Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Swimming PoolsGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genealogy and HeraldryEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Genetic Structures: The biological objects that contain genetic information and that are involved in transmitting genetically encoded traits from one organism to another.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.EuropeAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

*  Diversifying the Gene Pool, Sex Trafficking in Kiryas Joel??? | LOSTMESSIAH
Polish Sex Slaves Imported to Kiryas Joel to Help Increase the Fundamentalist Satmar Gene Pool??? by: LostMessiah, March 11, ... HomeDiversifying the Gene Pool, Sex Trafficking in Kiryas Joel??? Diversifying the Gene Pool, Sex Trafficking in Kiryas Joel??? ... 4 thoughts on "Diversifying the Gene Pool, Sex Trafficking in Kiryas Joel???" * SML says: ... Their gene pool needs chlorinating not diversifying; in fact a megadose of burn-out would be even better. ...
*  How Gene Pools Work | HowStuffWorks
... and your DNA is part of the human gene pool. Find out what the 'gene pool' really is and what happens when it shrinks. ... shrinking gene pool.. In this article, we'll talk about what a gene pool is and how it can grow and shrink (and we won't demand ... To understand a gene pool, you need to know a little bit about genes, right? If you've read How Cells Work, then you are ... People throw around the term 'gene pool' both seriously and comically. On the funny end of the spectrum, you have things like ...
*  Uzbekistan Plunges Into Gene Pool To Spot Future Olympians
We have no clue what most genes do. So if you make a decision based on a small number of genes, which presumably is what is ... David Epstein, a sports science journalist and author of the best-selling book 'The Sports Gene,' explains that genes are ... The idea of gene testing is source of controversy, with supporters viewing it as a new frontier in sports science and critics ... In practice, Muhamedov says that after the 50 genes of a child are tested from a blood sample, 'their parents will be told what ...
*  Gene pool - Wikipedia
Tertiary gene pool (GP-3): Members of this gene pool are more distantly related to the members of the primary gene pool. The ... The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species. A large gene ... Primary gene pool (GP-1): Members of this gene pool are probably in the same "species" (in conventional biological usage) and ... "gene pool." Harlan and de Wet (1971) proposed classifying each crop and its related species by gene pools rather than by formal ...
*  Gene pool - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A gene pool is the set of all possible variations (alleles) of all genes of a population. It is a concept in population ... For example, plants have genes that say what colour their flowers will be. The gene pool of peas has an allele for red flowers ... Retrieved from "" ...
*  World's Gene Pool Crucial for Survival - The Poultry Site
The Commission, the only intergovernmental body to specifically address all matters related to the world's gene pool for food ... when it was found to carry genes resistant to many types of disease-causing fungi. Plant breeders now use those genes to ... For example, a variety of Turkish wheat, collected and stored in a seed gene bank in 1948, was rediscovered in the 1980s, ... and their genes - and some hold the key to climate change adaptation. Not only must we conserve that genetic diversity, but we ...
*  Out of the Gene Pool - Wikipedia
Out of the Gene Pool was an American comic strip drawn by Matt Janz that appeared daily in newspapers from December 31, 2001 ... The final storyline of the Out of the Gene Pool/Single and Looking strip began on June 15, 2008. Sam and Jackie were standing ... The Washington Post Writers Group, which syndicated Out of the Gene Pool, helped Janz develop the strip into what eventually ... Immediately after the strip concluded, Andrews McMeel Universal began carrying reruns of Out of the Gene Pool on their website ...
*  Pedigree Query • View topic - Girls vs. Boys in the gene pool?
Every gene could be one or the other, there are millions of genes. You breed and hope you got the right combination when it ... Does that mean that I have to find a stallion that has a good if not great female side to pass on the female genes? Am I ... If the horses in question don't have the gene, they CAN NOT pass it on. Simply because a horse has a famous ancestor, doesn't ... And while I don't know if there is any science to back this up, but there may be an interaction between mtDNA and genes on ...
*  which of the following cannot cause change in gene pool a) mutation b)
Genetic drift results in a change in gene frequencies because a. gene flow within the population is less than gene flow between ... which of the following cannot cause change in gene pool a) mutation b) migration c) meiosis d) genetic drift ... Genetic engineering is the manipulation of genes using cloning and transformation to change the gene structure. Genetic ... Make a single base pair substitution mutation in the gene below that results in a protein that is shorter than the protein ...
*  Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan institute of the Gene pool of plants and Animals
