Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Superantigens: Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-DP Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HLA-DR alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR heavy chains.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.HLA-DRB3 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over 50 allelic variants. The HLA-DRB3 beta-chain subtype is associated with HLA-DR52 serological subtype.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Rats, Inbred LewKiller Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Mice, Inbred C3HAntigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Mice, Inbred CBALectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Mice, Inbred AGraft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.HLA-DP beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.HLA-DRB4 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Clonal Deletion: Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cetomacrogol: Non-ionic surfactant of the polyethylene glycol family. It is used as a solubilizer and emulsifying agent in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, often as an ointment base, and also as a research tool.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.HLA-DRB5 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR51 serological subtype.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell SeparationEndoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Mice, Inbred DBANK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.HLA-DR beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR light chains.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.

*  Rfxank MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1333865 - regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein

J:50539 Masternak K, et al., A gene encoding a novel RFX-associated transactivator is mutated in the majority of MHC class II ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... VEGA Gene Model , MGI Sequence Detail. 8361. C57BL/6J. ± kb. transcript. OTTMUST00000151792. VEGA , MGI Sequence Detail. 1121. ... Vertebrate Homology Class 2760. 1 human;1 mouse;1 rat;1 chimpanzee;1 cattle;1 dog;1 chicken;1 zebrafish;1 frog, western clawed; ...


Structural basis of peptide binding and presentation by the type I diabetes-associated MHC class II molecule of NOD mice. ... MHC CLASS II NOD B, E 187 Mus musculus Fragment: BETA CHAIN Gene Name(s): H2-Ab1 ... RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ... Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., DOI: 10.1021/ml100164p. Ions and some metal complexes are ...

*  A Chlamydia pneumoniae-Specific Peptide Induces Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rats | The Journal of Immunology

... and II⇑). These residues provide a structural motif that permits interaction of the peptide with MHC class II gene products. ... MBP68-86 and Cpn0483 share a YGxLxxxxxRTxDxN motif (Tables I⇑ and II⇑). The aspartic acid (D) residue is reportedly a TCR ... Using alanine-substituted analogue peptides, the D residue common to the rat68-86 and Cpn0483 peptides (Tables I⇑ and II⇑) has ... This peptide-MHC complex, in turn, interacts with specific TCRs to initiate T cell activation. Although some specific amino ...

*  ENA Sequence: JN242459 | dbfetch | EBI

"MHC class II antigen" FT CDS 270 FT /codon_start=3 FT /gene="HLA-DRB1" FT /product="MHC class II antigen" FT /db_xref="GOA: ... 113, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Homo sapiens clone DRB1_110034_00831 MHC class II antigen (HLA-DRB1) gene, DE exon 2 and ... gene 270 FT /gene="HLA-DRB1" FT mRNA 270 FT /gene="HLA-DRB1" FT /product=" ... gene="HLA-DRB1" FT /number=2 XX SQ Sequence 270 BP; 58 A; 62 C; 96 G; 54 T; 0 other; cacgtttctt ggagtactct acgtctgagt ...

*  Search

The invariant chain (Ii) has for many years been known to have important functions in MHC class II antigen presentation. There ... A cluster of genes in both animals and flowering plants are expressed only from one of the two homologous chromosomes, ... Direct Targeting of Invariant Chain to the MHC class II Loading Compartment Restricted Access ... Gene therapy strategies have been intensively studied for over 20 years. However, there are yet no gene therapy protocols in ...

*  T-cell based immunotherapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

Vandenbark and colleagues generated a HLD-DR2+ Tg mouse that lacked all MHC (murine) class II genes. These mice suffered from ... HLA-DR4-IE chimeric class II transgenic, murine class II-deficient mice are susceptible to experimental allergic ... GA was cross-recognized by myelin basic protein-reactive T cells [95]. GA can bind to HLA class II molecules, including HLA-DR2 ... Humanized mice' that were Tg for HLA class II (human) molecules were also generated. These mice allowed for the testing of T- ...

