Gait: Manner or style of walking.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Gait Apraxia: Impaired ambulation not attributed to sensory impairment or motor weakness. FRONTAL LOBE disorders; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (e.g., PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS); DEMENTIA, MULTI-INFARCT; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and other conditions may be associated with gait apraxia.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.AmputeesKnee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.ShoesHip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Foot Orthoses: Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.

*  Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Sucking and swallowing difficulty in children - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at...

List of 31 causes for Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Sucking and swallowing difficulty in children, alternative diagnoses, ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy:*Causes: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Introduction: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Gait ... Gait disturbances (30 causes) *Gait (661 causes) *Gait symptoms *Gait disorder (52 causes) *Pregnancy (699 causes) *Pregnancy ... More Searches: Gait disturbances in pregnancy. *Gait disturbances in pregnancy: Add a 3rd symptom *Gait disturbances in ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/gait-disturbances-in-pregnancy/sucking-and-swallowing-difficulty-in-children.htm

*  Cleveland FES Center | Brain Stimulation - Gait Rehab

Brain Stimulation - Gait Rehab. Transcranial Direct Current stimulation for post-stroke gait rehab, a pilot study. Background. ... However, for chronic gait, tDCS+gait training studies are limited. In a pilot crossover single session study, we demonstrated ... Gait deficits following stroke are frequent and commonly persistent. Current rehabilitation methods fail to restore normal gait ... gait training versus gait training alone. While this single session study design was essential to demonstrate feasibility, the ...
fescenter.org/patient-resources/current-clinical-trials/stroke-programs/brain-stimulation-gait-rehab/

*  Deafness and Gait disturbances in pregnancy - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

List of causes of Deafness and Gait disturbances in pregnancy, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy:*Causes: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Introduction: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Gait ... Deafness and Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Bizarre gait (2 causes). *Deafness and Gait disturbances in pregnancy and ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy: Remove a symptom Results: Causes of Deafness AND Gait disturbances in pregnancy 1. Cerebral ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/deafness/gait-disturbances-in-pregnancy.htm

*  Concentration difficulty and Dsyphagia and Gait disturbances - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

List of 352 causes for Concentration difficulty and Dsyphagia and Gait disturbances, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, ... Gait disturbances:*Causes: Gait disturbances *Introduction: Gait disturbances *Gait disturbances: Add a 4th symptom *Gait ... Concentration difficulty and Dsyphagia and Gait disturbances. *Concentration difficulty AND Dsyphagia AND Gait disturbances - ... Results: Causes of Concentration difficulty AND Dsyphagia AND Gait disturbances 1. Multiple Sclerosis. Show causes with ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/concentration-difficulty/dsyphagia/gait-disturbances.htm

*  Single-Chip GAIT/EDGE Tranceiver Announced (Phone Scoop)

... single-chip GAIT/EDGE radio transceiver. The chip supports GAIT, GSM, TDMA, and AMPS, as well as all four major frequency bands ... and also the first commercial GAIT chip to combine receive and transmit circuitry ... ... The chip supports GAIT, GSM, TDMA, and AMPS, as well as all four major frequency bands (850, 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz). The chip ... Zarlink Semiconductor today unveiled the world's first off-the-shelf, single-chip GAIT/EDGE radio transceiver. ...
phonescoop.com/articles/article.php?a=-428

*  Clinical Trials Registry | Internet Stroke Center

... person's temporal and spatial gait asymmetry into a symmetric gait. Our points of reference are results obtained by previous ... in individuals with asymmetric gait and allow individuals to develop a more persistent symmetric gait. There are several ... 2007). Asymmetric gait can manifest as a spatial asymmetry, in which steps taken on one side are longer than those on the other ... The Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (GEMS) may allow a patient to practice walking in many different locations, such as their own ...
strokecenter.org/trials/clinicalstudies/gait-enhancing-mobile-shoe-for-stroke-rehabilitation/description

*  Observation of the Gait Cycle in Patients With Hemiplegia in Order to Improve the Triggering of Functional Electrical...

Other: Gait analysis A Gaitrite system, a goniometer, and EMG are used to record data while the patient walks 10 meters. ... Other: Gait analysis A Gaitrite system, a goniometer, and EMG are used to record data while the patient walks 10 meters. ... Observation of the Gait Cycle in Patients With Hemiplegia in Order to Improve the Triggering of Functional Electrical ... Observation of the Gait Cycle in Patients With Hemiplegia in Order to Improve the Triggering of Functional Electrical ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01257646?term=Stroke&lup_s=07/18/2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

*  Autonomic hypereflexia and Gait disturbances and Memory problems related to neurological disorders - Symptom Checker - check...