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan institute of the Gene pool of plants and Animals GBIF publisher since. 19 ... Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan institute of the Gene pool of plants and Animals. Tashkent city, Yunusobod ... The priority research areas are: Analysis and evaluation of the gene pool of flora and fauna of Uzbekistan, development of ...
*  Dead End Gene Pool | Book Line and Sinker
Review: Dead End Gene Pool by Wendy Burden. April 12, 2010 Title: Dead End Gene Pool Author: Wendy Burden Genre/Pages: Memoir/ ...
*  SCIENTIFIC PROOF: Today's poisons will pollute the gene pool until the year 2300 - both internal and external environmental...
SCIENTIFIC PROOF: Today's poisons will pollute the gene pool until the year 2300 - both internal and external environmental ... SCIENTIFIC PROOF: Today's poisons will pollute the gene pool until the year 2300 - both internal and external environmental ...",SCIENTIFIC ... ...
*  "Emo Could "Damage Our Gene Pool"" / Music Forum // Drowned In Sound
Emo could 'damage our gene pool'' simon_t [Edit] [Delete] 8 replies 16:56, 29 December '10 ...
*  Fitting in: Newly evolved genes adopt a variety of strategies to remain in the gene pool
... By PvM ... Of the 672 genes involved in yeast metabolism, 295 genes can be classified into 105 families of duplicates. To put this into ... each of these mechanisms plays a substantial and important role in the maintenance of functional duplicates in the gene pool. ... gene dosage, where the increased expression provided by the duplicate gene copy augments production of the corresponding ...
*  Spring Reading Series Announcement! Dead End Gene Pool by Wendy Burden
DEAD END GENE POOL by Wendy Burden! It's dark. It's funny. And it's all true! Here's a synopsis: In the tradition of Sean ... Put "DEAD END GENE POOL" in the subject line, but please only request the book if you are interested in coming back for the ... DEAD END GENE POOL by Wendy Burden!. It's dark. It's funny. And it's all true! Here's a synopsis:. In the tradition of Sean ... Dead End Gene Pool will be in stores on April 1st, 2010, and the discussion will take place here on May 18th - with the author ...
*  In the Studio: The Gene Pool
There are only two worthwhile things to leave behind when you depart this world of ours: children and art" -Stephen Sondheim After nearly twenty years as a medical illustrator, I realized that I had no artwork to "leave behind." Inspired by my daughters' spontaneous and prolific artwork, I transitioned from representational work of a didactic nature to explore expressionism. Contemporary works, with an antique aesthetic, influenced by emotion and medium rather than subject. To capture a memory, a mood, an atmosphere, yet often incorporating a figure or an object gathered from the landscape. Favoring texture and muted tones, I work in layers, deliberately creating patina...finding beauty in imperfection ...
*  Deep End of the Gene Pool: Beautiful Bird's Nest
The edge is not the extreme; it is the boundary between old, tired beliefs and new, unexplored territory. Those on the edge of the pack are the wild ones whose positions provoke a rethinking of assumptions, who spark epiphanies and change lives. These are the people I want to know. ...
*  Idiots who drowned in the gene pool #44 | Thomas Rydder
Posted in: Idiots Who Drowned in the Gene Pool. Tagged: Apartment, Austria, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Drowning, The ... Idiots who drowned in the gene pool #44. Posted by Thomas Rydder on July 10, 2013 ...
*  A History of Histrionics: Get thee gone from the gene pool!*
The Kiev authorities have ruled this a suicide, but I think that there is more to the story. It seems obvious to me that this was no mere suicide, but a propaganda stunt concocted by the Evil Atheist Conspiracy. The poor guy was only a patsy. *Alternately titled: "In which I show a stunningly offensive lack of sensitivity.". ...
*  Deep End of the Gene Pool: Mr. Churchill, meet Mr. Churchill
Winston Churchill said "history is written by the victors" which has been a central thesis in much of Ward Churchill's work. It's scrumptiously ironic that when Ward Churchill wins his case against CU, he'll become a contributor to the "Master Narrative" he so despises. I'm guessing his chapter will be full of tales of brave Indiginists and murdering technocrats, white male regents and the soulless women who love them. Academia will be recast as the valiant protector of the ruling elite and the mighty slayer of free thought and open debate. The jury of young, multiracial, unsophisticates will be consecrated as puissant defenders of justice. A few vindictive ex-wives and some illicit boys' room puffing may be tossed in to add color ...
*  Used Wheelchairs and Assistive Equipment, Burlington
Car Pool Lots Halton Car Pool Lots: Milton: * 401 and Trafalgar Rd (northeast corner just above 401) * 401 and Hwy 25 ( ... this is the gene ... [More] ...
*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: 02/2013
... the likely separation of the Tuscan and Anatolian gene pools must be placed long before the onset of the Etruscan culture, at ... In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 ... initial mtDNA gene pool separation c. 8,000 years ago with the onset of the Neolithic + later admixture during the Bronze Age ... contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of ...