*  IRF1 Gene - GeneCards | IRF1 Protein | IRF1 Antibody

Complete information for IRF1 gene (Protein Coding), Interferon Regulatory Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, ... MHC class I expression, such as TAP1, PSMB9/LMP2, PSME1/PA28A, PSME2/PA28B and B2M and MHC class II expression, such as CIITA. ... MHC class I expression, such as TAP1, PSMB9/LMP2, PSME1/PA28A, PSME2/PA28B and B2M and MHC class II expression, such as CIITA. ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IRF1 Gene Domains & Families for IRF1 Gene Protein Domains for IRF1 Gene. ...

*  KIR/HLA Interactions and Pathogen Immunity

V. Romero, J. Azocar, J. Zúñiga et al., "Interaction of NK inhibitory receptor genes with HLA-C and MHC class II alleles in ... P. Parham, "MHC class I molecules and KIRS in human history, health and survival," Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp ... M. S. Malnati, M. Peruzzi, K. C. Parker et al., "Peptide specificity in the recognition of MHC class I by natural killer cell ... M. Yawata, N. Yawata, M. Draghi, F. Partheniou, A. M. Little, and P. Parham, "MHC class I specific inhibitory receptors and ...

*  IL13 monoclonal antibody (M06), clone 3H7 - (H00003596-M06) - Products - Abnova

It up-regulates CD23 and MHC class II expression, and promotes IgE isotype switching of B cells. This cytokine down-regulates ... This gene, IL3, IL5, IL4, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL4. [ ... Gene Summary:. *This gene encodes an immunoregulatory cytokine produced primarily by activated Th2 cells. This cytokine is ...

*  Meccanismi della selezione sessuale postcopulatoria in un guppy (Poecilia reticulata), un pesce teleosteo a fecondazione...

Gene duplication and gene conversion in class II MHC genes of New Zealand robins (Petroicidae). Immunogenetics 56:178- 191. ... Gene duplication, allelic diversity, selection processes and adaptive value of MHC class II DRB genes of the bank vole, ... A third broad lineage of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in teleost fish; MHC class II linkage and processed ... Contrasting mode of evolution between the MHC class I genomic region and class II region in the three-spined stickleback ( ...

*  Regulation of MHC class II expression by interferon-gamma mediated by the transactivator gene CIITA | Science

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are expressed constitutively in only a few cell types, but they can be induced in the majority of them, in particular by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The MHC class II transactivator gene CIITA is defective in a form of primary MHC class II deficiency. Here it is shown that CIITA expression is controlled and induced by IFN-gamma. A functional CIITA gene is necessary for class II induction, and transfection of CIITA is sufficient to activate expression of MHC class II genes in class II-negative cells in the absence of IFN-gamma. CIITA is therefore a general regulator of ...

*  Systemic Lupus

As summarized in Section 1, EAT susceptibility and resistance are categorized by their MHC class II gene differences. Since susceptible mice have naturally existing CD4+CD25+ T cells (Morris and Kong, 2004), it was of interest to determine if CD4+CD25+ T cells also influence EAT induction in resistant strains. In pilot experiments using two EAT-resistant strains, prior depletion of CD4+CD25+ T cells in both BALB c (H2d) mice (Wei et al, 2004) and B10 (H2b) mice (Morris et al., 2004) enabled the.... ...

