No data available that match "Genes, Bacterial"
Complex Logic Circuit Made From Bacterial Genes - Slashdot... biological circuits can be made from genes and regulatory proteins. Engineer Tae Seok Moon's dream is to design modular ' ... Complex Logic Circuit Made From Bacterial Genes 37 Posted by samzenpus on Sunday October 14, 2012 @01:28PM. from the feeding- ... "Just as electronic circuits are made from resistors, capacitors and transistors, biological circuits can be made from genes ... Complex Logic Circuit Made From Bacterial Genes More Login Complex Logic Circuit Made From Bacterial Genes. Archived Discussion ...
Bacterial Genes in the Aphid Genome: Absence of Functional Gene Transfer from Buchnera to Its HostHowever, the aphid genome does contain eight transcribed genes of apparent bacterial origin, some of which have been duplicated ... Symbiont genomes typically lose many ancestral genes, raising the question of how they function with so few genes. In ... used the newly available sequence of the pea aphid genome to conduct an exhaustive computational search for genes of bacterial ... We found that no functional genes have been transferred from Buchnera, ruling out such transfer as a driving force in genome ...
The Diversity of Sulfide Oxidation and Sulfate Reduction Genes Expressed by the Bacterial Communities of the Cariaco Basin,...The Diversity of Sulfide Oxidation and Sulfate Reduction Genes Expressed by the Bacterial Communities of the Cariaco Basin, ... The Diversity of Sulfide Oxidation and Sulfate Reduction Genes Expressed by the Bacterial Communities of the Cariaco Basin, ...
Relationship between operon preference and functional properties of persistent genes in bacterial genomes | BMC Genomics | Full...Comparison to minimal bacterial gene sets. We compared our list of 213 genes to various lists of essential genes for a minimal ... weak operon genes showed a clear trend for strong operon genes to be on average shorter than weak operon genes (Figure 10). ... Weak operon genes are longer than strong operon genes. The above discussion shows that weak operon genes to a large extent ... The gene set can reproduce established bacterial classification. Extensive similarity of genes across bacterial species may in ...
Base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16S rRNA genes and mass spectrometry analysis: A novel tool for rapid bacterial...Base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16S rRNA genes and mass spectrometry analysis: A novel tool for rapid bacterial ... Base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16S rRNA genes and mass spectrometry analysis: A novel tool for rapid bacterial ... Abstract: A rapid approach to the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based bacterial identification has been developed that combines ... In contrast to identification by MS of intact whole bacterial cells, this technique allows for the characterization of both ...
When evaluating bacterial and archaeal genomes for genes, why must researchers evaluate six open reading frames? - AnswerMenuWhen evaluating bacterial and archaeal genomes for genes, why must researchers evaluate six open reading frames? ... To map genes of a bacterial strain, conjugation must be interrupted at given times. Suppose you have Hfr cells of genotype a+b+ ... For codominant genes, a superscript is used. For example, the human blood type A allele is indicated as 'IA' and the Type B ... For codominant genes, the standard procedure of using capital and lowercase letters for the different alleles is inadequate. ...
Biology BSc - The University of NottinghamBacterial Genes and Development Molecular events that occur during the control of gene expression in bacteria will be described ... Genes, Molecules and Cells. This module combines lectures and laboratory classes and introduces you to the structure and ... You will learn about techniques that are employed to manipulate genes and genomes and how they can be applied to the field of ... Structure, Function and Analysis of Genes. This module will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of the structures of ...
2004... : Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library resource for positional cloning of pest and disease resistance genes in ... 2004 - Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library resource for positional cloning of pest and disease resistance genes in ... 2004 : Anchoring 9,371 maize expressed sequence tagged unigenes to the bacterial artificial chromosome contig map by two- ...
Transmission and maintenance cycle of Bartonella quintana among rhesus macaques, China.DNA, Bacterial / genetics. DNA, Ribosomal Spacer / genetics. Disease Vectors. Female. Genes, Bacterial. Insect Proteins / ... Bacterial levels obtained after monkey inoculation was low compared with levels in the initial inoculum, a finding similar to ... 0/DNA, Bacterial; 0/DNA, Ribosomal Spacer; 0/Insect Proteins; 9035-37-4/Cytochromes b ...
