Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Swimming PoolsGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genealogy and HeraldryEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Genetic Structures: The biological objects that contain genetic information and that are involved in transmitting genetically encoded traits from one organism to another.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.EuropeAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

*  Parrot Gene Pool

Parrot Gene Pool. Conservationists try to keep rare parrots alive in captivity as their numbers dwindle in the wild. ...

*  The Gene Pool: JTR's Colorful Family History

VISIT THE GENE POOL ANNEX!. You are the [an error occurred while processing this directive] visitor to this page since 10/8/97 ... The Gene Pool , Quaker Corner , Oregon Genealogy , NJ Founders , Ball Room. AmeriSlang , Ye Olde English Sayings , What's the ...

*  Dead End Gene Pool: A Memoir |

In "Dead End Gene Pool," Wendy invites readers to meet her tragically flawed family, including an uncle with a fondness for ... Praise For Dead End Gene Pool: A Memoir…. "In this dark and humorous memoir Wendy Burden takes us inside the family circus that ... "Dead End Gene Pool" offers a glimpse into the fascinating world of old money and gives truth to an old maxim: The rich are ...

*  'Once I embraced my gene pool I found life much more bearable'

"There's a line from the show, it's not a funny line, but it's this thing about once I embraced my gene pool I found my life ... Once I embraced my gene pool I found life much more bearable'. Fri, Jan 25, 2013, 00:00. ...

*  Should be out of the Gene Pool...

True stories....How do these people survive? ONE Recently, when I went to McDonald's I saw on the menu that you could have an order of 6, 9 or 12 Chicken McNuggets. I asked for a half dozen nuggets. 'We don't have half dozen nuggets,' said the teenager at the counter. 'You don't?' I replied. 'We only have six, nine, or twelve,' was the reply. 'So I can't order a half dozen nuggets, but I can order six?' 'That's right.' So I shook my head and ordered six McNuggets

*  If a species doesn't have a big enough gene pool, can it still evolve? | HowStuffWorks

What if this isn't the case? Learn about gene pools. ... A big enough gene pool would ensure that a species has plenty ... The bearded vulture faces the perils of a limited gene pool after being hunted nearly to extinction. See more pictures of birds ... But not every species is fortunate enough to have a rich and varied gene pool. For instance, a catastrophic event like an ... Cheetahs were able to increase their numbers by inbreeding, but not the size of their gene pool. Now, the cheetah's lack of ...

*  Iain Dale's Diary: Raising Taxes is Part of the LibDem Gene Pool

Im sorry Iain, but your argument that the new Lib Dem ideas on taxation go against their political gene make-up is ridiculous. ... Unfortunately for most Liberal Democrats raising taxes is part of their political gene makeup and most voters know that. They ...

*  The gene pool could use a little chlorine.

The gene pool could use a little chlorine ...

*  Out of the Gene Pool Re-Runs by Matt Janz for Mar 29, 2013 | Read Comic Strips at

Out of the Gene Pool Re-Runs by Matt Janz for Mar 29, 2013 , ... Copyright Out of the Gene Pool Re-Runs,© Matt Janz. 2017. All Rights Reserved. Terms & Conditions - Privacy Policy ...

*  Frontiers | Pre-breeding for diversification of primary gene pool and genetic enhancement of grain legumes | Plant Science

Pre-breeding provides a unique opportunity, through the introgression of desirable genes from wild germplasm into genetic ... and groundnut with a high frequency of useful genes, wider adaptability, and a broad genetic base. The availability of ... and groundnut with a high frequency of useful genes, wider adaptability, and a broad genetic base. The availability of ... Pre-breeding provides a unique opportunity, through the introgression of desirable genes from wild germplasm into genetic ...

*  The Shallow End of the Gene Pool

Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood earlier this week cited the Sept. 29 European warnings in his decision to assess a record $16.4 million fine on the Japanese automaker for failing to alert the U.S. government to its safety problems quickly enough. LaHood on Tuesday said Toyota made a "huge mistake" by not disclosing safety problems with gas pedals on some of its most popular models sooner ...

*  BrainWaves :: out of the gene pool: Growing up with a Bong Superhero

These rainy days make me quite nostalgic. Days like these brings back memories from the summer vacation, Maggi, Johnny Sokko and his Flying Robot and comics. Comics was the main source of our hero worshipping (what else do a Bong kid can do on summer holidays with only DoorDarshan available!). To a whole generation of us Bong kids growing up Batul was our definition of the ultimate Bong superhero (though the grownups always talked about the Marxist superheroes but we somehow foresaw the future and knew Jyoti Basu was a dud!!). Every Bong house has atleast a copy of Batul or Handa-Bhonda or Nonte-Fonte present. I remember visiting my Mashimoni's place and spending whole day going through my cousin's collection of Suktara(he had an enormous collection; some date back even before my birth).. Batul is supposed to be the strongest man on earth - he can lift whole ship with a single hand, can blow the roofs of whole town by blowing his breath and can lift the prison building with one hand to catch ...