Gene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.Grand Harbor Resort and Waterpark: thumbnail|right|300px|The Grand Harbor Hotel, a portion of the Waterpark is visible in the right hand corner of this photo.Genetic variation: right|thumbBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Phaseolus maculatus: Phaseolus maculatus (Metcalfe bean, prairie bean, spotted bean) is a plant native to Mexico and the southwestern United States from Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. It is found on dry, rocky hillsides in meadows and in wooded areas from 1500–2400 m (5000–8000 ft) in elevation.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Indigenous peoples of SiberiaTimeline of historic inventionsMECACAR: Operation MECACAR (currently known as MECACAR New Millennium) is a multi-national immunization program launched in 1995 by the World Health Organization to coordinate polio vaccination efforts (currently it is also used to coordinated measles and rubella vaccination efforts). The name of the operation was derived from the names of the regions participating in the operation: Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasus, Central Asian Republics and Russia.California Wolf Center: California Wolf Center is a 501(c)3 nonprofit located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the town of Julian, California. It is a one-of-a-kind, conservation, education, and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Atomic heraldry: Atomic heraldry is heraldry characterised by the appearance of charges including the atom or showing the motion of parts of the atom; more loosely, it may describe heraldry in which atoms or the component parts thereof are represented through a combination of other charges. Obviously, this is a late development in heraldry.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Genetic structure: Genetic structure refers to any pattern in the genetic makeup of individuals within a population.Sade LiveWater supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.Salvia nemorosa: Salvia nemorosa (woodland sage, Balkan clary) is a hardy herbaceous perennial plant native to a wide area of central Europe and Western Asia.Coles PhillipsManuae (Cook Islands): Manuae is an uninhabited atoll in the southern group of the Cook Islands, 100 kilometres south-east of Aitutaki. It is administratively part of Aitutaki, but does not belong to any district or tapere of Aitutaki.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.GA²LENInfinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Lampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoGlobal microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Far East Movement discography: The discography of Far East Movement, an American electronic pop rap group, consists of four studio albums, four extended plays, four mixtapes, eighteen singles (including three as featured artists) and thirty-three music videos. The group formed in 2003 in Los Angeles and released their first mixtape, Audio-Bio, in 2005, with their first studio album Folk Music following in 2006.Plant breedingHorizontal gene transfer in evolutionComputational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Gene polymorphismSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.PaleopolyploidyLiliana Rojas-Suarez: Liliana Rojas-Suarez is a Peruvian-born economist, specializing in financial regulatory policy and the impact of global capital flows on development, especially in Latin American countries. She is currently a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development and serves as the chair of the Latin-American Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee (CLAAF).Nippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asAmplified fragment length polymorphismRV coefficient: In statistics, the RV coefficient

(1/177) DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the neandertal type specimen.