Week in Review: January 6-10 | The Scientist Magazine®Bacterial genes aid tubeworm settling; pigmentation of ancient reptiles; nascent neurons and vertebrate development; exploring ... Bacterial genes aid tubeworm settling; pigmentation of ancient reptiles; nascent neurons and vertebrate development; exploring ... COURTESY OF BRIAN NEDVEDA set of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea genes associated with the transition of the marine tubeworm ... Bacterial strains in mice's gut microbiomes mediated their pups' risk for developing abnormal behaviors. ...
Recent Articles | Co-evolution And Developmental Biology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 8Bacterial genes aid tubeworm settling; pigmentation of ancient reptiles; nascent neurons and vertebrate development; exploring ...
Recent Articles | Tick Shell And Developmental Biology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 8Bacterial genes aid tubeworm settling; pigmentation of ancient reptiles; nascent neurons and vertebrate development; exploring ... the ability of neural stem cells to make the full repertoire of neurons is regulated by the movement of key genes to the ...
Genetically modified organism - Wikipedia"Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 80 (15): 4803-4807. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80.4803 ... Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. Inserted genes usually come from a different ... adding two genes, and interfering with another. One of the added genes was for the blue plant pigment delphinidin cloned from ... "Artificial Genes". TIME. 15 November 1982. Retrieved 17 July 2010.. *^ Woodard, S. L.; Woodard, J. A.; Howard, M. E. (2004). " ...
Electron. J. Biotechnol. - vol.10 número3Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal ...
Scientists 'boot up' a bacterial cell with a synthe... ( Scientists have developed the first ...)... bacterial,cell,with,a,synthetic,genome,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device ... Scientists ID bacterial genes that improve plant growth. 2. Nano parfait a treat for scientists. 3. Berkeley Lab scientists ... Although fourteen genes were deleted or disrupted in the transplant bacteria, they still looked like normal M. mycoides ... Scientists 'boot up' a bacterial cell with a synthetic genome. ...Scientists have developed the first cell controlled by a ...
Agriculture | 2010 | Achievements | News and Communications Services | DCM | Kansas State UniversityHe also identified bacterial genes naturally present in some plant genomes. White recently also characterized the family of ... bacterial virulence factors that alter the expression of plant genes and condition the plant for either susceptibility or ... White discovered a group of genes that are transferred from bacteria to plants during infection. ...
Forster Lab - OpenWetWareExperience with constructing libraries of bacterial genes, bacterial translation or RNA is a plus. Please mail a letter of ... Experience with bacterial translation or RNA is a plus. Please mail a letter of interest. , C.V. and names/e. -. mail addresses ... Experience with bacterial translation or RNA is a plus. Please mail a letter of interest, C.V. and names/e-mail addresses/phone ... 6. Proposed a list of genes essential for reconstitution of translation (a 'minimal translatome') and have begun synthesizing ...
The genome of Th17 cell-inducing segmented filamentous bacteria reveals extensive auxotrophy and adaptations to the intestinal...Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. Bioinformatics. 2007;23:673-679. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... genes versus "missing" genes. α=0.75 encourages greater similarity to genomes containing a high fraction of SFB genes (i.e. X ... We generated primers for five SFB-unique genes and examined their representation in eight human samples. Although all genes ... SFB carry an expected complement of core genes and a reduced number of variable genes and modules (Table S6A). Furthermore, ...
Browsing Biology, Department of by TitleEvolution of Mutator Genes in Bacterial Populations: The Roles of Environmental Change and Timing Tanaka, Mark M.; Bergstrom ... A simple mathematical model of bacterial transmission within a hospital was used to study the effects of measures to control ...
