Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Phosphoglucomutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)EsterasesEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."JapanErythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.

*  "Cultural Barriers and Gene Frequencies . . ." by Guido Barbujani, Paolo Vian et al.

Most regions of sharp gene frequency change correspond to geographic and linguistic barriers. Two allele frequencies are ... that have reduced gene flow and enhanced the evolutionary weight of genetic drift. ... Most regions of sharp gene frequency change correspond to geographic and linguistic barriers. Two allele frequencies are ... Barbujani, Guido; Vian, Paolo; and Fabbris, Luigi (1992) "Cultural Barriers Associated with Large Gene Frequency Differences ...
digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol64/iss4/1/

*  CRISPR/Cas-induced double-strand breaks boost the frequency of gene replacements for humanizing the mouse Cnr2 gene. | Sigma...

CRISPR/Cas-induced double-strand breaks boost the frequency of gene replacements for humanizing the mouse Cnr2 gene.. [Benjamin ... However, many applications require homologous recombination using large gene-targeting constructs. Here we address the ... the mouse Cnr2 gene locus. We designed a small-guide RNA that directs the induction of double strand breaks by Cas9 in the Cnr2 ... Cas technology has been successfully used to stimulate the integration of small DNA sequences in a target locus to produce gene ...
https://sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24211574

*  gene frequency

... noun 1. the frequency of occurrence or proportions of different alleles of a particular gene in a given ... allele frequency in Science Expand. allele frequency The percentage of a population of a species that carries a particular ... British Dictionary definitions for allele frequency Expand. gene frequency. noun 1. the frequency of occurrence of a particular ... Allele frequency definition, gene frequency. See more. ...
dictionary.com/browse/gene-frequency

*  Proceedings: Frequency of the atypical gene E1-a of serum cholinesterase among patients with ankylosing spondylitis. | Annals...

Proceedings: Frequency of the atypical gene E1-a of serum cholinesterase among patients with ankylosing spondylitis. ... Proceedings: Frequency of the atypical gene E1-a of serum cholinesterase among patients with ankylosing spondylitis. ...
ard.bmj.com/content/34/2/198.3

*  Evaluation of HER2/neu gene amplification frequency in patients with gastric cancer using MLPA method - Journal of Health...

Overall, the frequency of the amplification of HER2/neu gene in the low and high levels was 10% and 3.3%, respectively. ... Conclusion: It seems that, the amplification frequency of HER2/neu gene in men is more than women. However, it is recommended ... lashkarizadeh D M R, Bazrafshan M R, Izadi A, HOSEINI F. Evaluation of HER2/neu gene amplification frequency in patients with ... The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations resulting from amplification of HER2/neu gene using MLPA ...
jms.thums.ac.ir/article-1-264-en.html

*  Wiley Reference Works - Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Gene. Gene frequency estimation. Gene-environment interaction. General and family practice. General linear model. General ... Frequency distribution. Frequency matching. Frontiers of biostatistics. G. Gail-Simon test for qualitative interactions. Galton ... Nyquist frequency. O. O, o notation. Oblimin rotation. Oblique rotation. O'Brien and Fleming boundaries. Observational study. ... Food frequency surveys. Force of Mortality. Forecasting. Forensic medicine. Foundations of probability. Fractional factorial ...
wiley.com/legacy/products/subject/reference/armitage_toc.html

*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Influences of extremely low-frequency alternate-current high magnetic fields on gene replication,...

Influences of extremely low-frequency alternate-current high magnetic fields on gene replication, repair and expression. ... low-frequency high magnetic fields / DNA synthesis / mismatch repair / RNA synthesis / heat shock / stress response / 遺伝子 / 高磁場 ... The purpose of this study is to clarify the biologic actions of extremely low-frequency (ELF) alternate-current (AC) high ... Publications] Yamada, S.: 'Induction of the Heat Shock Gene Encoding 16kD Shock Polypeptide by Coupled Stimulus of Heat and ELF ...
https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-10837004/

*  The gene which increases the frequency of mutation in other is referred to as

... ...
gkseries.com/general-knowledge/biology/discussion-42

*  Factor V Leiden is not responsible for stroke in patients with sickling disorders and is uncommon in African Americans with...

We conclude that the gene frequency for factor V Leiden is less common in Africa Americans with sickle cell disease. ... One of the non-stroke patients was a heterozygote for the mutation (P = 1.00). The overall frequency of the factor V Leiden ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Factor-V-Leiden-not-responsible/8980255.html

*  A common genetic variant is associated with adult and childhood obesity.