List of 34 causes for Autonomic hypereflexia and Gait disturbances and Memory problems related to neurological disorders, ... Gait disturbances:*Causes: Gait disturbances *Introduction: Gait disturbances *Gait disturbances: Add a 4th symptom *Gait ... Autonomic hypereflexia and Gait disturbances and Memory problems related to neurological disorders. Symptom Checker *Intro ... Autonomic hypereflexia OR Gait disturbances OR Memory problems related to neurological disorders - Causes of Any Symptom ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/autonomic-hypereflexia/gait-disturbances/memory-problems-related-to-neurological-disorders.htm

*  Foot drop and Gait disturbances and Loss of memory - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

List of 106 causes for Foot drop and Gait disturbances and Loss of memory, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, ... Gait disturbances:*Causes: Gait disturbances *Introduction: Gait disturbances *Gait disturbances: Add a 4th symptom *Gait ... Foot drop AND Gait disturbances AND Loss of memory - Causes of All Symptoms *Foot drop OR Gait disturbances OR Loss of memory ... Results: Causes of Foot drop AND Gait disturbances AND Loss of memory 1. Multiple Sclerosis. Show causes with descriptions ». ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/foot-drop/gait-disturbances/loss-of-memory.htm

*  Israeli researchers walk the walk with gait analysis device | Reuters.com

An Israeli company is developing an inexpensive gait analysis device it believes will help doctors diagnose previously ... If the gait problem's improved, if the gait problems haven't improved they can switch the treatment." The developers say they ... Cerebral palsy and stroke patients are commonly seen in gait labs. But most current systems require X-rays and time-consuming ... A bunch of research papers showing the correlation between gait problems and values and the functional status of the patient ...
reuters.com/video/2013/07/14/israeli-researchers-walk-the-walk-with-g?videoId=244222884

*  Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Seizures - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

List of causes of Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Seizures, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy:*Causes: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Introduction: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Gait ... Gait disturbances (30 causes) *Gait (661 causes) *Gait symptoms *Gait disorder (52 causes) *Pregnancy (699 causes) *Pregnancy ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Seizures. *Gait disturbances in pregnancy AND Seizures - Causes of All Symptoms *Gait ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/gait-disturbances-in-pregnancy/seizures.htm

*  Gait Patterns Differ in PD, Ataxia, and Binswanger's Disease - NEJM Journal Watch

Gait disorders related to neurologic disease are common, particularly in the elderly, and contribute to the risk of falls and ...
jwatch.org/jn199911010000016/1999/11/01/gait-patterns-differ-pd-ataxia-and-binswangers

*  Save Changing Gaits | Rejeana Hill's Fundraiser

We at Changing Gaits were recently under pressure to buy the land we have called home since 2004. We finally secured a loan ... CHANGING GAITS INC wrote -. We at Changing Gaits were recently under pressure to buy the land we have called home since 2004. ...
https://crowdrise.com/savechanginggaits/fundraiser/rejeanahill

*  Gait Symmetry in Children with Autism : Figure 1

Figure 1: One gait cycle, or stride, is defined as two consecutive heel strikes of the same limb. Each gait cycle is composed ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2012/576478/fig1/

*  Drive Medical Luminator Gait Trainer, Posterior - CVS.com

Shop online for Drive Medical Luminator Gait Trainer, Posterior at CVS.COM. Find Walkers and other Walkers & Rollators products ...
cvs.com/shop/home-health-care/walkers-rollators/walkers/drive-medical-luminator-gait-trainer-posterior-prodid-1012494

*  Gait Training Belt | AbleData

The Gait Training Belt is a gait belt designed to provide a secure grasp for therapists and caregivers during ambulation ... Gait Training Belt. AbleData does not produce, distribute or sell any of the products listed on this website, but we provide ...
abledata.com/product/gait-training-belt

*  Fatigue, Gait abnormality, Lack of coordination: 3 Possible Causes

... gait abnormality, lack of coordination including Concussion, Understanding Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Duchenne Muscular ...
healthline.com/symptom/fatigue/gait-abnormality/lack-of-coordination

*  Falling and Gait disturbances in pregnancy - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