The Tripartite Type III Secreton of Shigella flexneri Inserts Ipab and Ipac into Host Membranes | JCBThis gram-negative bacterium causes disease by invading the colonic mucosa (Hale 1998). All bacterial genes necessary for entry ... Invasion of bacterial cells by bacterial pathogens: the paradigm of Shigella. In Subcellular Biochemistry: Bacterial Invasion ... bacterial extract) at the same concentration. Subsequently, 20 μl of the supernatants (for the bacterial extract, the bacterial ... 1993) Eight genes in region 5 that form an operon are essential for invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri 2a. J. ...
Gentamicin resistance genes in environmental bacteria: prevalence and transfer - Heuer - 2002 - FEMS Microbiology Ecology -...Table 3. Bacterial hosts of gentamicinr genes *. aMIS, similarity of the fatty acid methyl ester profile to TSBA database entry ... Gmr genes were also detected in genera which were phylogenetically distant or at least different from the bacterial species ... The Gm-resistant bacterial strains and mobile plasmids conferring Gm resistance, where the genes for Gm-modifying enzymes known ... Previous article in issue: Prevalence of streptomycin-resistance genes in bacterial populations in European habitats Previous ...
Different Types of Diatom-Derived Extracellular Polymeric Substances Drive Changes in Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities from...PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes PCR amplifications were carried out using bacterial primers 341GC-F ( ... and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the addition of both types of EPS greatly altered the bacterial ... The composition of the bacterial communities was assessed from 16S rRNA genes libraries constructed from the DNA extracts of ... Raw pyrosequences of amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes from all the samples can be extracted from the European Nucleotide ...
Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung | Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research |: TeamM.G. Höfle, I. Brettar, B. Engelen, A. Berry, E. Wellington, D. De la Broise, C. Sjöholm (2000). Marine bacterial genes and ... 2012). Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links ... of bacterial pathogens. that are present in our food and drinking water. Using high-resolution methods, the researchers are ... Pereira, R. P. A., R., Peplies, J., M. G. Höfle and I. Brettar, I (2017) Bacterial community dynamics in a cooling tower with ...
2008-2009 Lecturers and TopicsThe Rapid Evolution of Bacterial Genes and Pathways for Biodegradation of Synthetic Organic Compound. ... Signal Strength, Fidelity, and the Phosphorylation Cycle in Bacterial Two-component Signaling. ...
SISIUS: Ficha personal: Manuel Meg as GuijoControl of the expression of bacterial genes involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. En: World Journal of Microbiology & ... Influencia del Estr s Salino Sobre la Expresi n de los Genes de Nodulaci n y Bios ntesis de las Mol culas Se al de R. Tropici ... Estudio de los Genes Espec ficos del Transporte de los Factores de Nodulaci n Producidos Por Ensifer Fredii Hh103-1. Poster en ... Nodi and Nodj Genes of Ensifer Fredii Hh103 Play a Role in NOD Factor Secretion Efficiency. Poster en Congreso. 8th European ...
No data available that match "Genes, Bacterial"
(1/25659) Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis.
AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection. (+info)
(2/25659) Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes.
Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution. (+info)
(3/25659) A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer.
A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction. (+info)
(4/25659) Cloning and expression of the dnaK gene of Campylobacter jejuni and antigenicity of heat shock protein 70.
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea throughout the world. In addition, there is growing evidence that Guillain-Barre syndrome, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, is frequently preceded by C. jejuni infection. In the present study, the hrcA-grpE-dnaK gene cluster of C. jejuni was cloned and sequenced. The dnaK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,869 bp and encodes a protein with a high degree of homology to other bacterial 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs). The overall percentages of identity to the HSP70 proteins of Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Bacillus subtilis were calculated to be 78.1, 60.5, 57.2, and 53. 8%, respectively. Regions similar to the Escherichia coli sigma70 promoter consensus sequence and to a cis-acting regulatory element (CIRCE) are located upstream of the hrcA gene. Following heat shock, a rapid increase of dnaK mRNA was detectable, which reached its maximum after 20 to 30 min. A 6-His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein (rCjDnaK-His) was generated in E. coli, after cloning of the dnaK coding region into pET-22b(+), and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Antibody responses to rCjDnaK-His were significantly elevated, compared to those of healthy individuals, in about one-third of the serum specimens obtained from C. jejuni enteritis patients. (+info)
(5/25659) Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes.
