Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Proprotein Convertase 5: A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Protein PrecursorsProprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Proprotein Convertase 1: A CALCIUM-dependent endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE that is near paired basic residues. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN; PRORENIN; proenkephalins; prodynorphin; prosomatostatin; and PROINSULIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

*  Cutting Edge: ERK1 Mediates the Autocrine Positive Feedback Loop of TGF-β and Furin in Glioma-Initiating Cells | The Journal of...

Furin cleaves and promotes activation of pro-TGF-β1 and pro-TGF-β2, and TGF-β2 in turn increases furin levels. Notably, TGF-β2 ... furin-specific activity. GIC. glioma-initiating cell. NBM. neurobasal medium. PCSK. proprotein convertases subtilisin/kexin. ... We thus uncover a role of ERK1 in the regulation of furin activity by supporting a self-sustaining loop for high TGF-β activity ... Cutting Edge: ERK1 Mediates the Autocrine Positive Feedback Loop of TGF-β and Furin in Glioma-Initiating Cells. Elisa Ventura, ...

*  Furin Antibody (NB100-1903): Novus Biologicals

Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Furin Antibody. TGN Marker. Validated: WB, B/N, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse ... Detects Furin convertase from canine and mouse cells as well as transfected human Furin. This does not detect endogenous Furin ... Blogs on Furin. There are no specific blogs for Furin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Flow Cytometry: Furin Antibody [NB100-1903] - Flow cytometry analysis of Furin Convertase was done on HeLa cells. Cells were ...

*  Furin - Wikipedia

Furin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FURIN gene. Some proteins are inactive when they are first synthesized, and ... Furin cleaves these sections and activates the proteins. It was named furin because it was in the upstream region of an ... Furin is enriched in the Golgi apparatus, where it functions to cleave other proteins into their mature/active forms. Furin ... Expression of furin in T-cells is required for maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Furin has been shown to interact ...

*  Abstract 4907: Upregulation of furin is associated with the invasiveness of cumulatively irradiated cancer cells | Cancer...

Furin, a subtilisin/kesin-like proprotein convertase (PC), activates membrane-bound MT1-MMP, which facilitates pro-gelatinase A ... AMC-HN3R cells were increased furin expression with upregulation of MT1-MMP/MMP2 and their invasiveness by two fold (p , 0.05) ... Upregulation of furin is associated with the invasiveness of cumulatively irradiated cancer cells. [abstract]. In: Proceedings ... Abstract 4907: Upregulation of furin is associated with the invasiveness of cumulatively irradiated cancer cells. Myungjin Lee ...

*  Furo - Wikipedia

This type of furo was the precursor of the modern Western-style hot tub.[citation needed] Furo are part of the Japanese ritual ... Traditional pot shaped cast iron furo were heated by a wood-burning stove built-in below them. Furo (or yubune (湯船) that ... Furo (風呂), or the more common and polite form ofuro (お風呂), is a Japanese bath. Specifically it is a type of bath which ... A furo differs from a conventional Western bathtub by being of a deeper construction, typically in the region of 0.6 m (25 ...

*  Furi - Wikipedia

"Furi for PlayStation 4 Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 4 July 2016. Devore, Jordan (5 July 2016). "Review: Furi". Destructoid. ... Rad, Chloi (13 July 2016). "Furi Review". IGN. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Davenport, James (6 July 2016). "Furi review". PC Gamer ... Blondeau, Elias (5 July 2016). "Furi Review". Game Revolution. Retrieved 5 July 2016. Brown, Peter (9 July 2016). "Furi Review ... Duck360Gaming2 (6 July 2016), Furi: All Endings (PS4/1080p), retrieved 4 December 2016 "Furi for PC Reviews". Metacritic. ...

*  Furen - Wikipedia

Furen may refer to: Fūren, Hokkaido, town Hokkaido, Japan Lake Furen, lake in Hokkaido, Japan Furen Point, rocky point in ... Antarctica Furen University, or Fu Jen Catholic University, university in Taiwan Furen Literary Society, Hong Kong organization ...