List of 36 causes for Falling and Gait disturbances in pregnancy, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy:*Causes: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Introduction: Gait disturbances in pregnancy *Gait ... Falling and Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Bizarre gait (2 causes). *Falling and Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Body ... Gait disturbances in pregnancy: Remove a symptom Results: Causes of Falling AND Gait disturbances in pregnancy 1. Multiple ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/falling/gait-disturbances-in-pregnancy.htm

*  A model of bipedal locomotion on compliant legs | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

However, a slow run with very brief foot contact becomes the optimum gait at low speeds, at which people would walk, unless ... Simple mathematical models capable of walking or running are used to compare the merits of bipedal gaits. Stride length, duty ... and the optimum gait is deemed to be the one that minimizes the positive work that the muscles must perform, per unit distance ...
rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/338/1284/189?ijkey=1c754ad3c63beb7c387e8e0948137b5b5022d851&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

*  Deluxe Gait Belt | 1800wheelchair.com

The Deluxe Gait Belt offers the simplicity of a gait belt with the added support of easy to grasp hand loops. Six handles ... The Deluxe Gait Belt offers the simplicity of a gait belt with the added support of easy to grasp hand loops. Six handles ... The Deluxe Gait Belt offers the simplicity of a gait belt with the added support of easy to grasp hand loops. Six handles ...
1800wheelchair.com/product/deluxe-gait-belt/

*  SimTK: Simulations of Crouch Gait: Project Home

... cerebral palsy who walk in a crouch gait ,/b,. These simulations were used in analyses of (1) contributions to mass center ... evaluations of ankle foot orthoses during crouch gait. Downloads provide all supporting files for OpenSim simulations. Please ... "Compressive tibiofemoral force during crouch gait." Gait & posture 35.4 (2012): 556-560.. Steele, KM., et al. "How much muscle ... "Muscle contributions to vertical and fore-aft accelerations are altered in subjects with crouch gait." Gait & posture 38.1 ( ...
https://simtk.org/projects/crouchgait

*  Gait disturbances and Memory problems related to neurological disorders and Reduced blood to extremities - Symptom Checker -...

List of 29 causes for Gait disturbances and Memory problems related to neurological disorders and Reduced blood to extremities ... Gait disturbances:*Causes: Gait disturbances *Introduction: Gait disturbances *Gait disturbances: Add a 4th symptom *Gait ... Gait (661 causes) *Gait symptoms *Gait disorder (52 causes) *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove a Symptom. *REMOVE ... More Searches: Gait disturbances. *Gait disturbances: Add a 4th symptom *Gait disturbances: Remove a symptom *Start with new ...
wrongdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/gait-disturbances/memory-problems-related-to-neurological-disorders/reduced-blood-to-extremities.htm

*  Gaits of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on a horizontal ladder and arboreal stability - Higurashi - 2008 - American Journal...

A particular species may select suitable gaits according to the substrate properties. Here, we analyzed the gaits of Japanese ... whereas the other macaque used DS gaits (i.e., DSDC and DSLC gaits). At wider rung intervals, both macaques shifted to a two- ... Gaits of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on a horizontal ladder and arboreal stability. Authors. *. Yasuo Higurashi,. ... W.I. Sellers, L. Margetts, K.T. Bates, A.T. Chamberlain, Exploring Diagonal Gait Using a Forward Dynamic Three-Dimensional ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.20962/abstract

*  Motion and Gait Analysis | Kistler

Piezoelectric force measurement systems from Kistler can look back on 50 years of success and dependability for motion and gait ... Motion and Gait Analysis with Kistler - When Force Measurement Makes All the Difference. With Kistler force plates, gait ... Biomechanics and Force Plate Kinesiology and Ergonomics Motion and Gait Analysis Sports and Performance Analysis ... Detection of gait asymmetries and shifts in the center of gravity. Precise adaptation of prostheses and rehabilitation ...
https://kistler.com/en/applications/sensor-technology/biomechanics-and-force-plate/motion-gait-analysis/

*  Soreness in One Leg and Trouble with Gait: 46 Causes

There are 7 common conditions that can cause Soreness in One Leg and Trouble with Gait. There are 7 somewhat common conditions ... There are 11 uncommon conditions that can cause Soreness in One Leg and Trouble with Gait. There are 21 rare conditions that ... The freeMD virtual doctor has found 46 conditions that can cause Soreness in One Leg and Trouble with Gait. ... that can cause Soreness in One Leg and Trouble with Gait. ... can cause Soreness in One Leg and Trouble with Gait. ...
freemd.com/s2/0004/soreness-in-one-leg-trouble-with-gait.htm