The DNA sequence of the second hypervariable region of the mitochondrial control region of the Neandertal type specimen, found in 1856 in central Europe, has been determined from 92 clones derived from eight overlapping amplifications performed from four independent extracts. When the reconstructed sequence is analyzed together with the previously determined DNA sequence from the first hypervariable region, the Neandertal mtDNA is found to fall outside a phylogenetic tree relating the mtDNAs of contemporary humans. The date of divergence between the mtDNAs of the Neandertal and contemporary humans is estimated to 465,000 years before the present, with confidence limits of 317,000 and 741,000 years. Taken together, the results support the concept that the Neandertal mtDNA evolved separately from that of modern humans for a substantial amount of time and lends no support to the idea that they contributed mtDNA to contemporary modern humans.  (+info)

(2/177) Cryptic species of rockfishes (Sebastes: Scorpaenidae) in the southern hemisphere inferred from mitochondrial lineages.

We used mitochondrial DNA sequence variation of Sebastes from the southeastern Pacific and three localities in the South Atlantic to address long-standing systematic and evolutionary issues regarding the number of species in the Southern Hemisphere. Sequences of the hypervariable mitochondrial control region were obtained from 10 specimens of S. capensis from South Africa (n = 5) and from Tristan da Cunha Island (n = 5) and 27 of S. oculatus from Valparaiso, Chile (n = 10), and the Falkland Islands (n = 17). Results of the study include (1) significant levels of genetic differentiation among the sampled populations (phi ST = 0.225, P < .000001), thus indicating limited gene flow; (2) corroboration of the existence of two different lineages of austral Sebastes corresponding to S. capensis and S. oculatus; (3) finding that S. capensis is not restricted to Tristan da Cunha and South Africa, but is widespread across the South Atlantic; (4) the position of S. capensis as the ancestral lineage of the austral Sebastes; (5) the existence of a third evolutionary lineage with high levels of genetic divergence, particularly abundant in the south-western Atlantic, which may be recognized as a third austral species of Sebastes.  (+info)

(3/177) Molecular genetics of the Finnish disease heritage.

Finland, located at the edge of the inhabitable world, is one of the best-studied genetic isolates. The characteristic features of population isolates-founder effect, genetic drift and isolation-have, over the centuries, shaped the gene pool of the Finns. Finnish diseases have been a target of extensive genetic research and the majority of some 35 disease genes enriched in this population have been identified; the molecular and cellular consequences of disease mutations are currently being characterized. Special strategies taking advantage of linkage disequilibrium have been efficiently used in the initial mapping and restriction of Finnish disease loci and this has stimulated development of novel statistical approaches in the disease gene hunt. Identification of mutated genes has provided tools for detailed analyses of molecular pathogenesis in Finnish diseases, many of which reveal a distinct tissue specificity of clinical phenotype. Often these studies have not only clarified the molecular detail of Finnish diseases, but also provided novel information on biological processes and metabolic pathways essential for normal development and function of human cells and tissues.  (+info)

(4/177) mtDNA and the origin of the Icelanders: deciphering signals of recent population history.

Previous attempts to investigate the origin of the Icelanders have provided estimates of ancestry ranging from a 98% British Isles contribution to an 86% Scandinavian contribution. We generated mitochondrial sequence data for 401 Icelandic individuals and compared these data with >2,500 other European sequences from published sources, to determine the probable origins of women who contributed to Iceland's settlement. Although the mean number of base-pair differences is high in the Icelandic sequences and they are widely distributed in the overall European mtDNA phylogeny, we find a smaller number of distinct mitochondrial lineages, compared with most other European populations. The frequencies of a number of mtDNA lineages in the Icelanders deviate noticeably from those in neighboring populations, suggesting that founder effects and genetic drift may have had a considerable influence on the Icelandic gene pool. This is in accordance with available demographic evidence about Icelandic population history. A comparison with published mtDNA lineages from European populations indicates that, whereas most founding females probably originated from Scandinavia and the British Isles, lesser contributions from other populations may also have taken place. We present a highly resolved phylogenetic network for the Icelandic data, identifying a number of previously unreported mtDNA lineage clusters and providing a detailed depiction of the evolutionary relationships between European mtDNA clusters. Our findings indicate that European populations contain a large number of closely related mitochondrial lineages, many of which have not yet been sampled in the current comparative data set. Consequently, substantial increases in sample sizes that use mtDNA data will be needed to obtain valid estimates of the diverse ancestral mixtures that ultimately gave rise to contemporary populations.  (+info)

