Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Astroviridae Infections: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Kobuvirus: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose type species Aichi virus, causes gastroenteritis in humans.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Dimenhydrinate: A drug combination that contains diphenhydramine and theophylline. It is used for treating VERTIGO, MOTION SICKNESS, and NAUSEA associated with PREGNANCY.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Astroviridae: A family of RNA viruses with two genera: MAMASTROVIRUS and AVASTROVIRUS. They cause GASTROENTERITIS in humans and also infect other vertebrates.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Bocavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.Parechovirus: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting humans and rodents. The type species is Human parechovirus.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Swimming PoolsChild Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.JapanNeisseriaceae: A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.Diapers, Infant: Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
Viral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus: Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus (TGEV) is a virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. TGEV are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry.Norovirus: Norovirus, sometimes known as the winter vomiting bug in the UK, is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages.Rotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae.Norwalk Hospital: Norwalk Hospital is a not-for-profit, acute care community teaching hospital in the Spring Hill section of Norwalk, Connecticut. The hospital serves a population of 250,000 in lower Fairfield County, Connecticut.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Sapovirus: Sapovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Humans and swine serve as natural hosts.Peplomer: A peplomer is a glycoprotein spike on a viral capsid or viral envelope. as cited in These protrusions will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell: they are essential for both host specificity and viral infectivity.List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.SteatocritCampylobacteriosisChronic cellular dehydrationVibrio parahaemolyticus: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium found in brackish saltwater, which, when ingested, causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. V.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Shellfish Association of Great BritainCampylobacter jejuni: Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Eosinophilic gastroenteritisCampylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.Fake vomit: Fake vomit is a flat rubber or plastic disc with indentations and protrusions designed to look like mucus or vomit. It is a practical joke often used by pranksters to disgust victims.Kobuvirus: Kobuvirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. Humans and cattle serve as natural hosts.Public water systemBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Semper rehydration solution: Semper rehydration solution is a mixture used for the management of dehydration. Each liter of Semper rehydration solution contains 189 mmol glucose, 40 mmol Na+, 35 mmol Cl−, 20 mmol K+ and 25 mmol HCO3−.DimenhydrinateList of shipwrecks in March 1918: The list of shipwrecks in March 1918 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1918.Hexon protein: In molecular biology, the hexon protein is a major coat protein found in Adenoviruses. Hexon coat proteins are synthesised during late infection and form homo-trimers.EnteritisCoronavirus 3' stem-loop II-like motif (s2m)Coles PhillipsSAFE FOODSDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Bismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Bacillary dysenteryUnited States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Wedge Island (South Australia): Wedge Island}}Human bocavirus: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus that has been suggested to cause human disease. It is a probable cause of lower respiratory tract infections and it has been linked to gastroenteritis, although the role of this emerging infectious disease in human disease has not been firmly established.Grand Harbor Resort and Waterpark: thumbnail|right|300px|The Grand Harbor Hotel, a portion of the Waterpark is visible in the right hand corner of this photo.Milad HospitalIntussusception (medical disorder)Shigella sonnei: Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella. Together with Shigella flexneri, it is responsible for 90% of shigellosis.ATC code A07: ==A07A Intestinal anti-infectives==La Push BeachNiigata UniversityDeefgea: Deefgea is a genus in the phylum Proteobacteria (Bacteria).Diaper candidiasis: Diaper candidiasis is an infection of a child's diaper area by Candida albicans.
(1/2074) Detection of campylobacter in gastroenteritis: comparison of direct PCR assay of faecal samples with selective culture.
The prevalence of campylobacter gastroenteritis has been estimated by bacterial isolation using selective culture. However, there is evidence that certain species and strains are not recovered on selective agars. We have therefore compared direct PCR assays of faecal samples with campylobacter culture, and explored the potential of PCR for simultaneous detection and identification to the species level. Two hundred unselected faecal samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis were cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR assay. Culture on CCDA indicated that 16 of the 200 samples contained 'Campylobacter spp.'. By contrast, PCR assays detected campylobacters in 19 of the 200 samples, including 15 of the culture-positive samples, and further identified them as: C. jejuni (16), C. coli (2) and C. hyointestinalis (1). These results show that PCR offers a different perspective on the incidence and identity of campylobacters in human gastroenteritis. (+info)
(2/2074) An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of sandwiches: implications for the control of transmission by food handlers.