Gait (human): Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs. Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of the human body, in which there are alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy.Tandem gait: Tandem gait is a gait (method of walking or running) where the toes of the back foot touch the heel of the front foot at each step. Neurologists sometimes ask patients to walk in a straight line using tandem gait as a test to help diagnose ataxia, especially truncal ataxia, because sufferers of these disorders will have an unsteady gait.Walking on a Dream (song)Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Berg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.Orthotics: Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis (plural: orthoses) is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system".Footballer's ankle: Footballer's Ankle is a pinching or impingement of the ligaments or tendons of the ankle between the bones, particularly the talus and tibia. This results in pain, inflammation and swelling.Walker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Johnnie Walker: Johnnie Walker is a brand of Scotch whisky owned by Diageo that originated in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland. It is the most widely distributed brand of blended Scotch whisky in the world, sold in almost every country, with annual sales of over 130 million bottles.Dorsalis pedis artery: In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery.Kurt KossmannKnee pain: Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain.Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder of uncertain etiology, though growing evidence strongly supports mutation of the ATP1A3 gene as the primary cause of this disease.2.Sidebone: Sidebone is a common condition of horses, characterized by the ossification of the collateral cartilages of the coffin bone. These are found on either side of the foot protruding above the level of the coronary band.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Crutch: A crutch is a mobility aid that transfers weight from the legs to the upper body. It is often used for people who cannot use their legs to support their weight, for reasons ranging from short-term injuries to lifelong disabilities.Utkal Prantiya Marwari Yuva ManchGross Motor Function Classification System: The Gross Motor Function Classification System or GMFCS is a 5 level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy on the basis of self-initiated movement abilities. Particular emphasis in creating and maintaining the GMFCS scale rests on evaluating sitting, walking, and wheeled mobility.Causes of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).Da Vinci Surgical System: The Da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system made by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console.Diabetic shoe: Diabetic shoes, sometimes referred to as extra depth, therapeutic shoes or Sugar Shoes, are specially designed shoes, or shoe inserts, intended to reduce the risk of skin breakdown in diabetics with co-existing foot disease.Hip resurfacing: 155px|right|thumb|The BHRAssistive cane: An assistive cane is a walking stick used as a crutch or mobility aid.Patellar network: The patellar network (circulatory anastomosis around the knee-joint, patellar anastomosis, genicular anastomosis, articular vascular network of knee or rete articulare genushttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.Select MedicalExercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.The Movement Disorder Society

(1/2687) Visual control of locomotion in Parkinson's disease.

The effect of placing parallel lines on the walking surface on parkinsonian gait was evaluated. To identify the kind of visual cues (static or dynamic) required for the control of locomotion, we tested two visual conditions: normal lighting and stroboscopic illumination (three flashes/s), the latter acting to suppress dynamic visual cues completely. Sixteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (nine males, seven females; mean age 68.8 years) and the same number of age-matched controls (seven males; nine females, mean age 67.5 years) were studied. During the baseline phase, Parkinson's disease patients walked with a short-stepped, slow velocity pattern. The double limb support duration was increased and the step cadence was reduced relative to normal. Under normal lighting, visual cues from the lines on the walking surface induced a significant improvement in gait velocity and stride length in Parkinson's disease patients. With stroboscopic illumination and without lines, both groups reduced their stride length and velocity but the changes were significant only in the Parkinson's disease group, indicating greater dependence on dynamic visual information. When stroboscopic light was used with stripes on the floor, the improvement in gait due to the stripes was suppressed in parkinsonian patients. These results demonstrate that the perceived motion of stripes, induced by the patient's walking, is essential to improve the gait parameters and thus favour the hypothesis of a specific visual-motor pathway which is particularly responsive to rapidly moving targets. Previous studies have proposed a cerebellar circuit, allowing the visual stimuli to by-pass the damaged basal ganglia.  (+info)

(2/2687) Development of a 12-min treadmill walk test at a self-selected pace for the evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adult men.