Gene Frequency. Genes, Recessive. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genetic Variation*. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. ... 19936026 - Mthfr gene c677t and a1298c polymorphisms and homocysteine levels in primary open angle.... 10337866 - Phenotypic ... 12080446 - Allelic variants in the gaba(a)alpha6 receptor subunit gene (gabra6) is associated with.... 11472746 - The ... scan of DNA samples from the Framingham Heart Study participants to identify a common genetic variant near the INSIG2 gene ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/common-genetic-variant-associated-with/16614226.html

*  The polymorphism architecture of mouse genetic resources elucidated using genome-wide resequencing data: implications for QTL...

Gene Frequency. Inheritance Patterns. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mice, Transgenic*. Models, Biological. Polymorphism, Genetic* ... The approximate frequency of human SNPs is shown in pink along with an additional class for SNPs with a minor allele frequency ... Allele frequency of the variation captured In addition to the level and distribution of the variation captured, the frequency ... Minor allele frequency distribution. The frequency distribution of the minor SNPs in four equal quintiles is shown. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/polymorphism-architecture-mouse-genetic-resources/17674098.html

*  Genetic variations in E-selectin and ICAM-1: relation to atherosclerosis.

The frequencies of the Ser128Arg polymorphism of the E-selectin gene and K469E polymorphism of the ICAM-1 gene were ... Gene Frequency / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease*. Genetic Variation*. Genotype. Humans. Intercellular Adhesion ... 20] in an Egyptian population, who found that the frequency of the mutant EE genotype of ICAM-1 gene in peripheral arterial ... In the present study the frequency of the mutant heterozygous AC genotype of the E-selectin gene was significantly higher in ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Genetic-variations-in-E-selectin/22648254.html

*  Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

Gene frequency data. J Mol Evol. 1983;19:153-170. doi: 10.1007/BF02300753. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] ... The Barbari showed the lowest gene diversity, while the Jakhrana and Sirohi showed the highest gene diversity among Indian ... Allele frequencies were used to generate the DA genetic distance between each pair of populations and distance matrices were ... AGARST, version 2.8, a program for calculating allele frequencies, GST and RST from microsatellite data. Wild life Genetics ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2268706/

*  Replication and Reproduction (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

However, few go on to add that evolution is nothing but changes in gene frequencies. When one looks at the work of evolutionary ... That is where the "selfish" in "selfish gene" comes in.. According to Dawkins (1976: 95), the selfish gene is not just one ... Does it make sense to refer to the "gene for eye color" or the "gene for homosexuality"? However, the topic of this ... Almost everyone agrees that evolution involves changes in gene frequencies. ...
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/replication/

*  Bibliografia de Ronald Fisher - Wikipedia

doi:10.2307/3001420 Fisher, R. A. (1950). «Gene Frequencies in a Cline Determined by Selection and Diffusion». Biometrics. 6 (4 ... doi:10.2307/3001641 Fisher, R A; Ford, E B (1947). «The Spread of a Gene in Natural Conditions in a Colony of the Moth Panaxia ... 1928 (com LHC Tippett) Fisher, R. A.; Tippett, L. H. C. (1928). «Limiting Forms of the Frequency Distribution of the Largest of ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1941.tb02284.x Fisher, R. A. (1941). «Average Excess and Average Effect of a Gene Substitution». Annals ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliografia_de_Ronald_Fisher

*  Bibliografía de Ronald Fisher - Wikipedia

Fisher, R. A. (1950). «Gene Frequencies in a Cline Determined by Selection and Diffusion». Biometrics 6 (4): 353-361. JSTOR ... The Distribution of Gene Ratios for Rare Mutations». Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 50: 205-220. 1930. (with J ... Fisher, R A; Ford, E B (1947). «The Spread of a Gene in Natural Conditions in a Colony of the Moth Panaxia Dominula L». ... with LHC Tippett) Fisher, R. A.; Tippett, L. H. C. (1928). «Limiting Forms of the Frequency Distribution of the Largest of ...
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliografía_de_Ronald_Fisher

*  Bell Beaker Blogger: Low Frequency L3F (Signal of Late Neolithic gene flow?)

