leaves but not in roots. (
  • Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have also been raised as potential issues. (
  • Mechanical pest control is the use of hands-on techniques as well as simple equipment and devices, that provides a protective barrier between plants and insects. (
  • specific
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (
  • 7. A method according to claim 3, wherein the sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (
  • 8. A method according to claim 3, wherein the plants are cotton plants, the transiently active promoter is a LEA promoter, the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences, the first gene encodes RIP, the second gene encodes CRE, and sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (
  • The scientists investigated the parasite's microRNAs as they entered the host and discovered that microRNAs are shutting off specific genes in the host plant. (
  • Samples from the DNA bank have been used to identify patterns and determine which genes lead to specific disorders. (
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (
  • Gene targeting requires the creation of a specific vector for each gene of interest. (
  • Gene trapping is based on random insertion of a cassette while gene targeting targets a specific gene. (
  • Since blue roses do not exist in nature, as roses lack the specific gene that has the ability to produce a "true blue" color, blue roses are traditionally created by dyeing white roses. (
  • chromosomes
  • Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope. (
  • organisms
  • By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. (
  • As mosses are haploid organisms, regenerating moss filaments (protonema) can directly be screened for gene targeting, either by treatment with antibiotics or with PCR. (
  • Schmeiser's
  • Therefore, the question of how Monsanto's gene came to be present in Schmeiser's fields is no longer of any concern to the company. (
  • The defense suggests that Monsanto's patented-gene arrived on Schmeiser's property by way of pollination or wind-blown seed. (
  • the court only considered the GM canola in Schmeiser's fields, which Schmeiser had intentionally concentrated and planted. (
  • Agrobacterium
  • In 1907 a bacterium that caused plant tumors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, had been discovered and in the early 1970s it was found that the bacteria inserted its DNA into plants using a Ti plasmid. (
  • evidence
  • The big news is that we now have evidence of a function for RNA that is being exchanged between dodder and its quarry," said Jim Westwood, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, an author of the paper. (
  • microRNAs
  • Importantly, the small remnants of the messenger RNA can then function like additional microRNAs, binding to other copies of the messenger RNA, causing further gene silencing. (
  • By comparing the sequencing data from these three sources, they were able to identify microRNAs from dodder that had entered the plant tissue. (
  • They then measured the amount of messenger RNA of genes that were targeted by the dodder microRNAs and saw that the level of messenger RNA from the host was reduced when the dodder microRNAs were present. (
  • So, with this knowledge, the dream is that we could eventually use gene editing technology to edit the microRNA target sites in the host plants, preventing the microRNAs from binding and silencing these genes. (
  • insects
  • The court wrote: "Thus a farmer whose field contains seed or plants originating from seed spilled into them, or blown as seed, in swaths from a neighbour's land or even growing from germination by pollen carried into his field from elsewhere by insects, birds, or by the wind, may own the seed or plants on his land even if he did not set about to plant them. (
  • discovery
  • With their latest discovery, published in the journal The Plant Cell, research teams at the RIKEN Plant Science Center have marked a major step toward clarifying these origins. (
  • The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution. (
  • The second , published in November 2016 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, presented the discovery that parasitic weeds may be able to steal genes from their prey and then use those genes against the host plant. (
  • varieties
  • Today the conservatory manages 180 hectares of agricultural land, as well as three vineyards, and preserves several collections of rare varieties of olive trees (more than 500 trees), fruit trees including stone fruit and citruses, mulberry, fig trees, and palm trees, with a particular emphasis on heritage varieties that serve as a gene reserve. (