Gene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.Grand Harbor Resort and Waterpark: thumbnail|right|300px|The Grand Harbor Hotel, a portion of the Waterpark is visible in the right hand corner of this photo.Genetic variation: right|thumbBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Phaseolus maculatus: Phaseolus maculatus (Metcalfe bean, prairie bean, spotted bean) is a plant native to Mexico and the southwestern United States from Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. It is found on dry, rocky hillsides in meadows and in wooded areas from 1500–2400 m (5000–8000 ft) in elevation.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Indigenous peoples of SiberiaTimeline of historic inventionsMECACAR: Operation MECACAR (currently known as MECACAR New Millennium) is a multi-national immunization program launched in 1995 by the World Health Organization to coordinate polio vaccination efforts (currently it is also used to coordinated measles and rubella vaccination efforts). The name of the operation was derived from the names of the regions participating in the operation: Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasus, Central Asian Republics and Russia.California Wolf Center: California Wolf Center is a 501(c)3 nonprofit located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the town of Julian, California. It is a one-of-a-kind, conservation, education, and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Atomic heraldry: Atomic heraldry is heraldry characterised by the appearance of charges including the atom or showing the motion of parts of the atom; more loosely, it may describe heraldry in which atoms or the component parts thereof are represented through a combination of other charges. Obviously, this is a late development in heraldry.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Genetic structure: Genetic structure refers to any pattern in the genetic makeup of individuals within a population.Sade LiveWater supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.Salvia nemorosa: Salvia nemorosa (woodland sage, Balkan clary) is a hardy herbaceous perennial plant native to a wide area of central Europe and Western Asia.Coles PhillipsManuae (Cook Islands): Manuae is an uninhabited atoll in the southern group of the Cook Islands, 100 kilometres south-east of Aitutaki. It is administratively part of Aitutaki, but does not belong to any district or tapere of Aitutaki.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.GA²LENInfinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Lampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoGlobal microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Far East Movement discography: The discography of Far East Movement, an American electronic pop rap group, consists of four studio albums, four extended plays, four mixtapes, eighteen singles (including three as featured artists) and thirty-three music videos. The group formed in 2003 in Los Angeles and released their first mixtape, Audio-Bio, in 2005, with their first studio album Folk Music following in 2006.Plant breedingHorizontal gene transfer in evolutionComputational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Gene polymorphismSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.PaleopolyploidyLiliana Rojas-Suarez: Liliana Rojas-Suarez is a Peruvian-born economist, specializing in financial regulatory policy and the impact of global capital flows on development, especially in Latin American countries. She is currently a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development and serves as the chair of the Latin-American Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee (CLAAF).Nippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asAmplified fragment length polymorphismRV coefficient: In statistics, the RV coefficient

(1/177) DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the neandertal type specimen.

The DNA sequence of the second hypervariable region of the mitochondrial control region of the Neandertal type specimen, found in 1856 in central Europe, has been determined from 92 clones derived from eight overlapping amplifications performed from four independent extracts. When the reconstructed sequence is analyzed together with the previously determined DNA sequence from the first hypervariable region, the Neandertal mtDNA is found to fall outside a phylogenetic tree relating the mtDNAs of contemporary humans. The date of divergence between the mtDNAs of the Neandertal and contemporary humans is estimated to 465,000 years before the present, with confidence limits of 317,000 and 741,000 years. Taken together, the results support the concept that the Neandertal mtDNA evolved separately from that of modern humans for a substantial amount of time and lends no support to the idea that they contributed mtDNA to contemporary modern humans.  (+info)

(2/177) Cryptic species of rockfishes (Sebastes: Scorpaenidae) in the southern hemisphere inferred from mitochondrial lineages.

We used mitochondrial DNA sequence variation of Sebastes from the southeastern Pacific and three localities in the South Atlantic to address long-standing systematic and evolutionary issues regarding the number of species in the Southern Hemisphere. Sequences of the hypervariable mitochondrial control region were obtained from 10 specimens of S. capensis from South Africa (n = 5) and from Tristan da Cunha Island (n = 5) and 27 of S. oculatus from Valparaiso, Chile (n = 10), and the Falkland Islands (n = 17). Results of the study include (1) significant levels of genetic differentiation among the sampled populations (phi ST = 0.225, P < .000001), thus indicating limited gene flow; (2) corroboration of the existence of two different lineages of austral Sebastes corresponding to S. capensis and S. oculatus; (3) finding that S. capensis is not restricted to Tristan da Cunha and South Africa, but is widespread across the South Atlantic; (4) the position of S. capensis as the ancestral lineage of the austral Sebastes; (5) the existence of a third evolutionary lineage with high levels of genetic divergence, particularly abundant in the south-western Atlantic, which may be recognized as a third austral species of Sebastes.  (+info)

(3/177) Molecular genetics of the Finnish disease heritage.

