No data available that match "Genes, Mitochondrial"
No data available that match "Genes, Mitochondrial"
(1/503) Why genes persist in organelle genomes.
Mitochondria and plastids (including chloroplasts) have a small but vital genetic coding capacity, but what are the properties of some genes that dictate that they must remain encoded in organelles? (+info)
(2/503) Partial mitochondrial genome sequences of Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnicalis.
Contiguous 14,535 and 14,536 nt near complete mitochondrial genome sequences respectively were obtained for Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnicalis. Mitochondrial gene order was identical to that observed from Bombyx. Sequences comparatively showed 186 substitutions (1.3% sequence divergence), 170 CDS substitutions (131 at 3(rd) codon positions), and an excess of transition mutation likely resulting by purifying selection (d(N)/d(S) = omega congruent with 0.15). Overall substitution rates were significantly higher at 4-fold (5.2%) compared to 2-fold degenerate codons (2.6%). These are the 3(rd) and 4(th) lepidopteran mitochondrial genome reference sequences in GenBank and useful for comparative mitochondrial studies. (+info)
(3/503) Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations.
Genetic affinities between aboriginal Taiwanese and populations from Oceania and Southeast Asia have previously been explored through analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y chromosomal DNA, and human leukocyte antigen loci. Recent genetic studies have supported the "slow boat" and "entangled bank" models according to which the Polynesian migration can be seen as an expansion from Melanesia without any major direct genetic thread leading back to its initiation from Taiwan. We assessed mtDNA variation in 640 individuals from nine tribes of the central mountain ranges and east coast regions of Taiwan. In contrast to the Han populations, the tribes showed a low frequency of haplogroups D4 and G, and an absence of haplogroups A, C, Z, M9, and M10. Also, more than 85% of the maternal lineages were nested within haplogroups B4, B5a, F1a, F3b, E, and M7. Although indicating a common origin of the populations of insular Southeast Asia and Oceania, most mtDNA lineages in Taiwanese aboriginal populations are grouped separately from those found in China and the Taiwan general (Han) population, suggesting a prevalence in the Taiwanese aboriginal gene pool of its initial late Pleistocene settlers. Interestingly, from complete mtDNA sequencing information, most B4a lineages were associated with three coding region substitutions, defining a new subclade, B4a1a, that endorses the origin of Polynesian migration from Taiwan. Coalescence times of B4a1a were 13.2 +/- 3.8 thousand years (or 9.3 +/- 2.5 thousand years in Papuans and Polynesians). Considering the lack of a common specific Y chromosomal element shared by the Taiwanese aboriginals and Polynesians, the mtDNA evidence provided here is also consistent with the suggestion that the proto-Oceanic societies would have been mainly matrilocal. (+info)
(4/503) Regulation of mitochondrial translation in yeast.
This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the control of very unusual mechanism of mitochondrial gene expression and the structure of mitochondrial ribosomes, with emphasis on the potential of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. (+info)
(5/503) The increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number in the tissues of gamma-irradiated mice.
Changes in the number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies in the brain and spleen tissues of gamma-irradiated (3 Gy) mice were studied by comparative analysis of the long-extension PCR products of mtDNA (15.9 kb) and a fragment of the cluster nuclear beta-globin gene (8.7 kb) amplified simultaneously in one and the same test-tube within total DNA. The analysis showed that, compared to the nuclear beta-globin gene, an increase in mtDNA copy number (polyploidization) took place in the brain and spleen cells of mice exposed to gamma-radiation. This data led to the suggestion that the major mechanism for maintenance of the mitochondrial genome, which is constantly damaged by endogenous ROS and easily affected by ionizing radiation or other exogenous factors, is the induction of synthesis of new mtDNA copies on intact or little affected mtDNA templates because the repair systems in the mitochondria function at a low level of efficiency. (+info)
(6/503) MitoP2: the mitochondrial proteome database--now including mouse data.
The MitoP2 database (http://www.mitop.de) integrates information on mitochondrial proteins, their molecular functions and associated diseases. The central database features are manually annotated reference proteins localized or functionally associated with mitochondria supplied for yeast, human and mouse. MitoP2 enables (i) the identification of putative orthologous proteins between these species to study evolutionarily conserved functions and pathways; (ii) the integration of data from systematic genome-wide studies such as proteomics and deletion phenotype screening; (iii) the prediction of novel mitochondrial proteins using data integration and the assignment of evidence scores; and (iv) systematic searches that aim to find the genes that underlie common and rare mitochondrial diseases. The data and analysis files are referenced to data sources in PubMed and other online databases and can be easily downloaded. MitoP2 users can explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunctions and disease and utilize this information to conduct systems biology approaches on mitochondria. (+info)
(7/503) mtDB: Human Mitochondrial Genome Database, a resource for population genetics and medical sciences.
The mitochondrial genome, contained in the subcellular mitochondrial network, encodes a small number of peptides pivotal for cellular energy production. Mitochondrial genes are highly polymorphic and cataloguing existing variation is of interest for medical scientists involved in the identification of mutations causing mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as for population genetics studies. Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB) (http://www.genpat.uu.se/mtDB) has provided a comprehensive database of complete human mitochondrial genomes since early 2000. At this time, owing to an increase in the number of published complete human mitochondrial genome sequences, it became necessary to provide a web-based database of human whole genome and complete coding region sequences. As of August 2005 this database contains 2104 sequences (1544 complete genome and 560 coding region) available to download or search for specific polymorphisms. Of special interest to medical researchers and population geneticists evaluating specific positions is a complete list of (currently 3311) mitochondrial polymorphisms among these sequences. Recent expansions in the capabilities of mtDB include a haplotype search function and the ability to identify and download sequences carrying particular variants. (+info)
(8/503) The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic bigheaded turtle (Platysternon): description of unusual genomic features and the reconciliation of phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.
BACKGROUND: The big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) from east Asia is the sole living representative of a poorly-studied turtle lineage (Platysternidae). It has no close living relatives, and its phylogenetic position within turtles is one of the outstanding controversies in turtle systematics. Platysternon was traditionally considered to be close to snapping turtles (Chelydridae) based on some studies of its morphology and mitochondrial (mt) DNA, however, other studies of morphology and nuclear (nu) DNA do not support that hypothesis. RESULTS: We sequenced the complete mt genome of Platysternon and the nearly complete mt genomes of two other relevant turtles and compared them to turtle mt genomes from the literature to form the largest molecular dataset used to date to address this issue. The resulting phylogeny robustly rejects the placement of Platysternon with Chelydridae, but instead shows that it is a member of the Testudinoidea, a diverse, nearly globally-distributed group that includes pond turtles and tortoises. We also discovered that Platysternon mtDNA has large-scale gene rearrangements and possesses two, nearly identical, control regions, features that distinguish it from all other studied turtles. CONCLUSION: Our study robustly determines the phylogenetic placement of Platysternon and provides a well-resolved outline of major turtle lineages, while demonstrating the significantly greater resolving power of comparing large amounts of mt sequence over that of short fragments. Earlier phylogenies placing Platysternon with chelydrids required a temporal gap in the fossil record that is now unnecessary. The duplicated control regions and gene rearrangements of the Platysternon mtDNA probably resulted from the duplication of part of the genome and then the subsequent loss of redundant genes. Although it is possible that having two control regions may provide some advantage, explaining why the control regions would be maintained while some of the duplicated genes were eroded, examples of this are rare. So far, duplicated control regions have been reported for mt genomes from just 12 clades of metazoans, including Platysternon. (+info)