*  Fura - Wikipedia

Mount Fura (Mt Darwin) site of capital of Monomotapa kingdom in Zimbabwe Fura (food), Nigerian millet dough balls eaten with ... Indian rapper SEAT Fura supermini car produced by Spanish automaker SEAT, between 1981 and 1986, based on the Fiat 127 La Fura ... FURA) Frente Unido de Reforma Agraria (FURA) coalition of popular movements in Ecuador, formed in 1972 for land reform. ... an aminopolycarboxylic acid Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester, membrane-permeable derivative of the ratiometric calcium indicator Fura ...

*  Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion entry (Journal...

... we introduced a furin recognition site at single basic residues within the putative S1-S2 junctional region. We show that furin ... Title: Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion entry ... Journal Article: Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion ... The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the ...

*  Furen Point - Wikipedia

Furen Point (Bulgarian: нос Фурен, 'Nos Furen' \'nos 'fu-ren\) is the rocky point on Oscar II Coast, Graham Land in Antarctica ... The feature is named after the settlement of Furen in northwestern Bulgaria. Furen Point is located at 65°11′45″S 62°07′37″W ... Furen Point. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. (details in ...

*  Furo Iyenemi - Wikipedia

Furo Iyenemi official website Furo IYENEMI - FIFA competition record Furo IYENEMI at the International Olympic Committee "Furo ... Furo Iyenemi on Facebook Furo Iyenemi: Furo Football Academy's channel on YouTube Profile at Global FS (Surname: Iyenemi, First ... Adesanya, Niran (24 August 2000). "Controversial Furo Makes U-23 Team". AllAfrica.com. P.M. News (Lagos). Furo Iyenemi Udoka, ... Furo Iyenemi (born 17 July 1978) is a retired Nigerian international footballer who played as a defender for clubs in France, ...

*  Fura (food) - Wikipedia

Wherever there is a settlement of these tribes, fura, kindrimo and nono are marketed. A number 3f the dealers of fura are women ... This suggests that a transfer of the cuisine of fura served with sour ... African Farming and Food Processing 2005 Fura is a ... Fura are millet dough balls eaten in Nigeria. Telling Stories, Making Histories - Page 66 Certainly, the making of the classic ... dish, fura da nono (seasoned, boiled millet balls served with sour milk), represents such a blending of food resources and ...

*  Lake Furen - Wikipedia

The wetlands of Lake Furen and the shunkuni-tai (春国岱) dunes have been designated a Ramsar Site. Ramsar Sites in Japan "The ... "Ramsar Sites in Japan - Furen-ko & Shunkuni-tai" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 24 March 2011. ...

*  Furo MTV - Wikipedia

In July 19, 2011, Furo MTV completed 500 new episodes, and to commemorate the date, was broadcast the Furo Repórter, a ... Official website at the Wayback Machine (archived August 17, 2013) Furo MTV on Facebook Furo MTV on IMDb. ... "Furo". Carlos Bêla. Retrieved 17 July 2016. Cite error: The named reference portal-mtv1 was invoked but never defined (see the ... Furo MTV is a Brazilian satiric newscast produced and originally broadcast by MTV Brasil from March 2, 2009 to September 26, ...

*  Mount Furi - Wikipedia

Mount Furi (also simply Furi) is a stratovolcano near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Located in the south eastern outskirt of Addis ... Mount Furi is on the approach path to Bole International Airport. In 2003 a British Mediterranean Airways flight to Addis Ababa ...

*  Mount Fura - Wikipedia

"Wo aber zunächst war Mount Fura, wie die Engländer ihn nannten, oder la grande montagne de Fura, wie es in meinem ... Auf ... Mount Fura is a mountain found on old maps where the gold mines and capital of the Monomotapa kingdom was located. It is ... But if Mount Darwin was the old Mount Fura of our map, either there must be a great deal of gold in its vicinity, ... Carl ... just at the foot of Mount Fura in the unpopulated area around Thackaray farm ..." The Month: An Illustrated Magazine of ...