Finland, located at the edge of the inhabitable world, is one of the best-studied genetic isolates. The characteristic features of population isolates-founder effect, genetic drift and isolation-have, over the centuries, shaped the gene pool of the Finns. Finnish diseases have been a target of extensive genetic research and the majority of some 35 disease genes enriched in this population have been identified; the molecular and cellular consequences of disease mutations are currently being characterized. Special strategies taking advantage of linkage disequilibrium have been efficiently used in the initial mapping and restriction of Finnish disease loci and this has stimulated development of novel statistical approaches in the disease gene hunt. Identification of mutated genes has provided tools for detailed analyses of molecular pathogenesis in Finnish diseases, many of which reveal a distinct tissue specificity of clinical phenotype. Often these studies have not only clarified the molecular detail of Finnish diseases, but also provided novel information on biological processes and metabolic pathways essential for normal development and function of human cells and tissues.  (+info)

(4/177) mtDNA and the origin of the Icelanders: deciphering signals of recent population history.

Previous attempts to investigate the origin of the Icelanders have provided estimates of ancestry ranging from a 98% British Isles contribution to an 86% Scandinavian contribution. We generated mitochondrial sequence data for 401 Icelandic individuals and compared these data with >2,500 other European sequences from published sources, to determine the probable origins of women who contributed to Iceland's settlement. Although the mean number of base-pair differences is high in the Icelandic sequences and they are widely distributed in the overall European mtDNA phylogeny, we find a smaller number of distinct mitochondrial lineages, compared with most other European populations. The frequencies of a number of mtDNA lineages in the Icelanders deviate noticeably from those in neighboring populations, suggesting that founder effects and genetic drift may have had a considerable influence on the Icelandic gene pool. This is in accordance with available demographic evidence about Icelandic population history. A comparison with published mtDNA lineages from European populations indicates that, whereas most founding females probably originated from Scandinavia and the British Isles, lesser contributions from other populations may also have taken place. We present a highly resolved phylogenetic network for the Icelandic data, identifying a number of previously unreported mtDNA lineage clusters and providing a detailed depiction of the evolutionary relationships between European mtDNA clusters. Our findings indicate that European populations contain a large number of closely related mitochondrial lineages, many of which have not yet been sampled in the current comparative data set. Consequently, substantial increases in sample sizes that use mtDNA data will be needed to obtain valid estimates of the diverse ancestral mixtures that ultimately gave rise to contemporary populations.  (+info)

(5/177) Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of the Jewish Diaspora. A set of 18 biallelic polymorphisms was genotyped in 1,371 males from 29 populations, including 7 Jewish (Ashkenazi, Roman, North African, Kurdish, Near Eastern, Yemenite, and Ethiopian) and 16 non-Jewish groups from similar geographic locations. The Jewish populations were characterized by a diverse set of 13 haplotypes that were also present in non-Jewish populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A series of analyses was performed to address whether modern Jewish Y-chromosome diversity derives mainly from a common Middle Eastern source population or from admixture with neighboring non-Jewish populations during and after the Diaspora. Despite their long-term residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. Admixture estimates suggested low levels of European Y-chromosome gene flow into Ashkenazi and Roman Jewish communities. A multidimensional scaling plot placed six of the seven Jewish populations in a relatively tight cluster that was interspersed with Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations, including Palestinians and Syrians. Pairwise differentiation tests further indicated that these Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations were not statistically different. The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora.  (+info)

(6/177) MtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in Hungary: inferences from the palaeolithic, neolithic and Uralic influences on the modern Hungarian gene pool.