In essence, although R1b-V88 and L3F are very low frequency in Europe and form a sort of cline from the Southwest, I think they ... But its age and frequency seem to tell another story.. Maternal Haplogroup L3F has been previously linked to Chadic speaking ...
https://bellbeakerblogger.blogspot.com/2014/10/low-frequency-l3-signal-of-late.html

*  Researchers Discover Gene That Blocks HIV - Slashdot

stemceller writes to tell us that a team of researchers at the University of Alberta claims to have discovered a gene capable ... 1. CCR5 delta 32 is not super common, with a gene frequency of about .1 across Europe as a whole and maxing at about .23 in ... Does anyone know if gene therapy has progressed far enough to actually apply this to cell DNA? Is this actually a real cure for ... Does anyone know if gene therapy has progressed far enough to actually apply this to cell DNA? Is this actually a real cure for ...
https://science.slashdot.org/story/08/03/01/1755228/researchers-discover-gene-that-blocks-hiv?sdsrc=prevbtmprev

*  Frequency of Beta-globin gene mutations in beta-thalassemia patients from east of Mazandaran - Journal of Mazandaran...

Frequency of Beta-globin gene mutations in beta-thalassemia patients from east of Mazandaran ... Hashemi Soteh M, Akhavan Niaki H, Kowsarian M, Aliasgharian A, Banihashemi A. Frequency of Beta-globin gene mutations in beta- ... Previous reports have shown that the frequency of b-thalassemia carriers is more than 10% in Mazandaran province. Although b- ... Among different mutations investigated, IVSII-1G>A was detected as the most common with frequency of 68/3%, which was ...
jmums.mazums.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=488&sid=1&slc_lang=en

*  A 40-50kDa Glycoprotein Associated with Mucus is Identified as α-1-Acid Glycoprotein in Carcinoma of the Stomach

Blood group gene frequencies. An indication of the genetic constitution of population samples in Cape Town. Am J Roentgenol ... Mucin gene expression in normal, preneoplastic, and neoplastic human gastric epithelium. Cancer Res. 1995;55:2681-90 ...
jcancer.org/v03p0083.htm

*  Population Genetics Software

no selection ,varying the size of populations to investigate different rates of drift ,quantifying gene frequency so that, for ... enable students to observe the effect of changes in gene frequency on the ,morphology of 'biomorphs'. (Don't students just love ...
bio.net/bionet/mm/plant-ed/2001-August/007135.html

*  NeuroLogica Blog » A Few Questions on Evolution

Differential survival results in changing gene frequencies over time.. This is an internal process. Sylvester seems to think (I ... Second, that it takes 300 generations for a new mutated form of a gene (allele) to completely replace the previous gene allele ... "If you start with one version of a gene and then it mutates in one offspring but not in another - now you have two versions of ... First, I did not say that the mere duplication of the gene results in an increase in information. Rather, I very specifically ...
theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/a-few-questions-on-evolution/

*  Plus it

1994) Negative feedback defining a circadian clock: autoregulation of the clock gene frequency. Science 263:1578-1584. ... 1990) Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels. Nature 343:536-540. ... by which these proteins negatively regulate their own gene's transcription (Hardin et al., 1990; Aronson et al., 1994). If a ... initiation of translation and time-specific phosphorylation yield multiple forms of the essential clock protein FREQUENCY. Cell ...
jneurosci.org/content/17/21/8468

*  The Living Set | The Scientist Magazine®

did was invent.... Evolution was defined as 'changes in gene frequencies in natural populations.' The accumulation of genetic ... A computer model estimates that gene-drive technology could wipe out populations of an invasive mammal on islands. ...
the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/43082/title/The-Living-Set/