*  Fura-2 - Wikipedia

... but Fura-2 remains faster. Fura-2AM, a membrane-permeant derivative of Fura-2 Indo-1 Grynkiewicz, G.; Poenie, M. & Tsien, R.Y ... making Fura-2 one of the most appreciated tools to quantify calcium levels. The high photon yield of fura-2 allowed the first ... Fura-2 is excited at 340 nm and 380 nm of light, and the ratio of the emissions at those wavelengths is directly related to the ... Fura-2, an aminopolycarboxylic acid, is a ratiometric fluorescent dye which binds to free intracellular calcium. It was the ...

*  Fura (rapper) - Wikipedia

Official Website FuRa on Twitter FuRa on Facebook FuRa on Youtube FuRa on SoundCloud. ... Official Website Of Fura. fura.co. Retrieved on 2013-08-02. "It's all about rapping". Khaleej Times. 26 February 2012. ... Fura became popular after a feature verse on an R&B cover version of "Tum Hi Ho" which was uploaded on YouTube in May 2013. He ... Born in Kasaragod, Kerala, India, Fura moved to Dubai when he was two years old. He gained fame through his various live ...

*  Banu'l-Furat - Wikipedia

The Banu'l-Furat were a Shia family of civil functionaries of the Abbasid Caliphate in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, ... Abu'l-Khattab Ja'far ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Furat (died 909/10), head of the land department of East and ... The most notable members of the family were: Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Furat (died 904), ... Abu'l-Fath al-Fadl ibn Ja'far ibn al-Furat (died 938), also known as Ibn Hinzaba, held several posts in the fiscal ministries ...

*  Yasumasa Furo - Wikipedia

Yasumasa Furo (born 26 January 1944) is a Japanese sport shooter who competed in the 1988 Summer Olympics. "Olympics". sports- ...

*  SEAT Fura - Wikipedia

The car was also assembled by NASCO in Cairo as the El Nasr Super Fura. The SEAT Fura Crono was used in the 'Copa Fura' one- ... Glon, Ronan (2012-01-01). "Sunday classic: SEAT Fura Crono". Ran When Parked. Retrieved 2012-02-11. Seat Fura Crono Gr. B de ... The Fura was never available with the larger 1,010 cc unit seen in the SEAT 127, but did receive a five-speed manual ... The SEAT Fura is a supermini car produced by Spanish automaker SEAT, between 1981 and 1986, based on the Fiat 127 which had ...

*  Tan Furen - Wikipedia

Tan Furen (Chinese: 谭甫仁) (April 1, 1910 - December 17, 1970) was a lieutenant general in the People's Liberation Army and ...

*  Al-Furat - Wikipedia

Furat, Forat, Al-Furat or Al-Forat may refer to: The Euphrates, a river that flows through Iraq, Syria and Turkey Al-Furat dam ... Syria Al-Furat University, a university in Deir ez-Zor, Syria Al-Furat (newspaper, Australia), a newspaper in New South Wales, ... several of whom held the office of vizier Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn al-Furat, a member of the Banu'l-Furat family, was a senior ... but executed after a few days Ja'far ibn al-Furat (921-1001), a member of the bureaucratic Banu'l-Furat dynasty, who served as ...

*  Ibn al-Furat - Wikipedia

Ibn al-Furat; le Strange (1900). "The Death of the Last Abbasid Caliph, from the Vatican MS. of Ibn al-Furat". JRAS. 32: 293- ... Ibn al-Furat (1971). Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed. Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders; selections from the Tarikh al-duwal wa'l-Muluk ... Ibn al-Furat (1971). Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed. Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders: Text. 1. Translation by Malcolm Cameron Lyons ... It was not widely esteemed or disseminated among his contemporary and later Muslim historians, but Ibn al-Furat's work is of ...

(1/678) Subtilisin-like proprotein convertases, PACE4 and PC8, as well as furin, are endogenous proalbumin convertases in HepG2 cells.