(5/177) Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of the Jewish Diaspora. A set of 18 biallelic polymorphisms was genotyped in 1,371 males from 29 populations, including 7 Jewish (Ashkenazi, Roman, North African, Kurdish, Near Eastern, Yemenite, and Ethiopian) and 16 non-Jewish groups from similar geographic locations. The Jewish populations were characterized by a diverse set of 13 haplotypes that were also present in non-Jewish populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A series of analyses was performed to address whether modern Jewish Y-chromosome diversity derives mainly from a common Middle Eastern source population or from admixture with neighboring non-Jewish populations during and after the Diaspora. Despite their long-term residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. Admixture estimates suggested low levels of European Y-chromosome gene flow into Ashkenazi and Roman Jewish communities. A multidimensional scaling plot placed six of the seven Jewish populations in a relatively tight cluster that was interspersed with Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations, including Palestinians and Syrians. Pairwise differentiation tests further indicated that these Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations were not statistically different. The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora.  (+info)

(6/177) MtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in Hungary: inferences from the palaeolithic, neolithic and Uralic influences on the modern Hungarian gene pool.

Magyars imposed their language on Hungarians but seem not to have affected their genetic structure. To better investigate this point, we analysed some mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in a sample of the Hungarian Paloc who, for historical reasons, could have retained genetic traces of Magyars more than other groups. In addition, we examined a mixed sample from Budapest. About 100 individuals were tested for the markers defining all the European and Asian mtDNA haplogroups and about 50 individuals for some Y chromosome markers, namely the 12f2 and 49a,f/TaqI RFLPs, the YAP insertion, the microsatellites YCAIIa, YCAIIb, DYS19 and the Asian 50f2/C deletion. In the mtDNA analysis only two subjects belonged to the Asian B and M haplogroups. The Y chromosome analyses showed that the Paloc differed from the Budapest sample by the absence of YAP+ allele and by the DYS19 allele distribution; that the proto-European 49a,f Ht 15 and the neolithic 12f2-8Kb were rather uncommon in both groups; that there is a high prevalence of the 49a,f Ht 11 and the YCAII a5-b1; and that the Asian 50f2/C deletion is absent. These results suggest that the influence of Magyars on the Hungarian gene pool has been very low through both females and males and the Hungarian language could be an example of cultural dominance. Alternative explanations are discussed. An expansion centred on YAP-, 49a,f Ht 11 is revealed by the median network based on compound haplotypes. 49a,f Ht 11 could represent either a paleolithic marker of eastern Europe which underwent expansion after the last glacial period, or a marker of the more recent spread of the Yamnaia culture from southern Ukraine.  (+info)

(7/177) The ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA lineages.

We have analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs for hypervariable segment (HVS)-I and selected restriction fragment-length-polymorphism sites, to assess their ancestry in different continents. The total sample showed nearly equal amounts of Native American, African, and European matrilineal genetic contribution but with regional differences within Brazil. The mtDNA pool of present-day Brazilians clearly reflects the imprints of the early Portuguese colonization process (involving directional mating), as well as the recent immigrant waves (from Europe) of the last century. The subset of 99 mtDNAs from the southeastern region encompasses nearly all mtDNA haplogroups observed in the total Brazilian sample; for this regional subset, HVS-II was analyzed, providing, in particular, some novel details of the African mtDNA phylogeny.  (+info)

(8/177) Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic ancestry in the male settlers of Iceland.

We present findings based on a study of Y-chromosome diallelic and microsatellite variation in 181 Icelanders, 233 Scandinavians, and 283 Gaels from Ireland and Scotland. All but one of the Icelandic Y chromosomes belong to haplogroup 1 (41.4%), haplogroup 2 (34.2%), or haplogroup 3 (23.8%). We present phylogenetic networks of Icelandic Y-chromosome variation, using haplotypes constructed from seven diallelic markers and eight microsatellite markers, and we propose two new clades. We also report, for the first time, the phylogenetic context of the microsatellite marker DYS385 in Europe. A comparison of haplotypes based on six diallelic loci and five microsatellite loci indicates that some Icelandic haplogroup-1 chromosomes are likely to have a Gaelic origin, whereas for most Icelandic haplogroup-2 and -3 chromosomes, a Scandinavian origin is probable. The data suggest that 20%-25% of Icelandic founding males had Gaelic ancestry, with the remainder having Norse ancestry. The closer relationship with the Scandinavian Y-chromosome pool is supported by the results of analyses of genetic distances and lineage sharing. These findings contrast with results based on mtDNA data, which indicate closer matrilineal links with populations of the British Isles. This supports the model, put forward by some historians, that the majority of females in the Icelandic founding population had Gaelic ancestry, whereas the majority of males had Scandinavian ancestry.  (+info)