CIITA: CIITA is a human gene which encodes a protein called the class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator. Mutations in this gene are responsible for the bare lymphocyte syndrome in which the immune system is severely compromised and cannot effectively fight infection.MHC class IIAntigen processing: Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways.Antigen presentation: Antigen presentation describes a vital process of the immune system. Immune cells cannot "see inside" other cells, which may be infected with viruses or bacteria, and thus rely on information conveyed by fragments of intracellular components being presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface.HLA-DMAcute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.Coles PhillipsPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.SEA Native Peptide LigationCLIP (protein): CLIP or Class II-associated invariant chain peptide is the part of the invariant chain (Ii) that binds MHC class II groove and remains there until the MHC receptor is fully assembled. The purpose of CLIP is to prevent the binding of self-peptide fragments prior to MHC II localization within the endo/lysosome.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Microglobulin: Microglobulin is a globulin of relatively small molecular weight. It can be contrasted to macroglobulin.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Mustafa ÜlgenSuperantigenKinetic-segregation model of T cell activationProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.CTL-mediated cytotoxicityCD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.HLA B7-DR15-DQ6ZXDC: Zinc finger, X-linked, duplicated family member C (ZXDC) is a human CIITA-binding protein involved in the activation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II. For binding to occur, ZXDC must form an oligomeric complex with another copy of itself or with ZXDA, a related protein.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Ovalbumin: Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein. Ovalbumin displays sequence and three-dimensional homology to the serpin superfamily, but unlike most serpins it is not a serine protease inhibitor.HLA-DQ: HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC Class II.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.CD79: CD79 (Cluster of Differentiation 79) is a transmembrane protein that forms a complex with the B-cell receptor (BCR) and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and CD79B (formerly known as Ig-alpha and Ig-beta); these form a heterodimer on the surface of a B cell stabilized by disulfide bonding.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.Escheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.KeliximabMonoclonal antibody therapyRNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Endosome: In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the lysosome.KLRD1: CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also known as killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1 (KLRD1) is a human gene.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Immunophenotyping: Immunophenotyping is a technique used to study the protein expressed by cells. This technique is commonly used in basic science research and laboratory diagnostic purpose.Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Heat-labile enterotoxin family: In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A chain is needed for enzymatic activity.Ligand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.Cross-presentation: Cross-presentation is the ability of certain antigen-presenting cells to take up, process and present extracellular antigens with MHC class I molecules to CD8 T cells (cytotoxic T cells). Relevantly, cross-priming describes the stimulation of naive cytotoxic CD8+ T cells by this process.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Lysosome: A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells). Structurally and chemically, they are spherical vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Myelin basic protein: Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system. The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction.

(1/1706) Locus specificity of polymorphic alleles and evolution by a birth-and-death process in mammalian MHC genes.

We have conducted an extensive phylogenetic analysis of polymorphic alleles from human and mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II genes. The phylogenetic tree obtained for 212 complete human class I allele sequences (HLA-A, -B, and -C) has shown that all alleles from the same locus form a single cluster, which is highly supported by bootstrap values, except for one HLA-B allele (HLA-B*7301). Mouse MHC class I loci did not show locus-specific clusters of polymorphic alleles. This was considered to be because of either interlocus genetic exchange or the confusing designation of loci in different haplotypes at the present time. The locus specificity of polymorphic alleles was also observed in human and mouse MHC class II loci. It was therefore concluded that interlocus recombination or gene conversion is not very important for generating MHC diversity, with a possible exception of mouse class I loci. According to the phylogenetic trees of complete coding sequences, we classified human MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and class II (DRB1) alleles into three to five major allelic lineages (groups), which were monophyletic with high bootstrap values. Most of these allelic groups remained unchanged even in phylogenetic trees based on individual exons, though this does not exclude the possibility of intralocus recombination involving short DNA segments. These results, together with the previous observation that MHC loci are subject to frequent duplication and deletion, as well as to balancing selection, indicate that MHC evolution in mammals is in agreement with the birth-and-death model of evolution, rather than with the model of concerted evolution.  (+info)

(2/1706) Major histocompatibility complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon.

The chinook salmon of the Sacramento River, California, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. Here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class II exon in the four Sacramento chinook salmon runs. Examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. We found a significant amount of variation in each of the runs, including the federally endangered winter run. All of the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significant amount of genetic differentiation between runs was revealed by several measures of differentiation. Winter run was the most genetically divergent, while the spring, late-fall, and fall runs were less differentiated.  (+info)

(3/1706) Activation of target-tissue immune-recognition molecules by double-stranded polynucleotides.