The direct measurement of true maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) is not always practical, especially in middle age and older populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple test that could accurately estimate cardiorespiratory fitness using a submaximal treadmill walking protocol for middle age, older, sedentary individuals and patients with chronic disease. Subjects for this study were 42 men (44.9 +/- 15.7 years), which included 17 patients with coronary heart disease (57.0 +/- 9.6 years). VO2peak and VO2AT were measured using a treadmill protocol (VO2peak; 38.4 +/- 11.6 ml/kg/min, VO2AT; 22.9 +/- 7.4 ml/kg/min). This simple test assessed the total distance covered in 12 minutes on the treadmill at an intensity corresponding to either 1) 11 on the Borg scale of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE11), 2) 13 on the Borg scale of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE13), or 3) "Optimal" by subjective judgment. The correlation coefficients between VO2peak or VO2AT and total distance at the three intensities (RPE11; 950 +/- 100 m, RPE13; 1080 +/- 140 m Optimal; 1050 +/- 110 m) were statistically significant, ranging from 0.72 to 0.85. The test-retest reliability coefficient on 12 subjects was 0.98. The oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured during the three walk tests on 15 subjects. There were no significant changes in submaximal VO2 values from min 4 to min 12 (RPE11; 19.8 +/- 4.7 ml/kg/min, RPE13; 24.1 +/- 4.9 ml/kg/min, Optimal; 23.1 +/- 4.8 ml/kg/min) in any of the three tests. Similarly, the three submaximal VO2 values did not differ from the VO2AT value (21.2 +/- 8.3 ml/kg/min) obtained in the initial maximal test. These results suggest that the 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test (STWT) is a valid method for the assessment of VO2peak and VO2AT. Therefore, the STWT could be a useful performance test for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness in middle age, older, sedentary individuals and patients with chronic disease.  (+info)

(3/2687) Maturation of gait dynamics: stride-to-stride variability and its temporal organization in children.

In very young children, immature control of posture and gait results in unsteady locomotion. In children of approximately 3 yr of age, gait appears relatively mature; however, it is unknown whether the dynamics of walking change beyond this age. Because stride dynamics depend on neural control, we hypothesized that motor control would continue to develop beyond age 3. To test this hypothesis, we measured the gait cycle duration on a stride-by-stride basis in 50 healthy 3- to 14-yr-old children (25 girls). Measurements of stride-to-stride variability were significantly larger both in the 3- and 4-yr-old children, compared with the 6- and 7-yr-old children, and in the 6- and 7-yr-old children, compared with the 11- to 14-yr-old children. Measurements of the temporal organization of gait also revealed significant age-dependent changes. The effects of age persisted even after adjusting for height. These findings indicate that mature stride dynamics may not be completely developed even in healthy 7-yr-old children and that different aspects of stride dynamics mature at different ages.  (+info)

(4/2687) A clinical guide to assess the role of lower limb extensor overactivity in hemiplegic gait disorders.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of knee and ankle extensor overactivity in the hemiplegic gait observed in stroke victims and to propose a clinical guide for selecting patients before treatment of a supposed disabling spasticity. METHODS: A standardized physical examination procedure was performed in 135 consecutive stroke patients. All patients were able to walk without human assistance. The period after stroke ranged from 3 to 24 months (mean, 11.5+/-7.25 months). Spasticity was evaluated with the stroke victim in sitting position and during walking. Overactivity of the quadriceps was considered disabling when inducing inability to flex the knee during the swing phase despite adequate control of knee flexion in sitting and standing positions; overactivity of the triceps surae was considered to be disabling when heel strike was not possible despite good control of the ankle flexion in sitting position; triceps retraction was also considered. RESULTS: Disabling overactivity was observed in 56 (41.5%) patients: 11 times for the quadriceps femoris, 21 times for the triceps surae, and 21 times for both muscles. It was considered to be the main disorder impairing gait among only 16 (12%) patients: 9 for the quadriceps alone, 3 for the triceps alone, and 4 for both. Sitting spasticity of the lower limb was not predictive of disabling overactivity during walking. CONCLUSIONS: Extensor muscle overactivity is one of the components of gait disorders in stroke patients. The difficulty in assessing spasticity and its real causal effect in gait disturbances are discussed. A clinical guide is proposed.  (+info)

(5/2687) Standard osteopathic manipulative treatment acutely improves gait performance in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Patients with Parkinson's disease exhibit a variety of motor deficits which can ultimately result in complete disability. The primary objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease. Ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and a group of eight age-matched normal control subjects were subjected to an analysis of gait before and after a single session of an OMT protocol. A separate group of 10 patients with Parkinson's disease was given a sham-control procedure and tested in the same manner. In the treated group of patients with Parkinson's disease, statistically significant increases were observed in stride length, cadence, and the maximum velocities of upper and lower extremities after treatment. There were no significant differences observed in the control groups. The data demonstrate that a single session of an OMT protocol has an immediate impact on Parkinsonian gait. Osteopathic manipulation may be an effective physical treatment method in the management of movement deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