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

From what I remember reading Gene intended for the women in TOS to wear pants just like the men and the leading female ... So why didn't Starfleet change any sensitive frequencies and codes he had? They did in The Next Generation when Picard was ... As hard as it is to believe, the whole "rapid rise through the ranks" was actually part of series creator Gene Roddenberry's ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asLampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoPanmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Gene polymorphismIndian blood group system: The Indian blood group system (In) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that is expressed on the surface of blood cells. It is named so because 4% of the population in India possess it.Misattributed paternity: Misattributed paternity is the situation when a child’s putative father is not the child's biological father. Overall, the incidence of misattributed paternity ranges from about 1% to 2%, though it may be considerably higher in certain populations.Genetic variation: right|thumbOpsismodysplasiaJewish Community Council of Victoria: The Jewish Community Council of Victoria Inc (JCCV) is the peak representative body for Victorian Jewry, representing nearly 60 Jewish community organisations and over 52,000 Victorian Jews. The JCCV’s mission is to represent the Victorian Jewish community, the largest Jewish community in Australia, on all matters that affect its status, welfare and interests.Cousin couple: A cousin couple is a pair of cousins who are involved in a romantic or sexual relationship.Alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily: The alpha-D-phosphohexomutases are a large enzyme superfamily, with members in all three domains of life. Enzymes from this superfamily are ubiquitous in organisms from E.Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type: Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type (type 1, IRID1) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Negative probability: The probability of the outcome of an experiment is never negative, but quasiprobability distributions can be defined that allow a negative probability for some events. These distributions may apply to unobservable events or conditional probabilities.Bill Parry (mathematician)Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig-liver esterase: Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig liver esterase is the enantioselective conversion of an ester to a carboxylic acid through the action of the enzyme pig liver esterase (EC 3.1.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Haptoglobin: Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is the protein that in humans is encoded by the HP gene. In blood plasma, haptoglobin binds free hemoglobin (Hb) released from erythrocytes with low affinity and thereby inhibits its oxidative activity.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Chromosome regionsHLA B7-DR15-DQ6Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Enzyme Commission number: The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.Amplified fragment length polymorphismThermal cyclerInterval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Niigata UniversityErythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Coles PhillipsTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingVibration white finger: Vibration white finger (VWF), also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or dead finger,) is a secondary form of Raynaud's syndrome, an industrial injury triggered by continuous use of vibrating hand-held machinery. Use of the term "vibration white finger" has generally been superseded in professional usage by broader concept of HAVS, although it is still used by the general public.

(1/13203) The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters.

It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed.  (+info)

(2/13203) Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

(3/13203) Polymorphism in a cyclic parthenogenetic species: Simocephalus serrulatus.

A survey of sixteen isozyme loci using electrophoretic techniques was conducted for three isolated natural populations and one laboratory population of the cyclic parthenogenetic species, Simocephalus serrulatus. The proportion of polymorphic loci (33%-60%) and the average number of heterozygous loci per individual (6%-23%) in the three natural populations were found to be comparable to those found in most sexually reproducing organisms. Detailed analyses were made for one of these populations using five polymorphic loci. The results indicated that (1) seasonal changes in genotypic frequencies took place, (2) apomicitic parthenogenesis does not lead to genetic homogeneity, and (3) marked gametic disequilibrium at these five loci was present in the population, indicating that selection acted on coadapted groups of genes.  (+info)

(4/13203) Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms.

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

(5/13203) Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups.

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

(6/13203) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease.

BACKGROUND: Cytokine gene variations are contributory factors in inflammatory pathology. Allele frequencies of interleukin (IL)-1 cluster genes [IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(-511), IL-1B(+3953), IL-1RN Intron 2 VNTR] and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene [TNFA(-308)] were measured in healthy blood donors (healthy control subjects), patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries (patient control subjects), single-vessel coronary disease (SVD), and those with multivessel coronary disease (MVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-six patients attending for coronary angiography in Sheffield were studied: 130 patient control subjects, 98 SVD, and 328 MVD. Significant associations were tested in an independent population (London) of 350: 57 SVD, 191 MVD, and 102 control subjects. IL-1RN*2 frequency in Sheffield patient control subjects was the same as in 827 healthy control subjects. IL-1RN*2 was significantly overrepresented in Sheffield SVD patients (34% vs 23% in patient control subjects); IL-1RN*2 homozygotes in the SVD population (chi2 carriage=8.490, 1 df, P=0.0036). This effect was present though not quite significant in the London population (P=0. 0603). A summary trend test of the IL-1RN SVD genotype data for Sheffield and London showed a significant association with *2 (P=0. 0024). No significant effect of genotype at IL-1RN was observed in the Sheffield or London MVD populations. Genotype distribution analysis comparing the SVD and MVD populations at IL-1RN showed a highly significant trend (P=0.0007) with the use of pooled data. No significant associations were seen for the other polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: IL-1RN*2 was significantly associated with SVD. A difference in genetic association between SVD and MVD was also apparent.  (+info)

(7/13203) Novel regions of allelic deletion on chromosome 18p in tumors of the lung, brain and breast.