The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved. (+info)
(6/25659) Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin.
The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome. (+info)
(7/25659) Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae.
The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors. (+info)
(8/25659) Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants.
Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein. (+info)
- However, comparisons between different bacterial genomes have shown that much of the operon structure is dynamic on an evolutionary time scale. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have used multi-species protein-protein comparisons to generate a high-quality set of genes that are persistent in bacterial genomes (i.e. they have close to universal distribution). (biomedcentral.com)
- The purpose of this study has been to improve our understanding of operons in bacterial genomes by analysing the organisation of genes across a large set of genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Operons are considered to be one of the major structural and regulatory features of prokaryotic genomes [ 1 ], but our understanding of the driving forces behind operon formation and the balance between individually regulated genes versus genes in operons is still incomplete. (biomedcentral.com)
- When evaluating bacterial and archaeal genomes for genes, why must researchers evaluate six open reading frames? (answermenu.com)
- He also identified bacterial genes naturally present in some plant genomes. (k-state.edu)
- The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genes-two or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- All Dehalococcoides genomes contain a variety of genes indicating genomic rearrangements and mobile elements, such as transposases, integrases or site-specific recombinases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Cluster analysis or distance matrix tree construction based on the co-occurrence of genomes in COGs showed that A. pernix forms a distinct group within the archaea, although grouping with the two species of Pyrococci, indicative of similar repertoires of conserved genes, was observed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16S rRNA genes and mass spectrometry analysis: A novel tool for rapid bacterial identification. (uncg.edu)
- Microbial biomass increased ~4-6-fold over 9 days, and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the addition of both types of EPS greatly altered the bacterial community composition (from 0 to 9 days) compared to a control with no added EPS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Genes in bacteria may be organised into operons, leading to strict co-expression of the genes that participate in the same operon. (biomedcentral.com)
- A rapid approach to the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based bacterial identification has been developed that combines uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG)-mediated base-specific fragmentation of PCR products with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). 16S rDNA signature sequences were PCR-amplified from both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria in the presence of dUTP instead of dTTP. (uncg.edu)
- In contrast to identification by MS of intact whole bacterial cells, this technique allows for the characterization of both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria. (uncg.edu)
- Boyer and Cohen expressed other genes in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- Although fourteen genes were deleted or disrupted in the transplant bacteria, they still looked like normal M. mycoides bacteria and produced only M. mycoides proteins, the authors report. (bio-medicine.org)
- White discovered a group of genes that are transferred from bacteria to plants during infection. (k-state.edu)
- The strains belonged to genera in which the genes had previously been detected (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas , Acinetobacter ) but also to phylogenetically distant bacteria, such as members of the CFB group, α- and β-Proteobacteria. (wiley.com)
- They then tested their predictions by deleting those genes in bacteria and confirming that the bacteria experienced increased production of reactive oxygen and an increased sensitivity to oxidants. (princeton.edu)
- There are three bacterial genes, ectA, ectB and ectC, that encode the enzymes catalysing ectoine synthesis in bacteria. (uio.no)
- As a result, the DNA profile of a pathogenic bacteria may be incomplete," says Vincent Fischetti, head of the Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology. (medindia.net)
- Not only did extra chromosomal phages appear widespread among these strains, but the researchers found evidence that these phages encode genes that can make the bacteria more dangerous. (medindia.net)
- For example, when the researchers decoded the complete sequence of one extra chromosomal circular phage from a disease-causing Staphylococcus , they identified a number of genes that may help this strain evade a host's immune system and that could readily spread to other Staphylococcus bacteria. (medindia.net)