Although food handlers are often implicated as the source of infection in outbreaks of food-borne viral gastroenteritis, little is known about the timing of infectivity in relation to illness. We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak among employees of a manufacturing company and found an association (RR = 14.1, 95% CI = 2.0-97.3) between disease and eating sandwiches prepared by 6 food handlers, 1 of whom reported gastroenteritis which had subsided 4 days earlier. Norwalk-like viruses were detected by electron microscopy or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool specimens from several company employees, the sick food handler whose specimen was obtained 10 days after resolution of illness, and an asymptomatic food handler. All RT-PCR product sequences were identical, suggesting a common source of infection. These data support observations from recent volunteer studies that current recommendations to exclude food handlers from work for 48-72 h after recovery from illness may not always prevent transmission of Norwalk-like viruses because virus can be shed up to 10 days after illness or while exhibiting no symptoms. (+info)
(3/2074) Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin forms anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers: possible implications for the mechanism of cellular vacuolation.
The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin plays a major role in the gastric pathologies associated with this bacterium. When added to cultured cells, VacA induces vacuolation, an effect potentiated by preexposure of the toxin to low pH. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We report here that VacA forms anion-selective, voltage-dependent pores in artificial membranes. Channel formation was greatly potentiated by acidic conditions or by pretreatment of VacA at low pH. No requirement for particular lipid(s) was identified. Selectivity studies showed that anion selectivity was maintained over the pH range 4.8-12, with the following permeability sequence: Cl- approximately HCO3- > pyruvate > gluconate > K+ approximately Li+ approximately Ba2+ > NH4+. Membrane permeabilization was due to the incorporation of channels with a voltage-dependent conductance in the 10-30 pS range (2 M KCl), displaying a voltage-independent high open probability. Deletion of the NH2 terminus domain (p37) or chemical modification of VacA by diethylpyrocarbonate inhibited both channel activity and vacuolation of HeLa cells without affecting toxin internalization by the cells. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that VacA channel formation is needed to induce cellular vacuolation, possibly by inducing an osmotic imbalance of intracellular acidic compartments. (+info)
(4/2074) Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain. (+info)
(5/2074) Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation.
Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3-24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or nonmalignant conditions, only patients with hematologic malignancies had adenoviral infections. Adenovirus was first detected at a median of 54 days (range -4 to +333) after BMT. Adenovirus developed in eight of 69 (11.6%) patients receiving grafts from matched unrelated or mismatched related donors, in four of 52 (7.7%) receiving grafts from HLA-matched siblings, and in one of 93 (1.1%) receiving autografts. The most common manifestation of adenovirus infection was hemorrhagic cystitis, followed by gastroenteritis, pneumonitis and liver failure. The incidence of adenovirus infection in pediatric BMT patients at our institution is similar to that reported in adult patients. Using univariate analysis, use of total body irradiation and type of bone marrow graft were significant risk factors for adenovirus infection. Only use of total body irradiation remained as a factor on multiple logistic regression analysis. (+info)
(6/2074) Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.
The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. (+info)
(7/2074) A community outbreak of food-borne small round-structured virus gastroenteritis caused by a contaminated water supply.
In August 1994, 30 of 135 (23%) bakery plant employees and over 100 people from South Wales and Bristol in the United Kingdom, were affected by an outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiological studies of employees and three community clusters found illness in employees to be associated with drinking cold water at the bakery (relative risk 3.3, 95%, CI 1.6-7.0), and in community cases with eating custard slices (relative risk 19.8, 95%, CI 2.9-135.1) from a variety of stores supplied by one particular bakery. Small round-structured viruses (SRSV) were identified in stool specimens from 4 employees and 7 community cases. Analysis of the polymerase and capsid regions of the SRSV genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated viruses of both genogroups (1 and 2) each with several different nucleotide sequences. The heterogeneity of the viruses identified in the outbreak suggests that dried custard mix may have been inadvertently reconstituted with contaminated water. The incident shows how secondary food contamination can cause wide-scale community gastroenteritis outbreaks, and demonstrates the ability of molecular techniques to support classical epidemiological methods in outbreak investigations. (+info)
(8/2074) Characterization of intestinal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and response to antiretroviral therapy.
Combination antiretroviral therapies suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood, but the effect in gastrointestinal mucosa is uncertain. The occurrence of pathogen-negative diarrhea led to speculation that local HIV infection is etiologic. Mucosal cellular reservoirs for HIV were documented by use of several techniques. Correlations were found among gastrointestinal symptoms, histopathologic findings, cytokine expression, lymphoid apoptosis, and HIV RNA and protein expression in rectal mucosa. Disproportionate depletion of mucosal CD4+ lymphocytes also was found. The short-term effects of antiretroviral therapies were examined to test the hypothesis that these changes are directly related to mucosal HIV infection. Therapy was associated with decreased symptoms, with comparable drops in peripheral blood and mucosal HIV RNA contents, and by increases in blood and mucosal CD4+ lymphocyte contents. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells also declined during therapy. These results suggest that HIV plays a direct role in producing intestinal dysfunction. (+info)