Abnormal expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II in various tissues is associated with autoimmune disease. Autoimmune responses can be triggered by viral infections or tissue injuries. We show that the ability of a virus or a tissue injury to increase MHC gene expression is duplicated by any fragment of double-stranded (ds) DNA or dsRNA introduced into the cytoplasm of nonimmune cells. Activation is sequence-independent, is induced by ds polynucleotides as small as 25 bp in length, and is not duplicated by single-stranded polynucleotides. In addition to causing abnormal MHC expression, the ds nucleic acids increase the expression of genes necessary for antigen processing and presentation: proteasome proteins (e.g., LMP2), transporters of antigen peptides; invariant chain, HLA-DM, and the costimulatory molecule B7.1. The mechanism is different from and additive to that of gamma-interferon (gammaIFN), i.e., ds polynucleotides increase class I much more than class II, whereas gammaIFN increases class II more than class I. The ds nucleic acids also induce or activate Stat1, Stat3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, NF-kappaB, the class II transactivator, RFX5, and the IFN regulatory factor 1 differently from gammaIFN. CpG residues are not responsible for this effect, and the action of the ds polynucleotides could be shown in a variety of cell types in addition to thyrocytes. We suggest that this phenomenon is a plausible mechanism that might explain how viral infection of tissues or tissue injury triggers autoimmune disease; it is potentially relevant to host immune responses induced during gene therapy.  (+info)

(4/1706) The predisposition to type 1 diabetes linked to the human leukocyte antigen complex includes at least one non-class II gene.

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, encompassing 3.5 Mb of DNA from the centromeric HLA-DPB2 locus to the telomeric HLA-F locus on chromosome 6p21, encodes a major part of the genetic predisposition to develop type 1 diabetes, designated "IDDM1." A primary role for allelic variation of the class II HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 loci has been established. However, studies of animals and humans have indicated that other, unmapped, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked genes are participating in IDDM1. The strong linkage disequilibrium between genes in this complex makes mapping a difficult task. In the present paper, we report on the approach we have devised to circumvent the confounding effects of disequilibrium between class II alleles and alleles at other MHC loci. We have scanned 12 Mb of the MHC and flanking chromosome regions with microsatellite polymorphisms and analyzed the transmission of these marker alleles to diabetic probands from parents who were homozygous for the alleles of the HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 genes. Our analysis, using three independent family sets, suggests the presence of an additional type I diabetes gene (or genes). This approach is useful for the analysis of other loci linked to common diseases, to verify if a candidate polymorphism can explain all of the association of a region or if the association is due to two or more loci in linkage disequilibrium with each other.  (+info)

(5/1706) Genetic control of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses. I. Ir gene control of the specificity of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells.

The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced in vitro to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic cells to cross-reactively lyse a TNP allogeneic spleen target varies among inbred mouse strains. The cross-reactive CTL phenotype was found to be histocompatibility 2 (H-2) linked and to be dominant in F1 hybrid mice. All strains investigated demonstrated cross-reactivity except for some strains bearing portions of the H-2k haplotype. The gene(s) controlling this response maps to the K and/or I-A region of the H-2 complex. We have termed the immune response (Ir) gene responsible for controlling the specificity of CTL induced to TNP-modified syngeneic cells Ir-X-TNP.  (+info)

(6/1706) Genetic control of cytolytic t-lymphocyte responses. II. The role of the host genotype in parental leads to F1 radiation chimeras in the control of the specificity of cytolytic T-lymphocyte responses to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells.