  • Dead End Gene Pool
  • In Dead End Gene Pool, Wendy invites readers to meet her tragically flawed family, including an uncle with a fondness for Hitler, a grandfather who believes you can never have enough household staff, and a remarkably flatulent grandmother. (
  • Rife with humor, heartbreak, family intrigue, and booze, Dead End Gene Pool offers a glimpse into the fascinating world of old money and gives truth to an old maxim: The rich are different. (
  • I have 20 COPIES of DEAD END GENE POOL available for our reading series, compliments of Gotham Books, a division of Penguin Group! (
  • Dead End Gene Pool will be in stores on April 1st, 2010, and the discussion will take place here on May 18th - with the author participating 'live' for an hour! (
  • explains
  • David Epstein, a sports science journalist and author of the best-selling book 'The Sports Gene,' explains that genes are important in terms of athletic achievement and development. (
  • Our results contradict other recent publications that have focused on a single selective pressure as the basis for the retention of gene duplicates," explains Dr. Uwe Sauer , principal investigator on the project and Professor at the Institute of Molecular Systems Biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich. (
  • generations
  • After following the offspring of these worms for seven generations, they discovered the baby worms inherited epigenetic genes for warmer climates even though they had not been exposed to those temperatures themselves at any point. (
  • plant
  • The primary and tertiary gene pools can be intermated, but gene transfer between them is impossible without the use of "rather extreme or radical measures" such as: embryo rescue (or embryo culture, a form of plant organ culture) induced polyploidy (chromosome doubling) bridging crosses (e.g., with members of the secondary gene pool). (
  • Plant breeders now use those genes to develop wheat varieties that are resistant to a range of diseases. (
  • small
  • So if you make a decision based on a small number of genes, which presumably is what is going to happen, you're sort of trying to decide what a puzzle looks like when you've only got one of the pieces, or two of the pieces, and you don't have the other hundred or thousand pieces,' he adds. (
  • The gene pool is small. (
  • Biology
  • To determine the basis for the persistence of functional gene duplicates in the genome, three scientists at the Institute of Molecular Systems Biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich have collaborated on the largest systematic analysis of duplicated gene function to date. (
  • large
  • When Out of the Gene Pool debuted, the focus was originally around a man named Rufus, a rather large man with hair all over his body, and his family and life in a generic town called Middletown (the state where it was located never revealed). (
  • Work
  • He says that after another year of work in Tashkent, his team will be ready to publish a panel presentation on a specific set of 50 genes that he claims will identify future champions. (
  • types
  • The gene pool is a set of pre-designed body types and facial features that can be fed into special morphing bins and used as a modeling tool. (
  • results
  • Their results, which appear in the October issue of the journal Genome Research, indicate that no single role prevails but that all four of the mechanisms play a substantial role in maintaining duplicate genes in the genome. (
  • Analysis
  • The priority research areas are: Analysis and evaluation of the gene pool of flora and fauna of Uzbekistan, development of feasibility studies for the creation of a network of key botanical and zoological areas. (
  • families
  • Of the 672 genes involved in yeast metabolism, 295 genes can be classified into 105 families of duplicates. (
  • Sauer's group demonstrated that of the 105 families of duplicated gene families involved in yeast metabolism, 34 demonstrated back-up function, 19 were involved in increased gene dosage, 18 exhibited regulatory functions, and 18 had evolved new, more specialized functions. (
  • concept
  • The Russian geneticist Aleksandr Sergeevich Serebrovskii first formulated the concept in the 1920s as genofond (gene fund), a word that was imported to the United States from the Soviet Union by Theodosius Dobzhansky, who translated it into English as "gene pool. (