Magyars imposed their language on Hungarians but seem not to have affected their genetic structure. To better investigate this point, we analysed some mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in a sample of the Hungarian Paloc who, for historical reasons, could have retained genetic traces of Magyars more than other groups. In addition, we examined a mixed sample from Budapest. About 100 individuals were tested for the markers defining all the European and Asian mtDNA haplogroups and about 50 individuals for some Y chromosome markers, namely the 12f2 and 49a,f/TaqI RFLPs, the YAP insertion, the microsatellites YCAIIa, YCAIIb, DYS19 and the Asian 50f2/C deletion. In the mtDNA analysis only two subjects belonged to the Asian B and M haplogroups. The Y chromosome analyses showed that the Paloc differed from the Budapest sample by the absence of YAP+ allele and by the DYS19 allele distribution; that the proto-European 49a,f Ht 15 and the neolithic 12f2-8Kb were rather uncommon in both groups; that there is a high prevalence of the 49a,f Ht 11 and the YCAII a5-b1; and that the Asian 50f2/C deletion is absent. These results suggest that the influence of Magyars on the Hungarian gene pool has been very low through both females and males and the Hungarian language could be an example of cultural dominance. Alternative explanations are discussed. An expansion centred on YAP-, 49a,f Ht 11 is revealed by the median network based on compound haplotypes. 49a,f Ht 11 could represent either a paleolithic marker of eastern Europe which underwent expansion after the last glacial period, or a marker of the more recent spread of the Yamnaia culture from southern Ukraine.  (+info)

(7/177) The ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA lineages.

We have analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs for hypervariable segment (HVS)-I and selected restriction fragment-length-polymorphism sites, to assess their ancestry in different continents. The total sample showed nearly equal amounts of Native American, African, and European matrilineal genetic contribution but with regional differences within Brazil. The mtDNA pool of present-day Brazilians clearly reflects the imprints of the early Portuguese colonization process (involving directional mating), as well as the recent immigrant waves (from Europe) of the last century. The subset of 99 mtDNAs from the southeastern region encompasses nearly all mtDNA haplogroups observed in the total Brazilian sample; for this regional subset, HVS-II was analyzed, providing, in particular, some novel details of the African mtDNA phylogeny.  (+info)

(8/177) Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic ancestry in the male settlers of Iceland.

We present findings based on a study of Y-chromosome diallelic and microsatellite variation in 181 Icelanders, 233 Scandinavians, and 283 Gaels from Ireland and Scotland. All but one of the Icelandic Y chromosomes belong to haplogroup 1 (41.4%), haplogroup 2 (34.2%), or haplogroup 3 (23.8%). We present phylogenetic networks of Icelandic Y-chromosome variation, using haplotypes constructed from seven diallelic markers and eight microsatellite markers, and we propose two new clades. We also report, for the first time, the phylogenetic context of the microsatellite marker DYS385 in Europe. A comparison of haplotypes based on six diallelic loci and five microsatellite loci indicates that some Icelandic haplogroup-1 chromosomes are likely to have a Gaelic origin, whereas for most Icelandic haplogroup-2 and -3 chromosomes, a Scandinavian origin is probable. The data suggest that 20%-25% of Icelandic founding males had Gaelic ancestry, with the remainder having Norse ancestry. The closer relationship with the Scandinavian Y-chromosome pool is supported by the results of analyses of genetic distances and lineage sharing. These findings contrast with results based on mtDNA data, which indicate closer matrilineal links with populations of the British Isles. This supports the model, put forward by some historians, that the majority of females in the Icelandic founding population had Gaelic ancestry, whereas the majority of males had Scandinavian ancestry.  (+info)


  • Considering how both natural selection and genetic drift function through genetic diversity, you might reasonably wonder if species with small gene pools can evolve at all. (
  • Pre-breeding provides a unique opportunity, through the introgression of desirable genes from wild germplasm into genetic backgrounds readily used by the breeders with minimum linkage drag, to overcome this. (
  • Pre-breeding activities using promising landraces, wild relatives, and popular cultivars have been initiated at International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) to develop new gene pools in chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut with a high frequency of useful genes, wider adaptability, and a broad genetic base. (
  • According to the WSU research team, the root cause of the U.S. honeybees' vulnerability to varroa is a dwindling gene pool that has left them short on genetic traits that help honeybees resist varroa elsewhere in the world. (


  • There's a line from the show, it's not a funny line, but it's this thing about once I embraced my gene pool I found my life much more bearable. (
  • For natural selection to occur, we have to have variation,' says Dr. Yokoyama, 'and if members of a species have more variation, there's a better chance that those genes can be found through natural selection. (


  • But are the cheetah and the bearded vulture doomed to extinction by their small gene pools? (


  • The bearded vulture faces the perils of a limited gene pool after being hunted nearly to extinction. (


  • As a population of a given species reproduces, certain variants of a gene, known as alleles , can become more prevalent in that population as those alleles prove advantageous for survival. (


  • Rife with humor, heartbreak, family intrigue, and booze, "Dead End Gene Pool" offers a glimpse into the fascinating world of old money and gives truth to an old maxim: The rich are different. (
  • James Joseph ( "Gene" ) 1898-1978, U.S. boxer: world heavyweight champion 1926-28. (