Bone marrow cells from C3H (H-2k) mice, a strain that does not exhibit cross-reactive lysis of trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified allogeneic targets, were allowed to mature in heavily irradiated (B6 times C3H)F1 (H-2b/k) recipients, an F1 hybrid that does demonstrate cross-reactive lysis. Spleen cells from these chimeric mice were removed after 3-4 mo and by H-2 typing shown to be of C3H origin. These cells were found to be tolerant to B6 alloantigens by mixed lymphocyte reaction and cell-mediated cytotoxicity and, when stimulated in vitro with TNP-modified syngeneic cells, now cross-reactively lysed TNP-modified allogeneic targets. These studies demonstrate that the host environment where T cells differentiate influences the specificity of the primary cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to TNP-modified syngeneic antigens.  (+info)

(7/1706) Cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype.

Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and colleagues, records the first rigorous demonstration of both a nonresponder situation and a probable Ir-gene effect for conventional infectious viruses. Possible implications for the evolution of H-2 polymorphism and mechanisms of Ir gene function are discussed.  (+info)

(8/1706) In irradiation chimeras, K or D regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of antiviral cytotoxic T cells.

The H-2 haplotype of the chimeric host determines the responder phenotype of maturing T cells. Spleen cells of chimeric mice formed when (K(k) nonresponder to D(b) x K(b) responder to D(b) plus vaccinia)F(1) bone marrow cells were used to reconstitute K(b)D(b) (C57BL/6 D(b) responder) irradiated recipients generated high levels of D(b) plus vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. The same stem cells used to reconstitute K(k)D(b) (B10.A (2R) D(b) nonresponder) irradiated recipients resulted in spleen cells that responded well to K plus vaccinia, but responsiveness to D(b) was low. A generally low response to D(k) plus vaccinia, which seems to be regulated by D(k), was confirmed in chimeras. Thus, K(d)D(d) (D(d) plus vaccinia responder) stem cells differentiating in a K(d)D(k) chimeric host failed to generate a measurable response to D(k) plus vaccinia. In contrast, stem cells from K(d)D(k) (D(k) plus vaccinia low responders) differentiating in a K(d)D(d) (K(d) and D(d) high responders to vaccinia) host do generate responsiveness to D(d) plus vaccinia. These results indicate that in chimeras, the Ir phenotype is independent of the donor T cell's Ir genotype, and that thymic selection of a T cell's restriction specificity for a particular H-2 allele of the chimeric host also defines that T cell's/r phenotype.  (+info)


  • Stimulates both innate and acquired immune responses through the activation of specific target genes and can act as a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating target genes by binding to an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) in their promoters. (
  • To gain insights into the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie this inducible and reversible switching of the aMHC and bMHC isoforms, we have investigated the histone modification patterns that occur over the two cardiac MHC promoters during T3-mediated reversible switching of gene expression. (
  • The epigenetic changes at the two MHC promoters are completely reversed when the gene expression returns to initial levels. (
  • Involved in NR0B2/SHP corepression function through chromatin remodeling: Recruited to LRH1 target gene promoters by NR0B2/SHP thereby stimulating histone H3 and H4 deacetylation leading to transcriptional repression. (


  • 113, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Homo sapiens clone DRB1_110034_00831 MHC class II antigen (HLA-DRB1) gene, DE exon 2 and partial cds. (
  • Plays a critical role in MHC class II antigen processing by stabilizing peptide-free class II alpha/beta heterodimers in a complex soon after their synthesis and directing transport of the complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endosomal/lysosomal system where the antigen processing and binding of antigenic peptides to MHC class II takes place. (
  • T cell activation is initiated when antigen is presented to the T cell receptor (TCR) complex by MHC class I or II on an antigen-presenting cell. (
  • Binding of CD28 on the T cell to B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) molecules on the antigen-presenting cell creates an amplifying signal required for full T cell activation. (


  • Allelic polymorphism synergizes with variable gene content to individualize human KIR genotype," Journal of Immunology , vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 2307-2315, 2002. (
  • From the experiments, it emerges that directional processes in this species are more important for fertilization success rather than non directional processes, even if a part of variance in fertilization success is explained by a male's similarity for MHC genotype with the female. (