- Several proteins that are conserved in Euryarchaeota and most bacteria are unexpectedly missing in A. pernix , including the entire set of de novo purine biosynthesis enzymes, the GTPase FtsZ (a key component of the bacterial and euryarchaeal cell-division machinery), and the tRNA-specific pseudouridine synthase, previously considered universal. (biomedcentral.com)
- Just as electronic circuits are made from resistors, capacitors and transistors, biological circuits can be made from genes and regulatory proteins. (slashdot.org)
- Genes for ribosomal proteins show a very slow rate of evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is consistent with a strong tendency for the genes to participate in operons and for their proteins to be involved in essential and well defined complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Persistent genes for non-ribosomal proteins can be separated into two classes according to tendency to participate in operons. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genes with a weak tendency for operon participation tend to produce proteins with more interaction partners, but possibly in more dynamic complexes and convergent pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. (rupress.org)
antibiotic resistance genes
- 2. Metagenomic discovery of antibiotic resistance genes in humans, and overcoming resistance by antisense bacteriophage therapy. (openwetware.org)
- Church's only gripe is that the samples were 30,000 years old, even though antibiotic resistance genes have likely been around for a billion years. (sciencemag.org)
- These phages and plasmids can easily move between bacterial cells, and scientists have known for some time that, as a result, these so-called mobile genetic elements can play important roles in virulence and antibiotic resistance. (medindia.net)
- The research team, led by Craig Venter of the J. Craig Venter Institute, has already chemically synthesized a bacterial genome, and it has transplanted the genome of one bacterium to another. (bio-medicine.org)
- The causality might be indirect: because most mutations are harmful, the high mutation rate will limit genome length, and thus new genes or gene regions must come from overlapping ( Holmes 2009 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Researchers find evidence that transposable elements, also known as jumping genes, may contribute to the development of the psychiatric disorder. (the-scientist.com)
- White recently also characterized the family of bacterial virulence factors that alter the expression of plant genes and condition the plant for either susceptibility or resistance to disease. (k-state.edu)
- A comprehensive multiphasic survey of the prevalence and transfer of gentamicin resistance (Gm r ) genes in different non-clinical environments has been performed. (wiley.com)
- Furthermore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of selective pressure on the abundance and mobility of resistance genes. (wiley.com)
- Indeed, the researchers isolated resistance genes from bacterial DNA preserved in ice for more than 30,000 years. (sciencemag.org)
- When the researchers analyzed DNA from the drill cores back in the lab, they found fragments of genes conferring resistance against various antibiotics, such as penicillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. (sciencemag.org)
- But even the current study holds an important lesson about ecology, he says: With so many resistance genes present in nature, no antibiotic can last forever. (sciencemag.org)
- Is the Subject Area "Bacterial genomics" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Type III secretons are found in many other pathogenic gram-negative bacterial species that have developed diverse survival strategies within their hosts. (rupress.org)
- Using high-resolution methods, the researchers are able to readily identify individual pathogenic bacterial strains. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- To map genes of a bacterial strain, conjugation must be interrupted at given times. (answermenu.com)
- In some tests, the researchers added carboxin, a chemical compound often used as a fungicide, which mimicked the effects of altering one of the genes. (princeton.edu)
- The researchers are now studying what role, if any, these viral genes play in this strain's ability to cause disease. (medindia.net)
- A new research report appearing online in The FASEB Journal , shows that introducing new genetic material via a viral vector into the sperm of mice leads to the presence and activity of those genes in the resulting embryos. (scienceblog.com)
- In mutants of some genes encoding the secretion machinery the organelle was absent, whereas ipaB and ipaC mutants displayed normal secretons. (rupress.org)
- We focus on Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , for which several type II, III, IV and VI secretion system genes are already available in the public collection. (belspo.be)
- The operon structure leads to a strongly coordinated expression or repression of a set of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- COURTESY OF BRIAN NEDVED A set of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea genes associated with the transition of the marine tubeworm Hydroides elegans from a free-swimming larva to its sedentary state encodes components of structures that resemble the contractile tails of bacterial viruses, or phage. (the-scientist.com)