Serum albumin is synthesized as a larger precursor form, proalbumin, which undergoes proteolytic processing at a dibasic site by a hepatic proprotein convertase within the secretory pathway to generate the mature form. Although furin, a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, was thought to be the only candidate hepatic convertase for proalbumin, SPC family members other than furin were recently suggested to also be involved in proalbumin processing. This study was designed to identify the endogenous proprotein convertases involved in proalbumin processing. Since human hepatoma HepG2 cells are highly differentiated and produce major plasma proteins, this cell line was used as a model for hepatocytes. Northern blot analysis revealed that PACE4, furin and PC8 of the SPC family were expressed in HepG2 cells as well as in the liver. Ribonuclease protection assay showed that PACE4A-II mRNA is the major transcript in HepG2 cells among the PACE4 isoforms. The coexpression studies showed that furin, PACE4A-II and PC8 were all able to convert proalbumin to albumin correctly. To elucidate the roles of these endogenous SPC family members in proalbumin processing, the antisense RNA for PACE4, furin and PC8 was stably expressed in HepG2 cells, respectively. The expression of each antisense RNA resulted in approximately 30% inhibition of endogenous proalbumin processing. We therefore concluded that PACE4 and PC8, as well as furin, are involved in the processing of proalbumin in HepG2 cells, and that these SPC family members are functionally redundant in this processing.  (+info)

(2/678) Differential sorting of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons.

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is released through the constitutive secretory pathway from cells in peripheral tissues and nerves where it can act as a target-derived survival factor. In contrast, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be processed in the regulated secretory pathway of brain neurons and secreted in an activity-dependent manner to play a role in synaptic plasticity. To determine whether sorting differences are intrinsic to the neurotrophins or reflect differences between cell types, we compared NGF and BDNF processing in cultured hippocampal neurons using a Vaccinia virus expression system. Three independent criteria (retention or release from cells after pulse-chase labeling, depolarization-dependent release, and immunocytochemical localization) suggest that the bulk of newly synthesized NGF is sorted into the constitutive pathway, whereas BDNF is primarily sorted into the regulated secretory pathway. Similar results occurred with AtT 20 cells, including those transfected with cDNAs encoding neurotrophin precursor-green fluorescent protein fusions. The NGF precursor, but not the BDNF precursor, is efficiently cleaved by the endoprotease furin in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Blocking furin activity in AtT 20 cells with alpha1-PDX as well as increasing the expression of NGF precursor partially directed NGF into the regulated secretory pathway. Therefore, neurotrophins can be sorted into either the constitutive or regulated secretory pathways, and sorting may be regulated by the efficiency of furin cleavage in the TGN. This mechanism may explain how neuron-generated neurotrophins can act both as survival factors and as neuropeptides.  (+info)

(3/678) Sorting of furin at the trans-Golgi network. Interaction of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals with AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly proteins.

The eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease furin is found predominantly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and cycles between this compartment, the cell surface, and the endosomes. There is experimental evidence for endocytosis from the plasma membrane and transport from endosomes to the TGN, but direct exit from the TGN to endosomes via clathrin-coated vesicles has only been discussed but not directly shown so far. Here we present data showing that expression of furin promotes the first step of clathrin-coat assembly at the TGN, the recruitment of the Golgi-specific assembly protein AP-1 on Golgi membranes. Further, we report that furin indeed is present in isolated clathrin-coated vesicles. Packaging into clathrin-coated vesicles requires signal components in the furin cytoplasmic domain which can be recognized by AP-1 assembly proteins. We found that besides depending on the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site, interaction of the furin tail with AP-1 and its mu1subunit is mediated by a tyrosine motif and to less extent by a leucine-isoleucine signal, whereas a monophenylalanine motif is only involved in binding to the intact AP-1 complex. This study implies that high affinity interaction of AP-1 or mu1 with the cytoplasmic tail of furin needs a complex interplay of signal components rather than one distinct signal.  (+info)

(4/678) Basolateral sorting of furin in MDCK cells requires a phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with an acidic amino acid cluster.

Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin.  (+info)

(5/678) Processing of the fibrillin-1 carboxyl-terminal domain.

To investigate the processing and general properties of the fibrillin-1 carboxyl-terminal domain, three protein expression constructs have been developed as follows: one without the domain, one with the domain, and one with a mutation near the putative proteolytic processing site. The constructs have been expressed in two eukaryotic model systems, baculoviral and CHO-K1. Post-translational modifications that normally occur in fibrillin-1, including glycosylation, signal peptide cleavage, and carboxyl-terminal processing, occur in the three constructs in both cell systems. Amino-terminal sequencing of secreted protein revealed leader sequence processing at two sites, a primary site between Gly-24/Ala-25 and a secondary site of Ala-27/Asn-28. Processing of the carboxyl-terminal domain could be observed by migration differences in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was evident in both mammalian and insect cells. Immunological identification by Western blotting confirmed the loss of the expected region. The failure of both cell systems to process the mutant construct shows that the multi-basic sequence is the site of proteolytic processing. Cleavage of the fibrillin-1 carboxyl-terminal domain occurred intracellularly in CHO-K1 cells in an early secretory pathway compartment as demonstrated by studies with secretion blocking agents. This finding, taken with the multi-basic nature of the cleavage site and observed calcium sensitivity of cleavage, suggests that the processing enzyme is a secretory pathway resident furin-like protease.  (+info)

(6/678) Carboxy-terminal conversion of profibrillin to fibrillin at a basic site by PACE/furin-like activity required for incorporation in the matrix.

Fibrillin-1, the main component of 10-12 nm microfibrils of the extracellular matrix, is synthesized as profibrillin and proteolytically processed to fibrillin. The putative cleavage site has been mapped to the carboxy-terminal domain of profibrillin-1, between amino acids arginine 2731 and serine 2732, by a spontaneous mutation in this recognition site that prevents profibrillin conversion. This site contains a basic amino acid recognition sequence (R-G-R-K-R-R) for proprotein convertases of the furin/PACE family. In this study, we use a mini-profibrillin protein to confirm the cleavage in the carboxy-terminal domain by both fibroblasts and recombinantly expressed furin/PACE, PACE4, PC1/3 and PC2. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids in the consensus recognition motif prevented conversion, thereby identifying the scissile bond and characterizing the basic amino acids required for cleavage. Using a PACE/furin inhibitor, we show that wild-type profibrillin is not incorporated into the extracellular matrix until it is converted to fibrillin. Therefore, profibrillin-1 is the first extracellular matrix protein to be shown to be a substrate for subtilisin-like proteases, and the conversion of profibrillin to fibrillin controls microfibrillogenesis through exclusion of uncleaved profibrillin.  (+info)

(7/678) Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain.

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

(8/678) The furin protease cleavage recognition sequence of Sindbis virus PE2 can mediate virion attachment to cell surface heparan sulfate.