  • This gene, IL3, IL5, IL4, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL4. (
  • The gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. (


  • GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (
  • miRNAs are short non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by inhibiting the translation of mRNAs through pairing to their 3' UTR. (
  • MHC class I expression, such as TAP1, PSMB9/LMP2, PSME1/PA28A, PSME2/PA28B and B2M and MHC class II expression, such as CIITA. (
  • Increased natural cytotoxicity receptor expression and relevant IL-10 production in NK cells from chronically infected viremic HCV patients," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 445-455, 2007. (
  • It up-regulates CD23 and MHC class II expression, and promotes IgE isotype switching of B cells. (
  • Intragraft gene expression profiling may be a way to complement histological evaluation. (
  • Conclusion- The gene expression similarities and differences identified here in different AR settings have the potential to revise the clinical perspective on acute graft rejection, pending the results of larger studies. (
  • An accumulating body of evidence suggests that AR surveillance based on gene expression profiling in EMBs or peripheral blood cells may help improve clinical management. (
  • Intragraft gene expression studies have provided insight in the process of AR, 12 , - , 19 although recent global intragraft gene expression profiling studies have not revealed a correlation with 2005 ISHLT AR grades. (
  • Increased expression (more than two-fold) in the CD8+Tcells from tolerized mice was repeatedly found for six genes: IFI202B, Bcl2, Foxp3, Trp-53, CCR7 and IFNar1. (
  • Mice fed a diet of propylthiouracil (PTU, an inhibitor of T3 synthesis) for 2 weeks dramatically reduce aMHC mRNA expression and increase bMHC mRNA levels to high levels, while a subsequent withdrawal of PTU diet for 2 weeks completely reverses the T3-mediated changes in MHC expression. (
  • These data indicate that during reciprocal and inducible gene expression H3ac parallels bMHC isoform expression while H3K4me3 parallels expression of the tightly linked aMHC isoform. (
  • Deacetylates a broad range of transcription factors and coregulators, thereby regulating target gene expression positively and negatively. (


  • Epigenetic gene regulation is crucial in developmental processes, controlling which genes that are expressed at what times and in what tissues. (


  • These include the regulation of IFN and IFN-inducible genes, host response to viral and bacterial infections, regulation of many genes expressed during hematopoiesis, inflammation, immune responses and cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of the cell cycle and induction of growth arrest and programmed cell death following DNA damage. (
  • From the CD8+T cell arrays, we confirmed up regulation of several genes in cells from tolerized mice using real-time PCR. (


  • Following tolerization with an artificial peptide (pCONSENSUS, pCons) that is based on anti-DNA IgG sequences containing MHC class I and class II T cell determinants, NZB/NZW F1 female (BWF1) mice develop CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and CD8+ Foxp3+ inhibitory T cells, both of which suppress anti-DNA Ig production. (


  • Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. (
  • Recognition of peptide-MHC class I complexes by activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 102, no. 37, pp. 13224-13229, 2005. (


  • A review of MHC-based mate preferences and fostering experiments in two congenic strains of mice. (
  • In this study, we analyzed 45,000 murine genes using Affymetrix Gene Chip 430, 2.0 arrays, in a comparison of total white blood cells (WBC), CD4, and CD8 spleen cell subsets from tolerized vs. non-tolerized mice. (
  • Results showed 448, 174 and 60 genes that were differentially expressed by at least two-fold in the two groups of mice. (
  • Using hearts from mice treated in this way, we carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR assays with antibodies against acetylated histone H3 (H3ac) and trimethylated histone (H3K4me3)-two well-documented markers of activation. (


  • This gene encodes an immunoregulatory cytokine produced primarily by activated Th2 cells. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules. (