- Phage elements, including those not integrated into chromosomes, are part of a bacterial system for regulating genes. (medindia.net)
- For instance, some of these phage elements can activate or silence bacterial genes by moving into or out of the chromosome. (medindia.net)
- New approaches to diagnosing bacterial infections may one day allow the identification of pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in a matter of hours or minutes. (the-scientist.com)
- Genes in the same operon are usually separated by fewer than 20 intergenic base pairs and are often conserved across species by vertical inheritance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Inserted genes usually come from a different species in a form of horizontal gene-transfer . (wikipedia.org)
- Using their computer model, the team predicted which bacterial genes are likely involved in regulating reactive oxygen species production. (princeton.edu)
- Mice with genes knocked out ( knockout mouse ) were created in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
- Climate change effects on planktonic bacterial communities in the ocean - from structure and function to long-term and large scale observations.In J. Marxsen (ed. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- :1 Various advancements in genetics allowed humans to directly alter the DNA and therefore genes of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Get ready: The "new genetics" promises to change faulty genes of future generations by introducing new, functioning genes using "designer sperm. (scienceblog.com)
- Six clusters of genes coding for Gm-modifying enzymes ( aac ( 3 )-I, aac ( 3 )-II/VI, aac ( 3 )-III/IV, aac ( 6 ′)-II/Ib, ant ( 2 ″)-I, aph ( 2 ″)-I) were identified based on a database comparison and primer systems for each gene cluster were developed. (wiley.com)
- We have analysed these genes with respect to operon participation and important functional properties, including evolutionary rate and protein-protein interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- An operon is transcribed into a single polycistronic mRNA, and the genes in an operon often (but not always) code for gene products in the same functional pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cloning and functional analysis of genes from bacterial defense systems. (belspo.be)
- Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. (wikipedia.org)
- You will explore the remarkable diversity of life on Earth, and learn about the fundamental building blocks of life: genes, molecules and cells. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Scientists 'boot up' a bacterial cell with a synthe. (bio-medicine.org)
- Genes that are not regulated through operons are therefore more evolutionary constrained than the corresponding operon-associated genes and will on average evolve more slowly. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the fruit fly, the ability of neural stem cells to make the full repertoire of neurons is regulated by the movement of key genes to the nuclear periphery. (the-scientist.com)
- All bacterial genes necessary for entry into host cells have been identified. (rupress.org)
- We wanted to insert the three genes into a suitable vector and transform the resulting construct into the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii in order to produce ectoine in C. reinhardtii cells and increase salt tolerance. (uio.no)
- In only 34 of 207 isolates, mainly originating from sewage, faeces and coastal water polluted with wastewater, were known Gm r genes corresponding to five of the six clusters detected. (wiley.com)
- An updated analysis of the gut microbiome extends the list of known bacterial genes to 9.8 million. (the-scientist.com)
- Gm r genes located on mobile genetic elements (MGE) could be captured in exogenous isolations into recipients belonging to α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria from all environments except for soil. (wiley.com)
- For codominant genes, the standard procedure of using capital and lowercase letters for the different alleles is inadequate. (answermenu.com)
- This included genes from the toad Xenopus laevis in 1974, creating the first GMO expressing a gene from an organism from different kingdom . (wikipedia.org)
- We were interested to find out whether Gm r genes described from clinical isolates can be detected in different environmental habitats and whether hot spots can be identified. (wiley.com)
- Gene transcription is strongly regulated, and the transcription of individual genes is controlled by transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- The analyses performed in this study focus on the properties of genes and gene products in relationship to operon organisation. (biomedcentral.com)
- A study implicates the breaking up of bacterial biofilms on fatty plaques in arteries as causing stroke or heart attack following stress. (the-scientist.com)
- Molecular detection of Gm r genes, and broad host range plasmid-specific sequences (IncP-1, IncN, IncW and IncQ) in environmental DNA indicated a habitat-specific dissemination. (wiley.com)
- :25 The process of selective breeding , in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes ) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)