(6/2687) Relationship of lesion location to clinical outcome following microelectrode-guided pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lesion location and clinical outcome following globus pallidus internus (GPi) pallidotomy for advanced Parkinson's disease. Thirty-three patients were prospectively studied with extensive neurological examinations before and at 6 and 12 months following microelectrode-guided pallidotomy. Lesion location was characterized using volumetric MRI. The position of lesions within the posteroventral region of the GPi was measured, from anteromedial to posterolateral along an axis parallel to the internal capsule. To relate lesion position to clinical outcome, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used. The variance in outcome measures that was related to preoperative scores and lesion volume was first calculated, and then the remaining variance attributable to lesion location was determined. Lesion location along the anteromedial-to-posterolateral axis within the GPi influenced the variance in total score on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale in the postoperative 'off' period, and in 'on' period dyskinesia scores. Within the posteroventral GPi, anteromedial lesions were associated with greater improvement in 'off' period contralateral rigidity and 'on' period dyskinesia, whereas more centrally located lesions correlated with better postoperative scores of contralateral akinesia and postural instability/gait disturbance. Improvement in contralateral tremor was weakly related to lesion location, being greater with posterolateral lesions. We conclude that improvement in specific motor signs in Parkinson's disease following pallidotomy is related to lesion position within the posteroventral GPi. These findings are consistent with the known segregated but parallel organization of specific motor circuits in the basal ganglia, and may explain the variability in clinical outcome after pallidotomy and therefore have important therapeutic implications.  (+info)

(7/2687) Reassessment of unilateral pallidotomy in Parkinson's disease. A 2-year follow-up study.

Unilateral pallidotomy has gained popularity in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. We present the results of a 2-year post-pallidotomy follow-up study. Using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Goetz dyskinesia scale and the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPBT), we evaluated 20 patients at regular intervals both off and on medications for 2 years post-pallidotomy. There were no significant changes in the dosages of antiparkinsonian medications from 3 months pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy. On the side contralateral to the operation, the improvements were preserved in 'on'-state dyskinesia (83% reduction from pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy, P < 0.001) and 'off'-state tremor (90% reduction from pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy, P = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between pre-pallidotomy scores and those at 2 years post-pallidotomy in ipsilateral dyskinesia, axial dyskinesia, 'off'- or 'on'-state PPBT, 'off'-state Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 'off'-state gait and postural stability. After 2 years, the 'on'-state ADL scores worsened by 75%, compared with pre-pallidotomy (P = 0.005). We conclude that 2 years after pallidotomy, the improvements in dyskinesia and tremor on the side contralateral to pallidotomy are preserved, while the initial improvements in most other deficits disappear, either because of progression of pathology or loss of the early efficacy achieved by surgery.  (+info)

(8/2687) Impaired modulation of quadriceps tendon jerk reflex during spastic gait: differences between spinal and cerebral lesions.

In healthy subjects, functionally appropriate modulation of short latency leg muscle reflexes occurs during gait. This modulation has been ascribed, in part, to changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. The changes in modulation of quadriceps tendon jerk reflexes during gait of healthy subjects were compared with those of hemi- or paraparetic spastic patients. The spasticity was due to unilateral cerebral infarction or traumatic spinal cord injury, respectively. The modulation of the quadriceps femoris tendon jerk reflex at 16 phases of the step cycle was studied. The reflex responses obtained during treadmill walking were compared with control values obtained during gait-mimicking standing postures with corresponding levels of voluntary muscle contraction and knee angles. In healthy subjects the size of the reflexes was profoundly modulated and was generally depressed throughout the step cycle. In patients with spinal lesion the reflex depression during gait was almost removed and was associated with weak or no modulation during the step cycle. In patients with cerebral lesion there was less depression of the reflex size associated with a reduced reflex modulation on the affected side compared with healthy subjects. On the 'unaffected' side of these patients reflex modulation was similar to that of healthy subjects, but the reflex size during gait was not significantly different from standing control values. These observations suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the depression of reflex size and the modulation normally seen during gait in healthy subjects are impaired to different extents in spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin, possibly due to the unilateral preservation of fibre tracts in hemiparesis.  (+info)



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  • These patients often have difficulty with prosthetic limb placement during maneuvering tasks, exhibit dramatic increases in the movement of their center of pressure during quiet standing, and both clinical and observational gait analysis reveal significant changes in their gait pattern relative to non-amputees. (clinicaltrials.gov)