  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) 3 is characterized by the presence of autoreactive T cells that target Ags associated with CNS myelin, including myelin basic protein (MBP) ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • IRF1 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Below are the list of possible Stimulator of interferon genes protein products. (
  • Also known as Stimulator of interferon genes protein (hSTING) (Endoplasmic reticulum interferon stimulator) (ERIS) (Mediator of IRF3 activation) (hMITA) (Transmembrane protein 173). (


  • Grade 1B was associated with upregulated immune response genes, as 1 categorical distinction from grade 1A. (


  • Comparison of chimpanzee and human leukocyte Ig-like receptor genes reveals framework and rapidly evolving genes," Journal of Immunology , vol. 167, no. 10, pp. 5786-5794, 2001. (
  • The natural killer cell receptor specific for HLA-A allotypes: a novel member of the p58/p70 family of inhibitory receptors that is characterized by three immunoglobulin-like domains and is expressed as a 140-kD disulphide- linked dimer," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 505-518, 1996. (


  • Exhibits 2',3' phosphodiester linkage-specific ligand recognition. (


  • Required for antagonist-mediated transcription suppression of AR-dependent genes which may be linked to local deacetylation of histone H3. (


  • GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding . (


  • IRF1 serves as an activator of interferons alpha and beta transcription, and in mouse it has been shown to be required for double-stranded RNA induction of these genes. (
  • IRF1 also functions as a transcription activator of genes induced by interferons alpha, beta, and gamma. (
  • thereby impairs DNMT1 methyltransferase-independent transcription repressor activity, modulates DNMT1 cell cycle regulatory function and DNMT1-mediated gene silencing. (


  • Combinations of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C genes influence the risk of preeclampsia and reproductive success," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 200, no. 8, pp. 957-965, 2004. (
  • These data indicate the roles of IFI202b, Foxp3, bcl2, and further demonstrate that silencing of one gene or combinations may affect other genes and or their functions. (


  • However, abundant evidence has implicated IL-17-producing Th17 cells as the main cells involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune demyelination in EAE and MS ( Figure 2 ) [ 6 - 10 ]. (


  • The cDNA clone is shipped in a 2-D bar-coded Matrix tube as dried plasmid DNA. (

major histocompatib

  • Licensing of natural killer cells by host major histocompatibility complex class I molecules," Nature , vol. 436, no. 7051, pp. 709-713, 2005. (
  • May be involved in transduction of apoptotic signals via its association with the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). (


  • Using artificial insemination, I studied if females can obtain fecundity benefits from mating with colourful males (as predicted by Sheldon's Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis), the role of sperm number and sperm quality for sperm competition success, repeatability of a male's fertilization success and the role of MHC genes in non directional cryptic female choice. (



  • Click on a disease name to see all genes associated with that disease. (


  • Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA-C ligands in two Iranian populations," Immunogenetics , vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 65-73, 2010. (


  • A gene encoding a novel RFX-associated transactivator is mutated in the majority of MHC class II deficiency patients. (


  • This process is formed by two main mechanisms: sperm competition (competition of sperm of two or more males for the fertilization of the eggs of the same female) and cryptic female choice. (


  • In the genetically susceptible Lewis (LEW) rat, immunization with a specific peptide from MBP (see below) induces an acute episode of paralysis mediated by infiltration of activated CD4 + inflammatory T cells into the CNS, thereby duplicating important aspects characteristic of MS pathology ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Originally it was thought that CD4 + effector T cells were divided into two lineages: Th1 and Th2. (
  • Further silencing of combination of multiple genes affected other genes in addition to silenced gene/genes in tolerized CD8+T cells. (


  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS [ 1 , 2 ] that usually begins in young adulthood. (


  • Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. (


  • The two genes of the cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) locus-alpha-MHC (aMHC) and beta-MHC (bMHC)-are reciprocally regulated in the mouse ventricle during development and in adult conditions such as hypothyroidism and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. (


  • Female sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus use self-reference to optimize MHC allele number during mate selection. (