Cell culture-adapted Sindbis virus strains attach to heparan sulfate (HS) receptors during infection of cultured cells (W. B. Klimstra, K. D. Ryman, and R. E. Johnston, J. Virol. 72:7357-7366, 1998). At least three E2 glycoprotein mutations (E2 Arg 1, E2 Lys 70, and E2 Arg 114) can independently confer HS attachment in the background of the consensus sequence Sindbis virus (TR339). In the studies reported here, we have investigated the mechanism by which the E2 Arg 1 mutation confers HS-dependent binding. Substitution of Arg for Ser at E2 1 resulted in a significant reduction in the efficiency of PE2 cleavage, yielding virus particles containing a mixture of PE2 and mature E2. Presence of PE2 was associated with an increase in HS-dependent attachment to cells and efficient attachment to heparin-agarose beads, presumably because the furin recognition site for PE2 cleavage also represents a candidate HS binding sequence. A comparison of mutants with partially or completely inhibited PE2 cleavage demonstrated that efficiency of cell binding was correlated with the amount of PE2 in virus particles. Viruses rendered cleavage defective due to deletions of portions or all of the furin cleavage sequence attached very poorly to cells, indicating that an intact furin cleavage sequence was specifically required for PE2-mediated attachment to cells. In contrast, a virus containing a partial deletion was capable of efficient binding to heparin-agarose beads, suggesting different requirements for heparin bead and cell surface HS binding. Furthermore, virus produced in C6/36 mosquito cells, which cleave PE2 more efficiently than BHK cells, exhibited a reduction in cell attachment efficiency correlated with reduced content of PE2 in particles. Taken together, these results strongly argue that the XBXBBX (B, basic; X, hydrophobic) furin protease recognition sequence of PE2 can mediate the binding of PE2-containing Sindbis viruses to HS. This sequence is very similar to an XBBXBX heparin-HS interaction consensus sequence. The attachment of furin protease cleavage sequences to HS may have relevance to other viruses whose attachment proteins are cleaved during maturation at positively charged recognition sequences.  (+info)



Recombinant human Furin

  • Recombinant human Furin is a 61.7 kDa protein, corresponding to residues 124 through 715 of the Furin precursor plus a C-terminal His-tag. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Peptides (50 μmol/L) were subjected to cleavage by recombinant human furin (1 U/100 μL), at pH 7.5, 30°C, and the release of fluorescence over time was measured by a spectrofluorometer enabling calculation of the Vmax of each reaction. (nih.gov)

proprotein convertases

  • Both the Ganz and Rotwein groups demonstrated that furin-like proprotein convertases (PPC) are responsible for conversion of 50 kDa HJV to a 40 kDa protein with a truncated COOH-terminus, at a conserved polybasic RNRR site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we report that furin is unique among the proprotein convertases subtilisin/kexin in being highly expressed in human GIC. (jimmunol.org)
  • Implication of the proprotein convertases in iron homeostasis: proprotein convertase 7 sheds human transferrin receptor 1 and furin activates hepcidin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In several virus families, this processing step is carried out by cellular proprotein convertases ( 21 ), most commonly furin, a component of the constitutive secretory pathway of many different types of cells ( 9 , 33 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

cleavage

  • Cleavage of target proteins occurs at the carboxyl-terminus of the furin consensus sequence, RX(K/R)R. It has been shown that the acidic peptide sequence, C771PSDSEEDEG780, localizes furin to the trans-Golgi-network. (novusbio.com)
  • Furin is one of the proteases responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of HIV envelope polyprotein precursor gp160 to gp120 and gp41 prior to viral assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The furin substrates and the locations of furin cleavage sites in protein sequences can be predicted by two bioinformatics methods: ProP and PiTou. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether proteolytic cleavage of the S glycoprotein might be important for the newly emerged SARS-CoV, we introduced a furin recognition site at single basic residues within the putative S1-S2 junctional region. (osti.gov)
  • We show that furin cleavage at the modified R667 position generates discrete S1 and S2 subunits and potentiates membrane fusion activity. (osti.gov)
  • The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the murine coronavirus and highlights an additional level of complexity in coronavirus entry. (osti.gov)
  • Cleavage of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus strain A59 spike protein was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by a peptide furin inhibitor, indicating that furin or a furin-like enzyme is responsible for this process. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We now demonstrate, for the first time, that furin or a furin-like enzyme is indeed the protease responsible for cleavage of the S protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furin cleavage assays of fluorogenic peptides. (nih.gov)
  • FECV sequences were compared with FIPV sequences.Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage.These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures against coronaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • We examined a furin cleavage site in the region between receptor-binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains of the spike of serotype 1 FCoV. (nih.gov)
  • All FECVs had a conserved furin cleavage motif. (nih.gov)
  • Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • Feline and human cells lines show identical rates of cleavage for a known furin target protein (PSCK-9), which contains an active furin cleavage site (Technical Appendix Figure 2). (nih.gov)