Lung cancer is now the number one cause of cancer death for both men and women. An age-adjusted analysis over the past 25 years shows that in women specifically, lung cancer incidence is on the rise. It is estimated that 10-20 genetic events including the alteration of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will have occurred by the time a lung tumor becomes clinically evident. In an effort to identify regions containing novel cancer genes, chromosome 18p11, a band not previously implicated in disease, was examined for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, 50 matched normal and NSCLC tumor samples were examined using six 18p11 and one 18q12.3 PCR-based polymorphic markers. In addition, LOH was examined in 29 glioblastoma pairs and 14 paired breast carcinomas. This analysis has revealed potentially two regions of LOH in 18p11 in up to 38% of the tumor samples examined. The regions of LOH identified included a 2 cm area between markers D18S59 and D18S476, and a more proximal, 25 cm region of intermediate frequency between D18S452 and D18S453. These results provide evidence for the presence of one or more potential tumor suppressor genes on the short arm of chromosome 18 which may be involved in NSCLC, brain tumors and possibly breast carcinomas as well.  (+info)

(8/13203) Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)



allele frequencies


  • Two allele frequencies are significantly correlated with measures of linguistic differentiation but not with indexes describing broad religious and social attitudes. (wayne.edu)
  • Mouse genetic resources include inbred strains, recombinant inbred lines, chromosome substitution strains, heterogeneous stocks, and the Collaborative Cross (CC). These resources were generated through various breeding designs that potentially produce different genetic architectures, including the level of diversity represented, the spatial distribution of the variation, and the allele frequencies within the resource. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, the distribution of allele frequencies in the CC resembles that seen in natural populations like humans in which many variants are found at low frequencies and only a minority of variants are common. (biomedsearch.com)

Genetics


  • Unlike other resources that are primarily suited for gene discovery, the CC is the only resource that can support genome-wide network analysis, which is the foundation of systems genetics. (biomedsearch.com)

mutations


  • The CRISPR/Cas technology has been successfully used to stimulate the integration of small DNA sequences in a target locus to produce gene mutations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations resulting from amplification of HER2/neu gene using MLPA technique in the patients with gastric cancer. (ac.ir)
  • Among different mutations investigated, IVSII-1G>A was detected as the most common with frequency of 68/3%, which was homozygous in 64 individuals (53/3%) and compound heterozygous with other mutations in 34 individuals (28/3%) respectively. (ac.ir)

genetic


  • Effective population sizes estimated from FST values at these loci are much smaller than those predicted from data on consanguineous marriage, suggesting the presence of factors (presumably barriers) that have reduced gene flow and enhanced the evolutionary weight of genetic drift. (wayne.edu)
  • Here we address the potential of CRISPR/Cas-mediated double-strand breaks to enhance the genetic engineering of large target sequences using a construct for "humanizing" the mouse Cnr2 gene locus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We used a dense whole-genome scan of DNA samples from the Framingham Heart Study participants to identify a common genetic variant near the INSIG2 gene associated with obesity. (biomedsearch.com)

recombination


  • However, many applications require homologous recombination using large gene-targeting constructs. (sigmaaldrich.com)

Genotype


  • RESULTS: The frequency of the mutant AC genotype of E-selectin in peripheral, cerebral and cardiovascular atherosclerotic patients was significantly higher than in control subjects (29.17%, 28.53% and 28% vs. 8%, respectively). (biomedsearch.com)

respectively


  • Overall, the frequency of the amplification of HER2/neu gene in the low and high levels was 10% and 3.3%, respectively. (ac.ir)
  • The frequency of the mutant EE homozygotes of ICAM-1 in peripheral, cerebral and cardiovascular atherosclerotic patients was significantly higher compared to controls (45.8%, 42.9% and 36% vs. 12%, respectively). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The frequency of the mutant E allele of ICAM-1 was significantly higher in peripheral, cerebral and cardiovascular patients compared to controls (58.3%, 54.8% and 54% vs. 26%, respectively). (biomedsearch.com)

common


  • We conclude that the gene frequency for factor V Leiden is less common in Africa Americans with sickle cell disease. (biomedsearch.com)

flow


  • Bell Beaker Blogger: Low Frequency L3F (Signal of Late Neolithic gene flow? (blogspot.com)

However


  • However, no significant difference was observed in the frequency of mutant CC allele between all atherosclerotic patients and control groups. (biomedsearch.com)

among


  • Proceedings: Frequency of the atypical gene E1-a of serum cholinesterase among patients with ankylosing spondylitis. (bmj.com)

patients


  • The frequency of EK of ICAM-1 showed no significant difference between atherosclerotic patients and the control group. (biomedsearch.com)

high


  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the biologic actions of extremely low-frequency (ELF) alternate-current (AC) high magnetic fields, especially their effects on gene functions including DNA replication, repair and transcription. (nii.ac.jp)

Europe


  • In essence, although R1b-V88 and L3F are very low frequency in Europe and form a sort of cline from the Southwest, I think they may be like our marked honeybee for something that was much larger. (blogspot.com)