protein

  • Phosphorylation of serine residues within this region modulates intracellular routing of Furin protein. (novusbio.com)
  • Furin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FURIN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was known as FUR (FES Upstream Region) and therefore the protein was named furin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A furin-like pro-protein convertase has been implicated in the processing of RGMc (also called hemojuvelin), a gene involved in a severe iron-overload disorder called juvenile hemochromatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, genetically-encoded calcium indicators based on spectral variants of the green fluorescent protein, such as Cameleons, have supplemented the use of Fura-2 and other small molecule dyes for calcium imaging, but Fura-2 remains faster. (wikipedia.org)

Lake Furen

  • The wetlands of Lake Furen and the shunkuni-tai (春国岱) dunes have been designated a Ramsar Site. (wikipedia.org)

proteins

  • Furin cleaves these sections and activates the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furin is enriched in the Golgi apparatus, where it functions to cleave other proteins into their mature/active forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to processing cellular precursor proteins, furin is also utilized by a number of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the envelope proteins of viruses such as HIV, influenza, dengue fever and several filoviruses including ebola and marburg virus must be cleaved by furin or furin-like proteases to become fully functional. (wikipedia.org)

precursor

  • This type of furo was the precursor of the modern Western-style hot tub. (wikipedia.org)

amino acid

  • Furin is also known as PACE (Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furin is a calcium dependent serine endoprotease that processes numerous proproteins of different secretory pathways into their mature forms by cleaving at the carboxyl side of the recognition sequence, R-Xaa-(K/R)-R, where Xaa can be any amino acid. (creative-bioarray.com)

Inhibition

  • In case of AMC-HN3R, inhibition of furin activity with the synthetic inhibitor decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl-keton, CMK, showed a significant decrease of MT1-MMP/MMP2 and in vitro cellular invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although AMC-HN3R and AMC-HN8R cells identically undergo EMT, inhibition of furin activity decreases activated MMP2 and invasive potential of HN3R cell line unlike HN8R cell line, suggesting that furin is a potentially useful target for therapeutics. (aacrjournals.org)

peptide

  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues R(780) G E R T A F I K D Q S A L(793) of human Furin. (novusbio.com)
  • Effects of transmitters and amyloid-beta peptide on calcium signals in rat cortical astrocytes: Fura-2AM measurements and stochastic model simulations. (abcam.cn)
  • We used fluorogenic peptides containing the canonical motif (R-R-S-R-R-S) or with substitutions from positions P1′ through P7 (Figure 4, panel A). The canonical peptide was efficiently cleaved by furin (Figure 4), with average Vmax of 235 Relative Fluorescence Units (RFU) per minute. (nih.gov)

cleaves

  • Furin cleaves and promotes activation of pro-TGF-β1 and pro-TGF-β2, and TGF-β2 in turn increases furin levels. (jimmunol.org)

activates

  • Furin, a subtilisin/kesin-like proprotein convertase (PC), activates membrane-bound MT1-MMP, which facilitates pro-gelatinase A (MMP2). (aacrjournals.org)

subtilisin

  • Furin is a membrane-associated, calcium-dependent, serine protease that belongs to the subtilisin-like prohormone convertase (PC) family. (novusbio.com)
  • Furin and other PC family members share structural similarities which include a heterogeneous ~10 kDa amino-terminal proregion, a highly conserved ~55 kDa subtilisin-like catalytic domain, and carboxyl-terminal domain that is heterogeneous in length and sequence. (novusbio.com)
  • Furin is a membrane-bound, calcium-dependent subtilisin-like protease whose primary site of action is the trans -Golgi network (TGN), although cycling of furin between TGN and plasma membrane through the exocytic and endocytic pathways has also been demonstrated ( 6 , 28 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

convertase

  • Flow Cytometry: Furin Antibody [NB100-- Flow cytometry analysis of Furin Convertase was done on HeLa cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Detects Furin convertase from canine and mouse cells as well as transfected human Furin. (novusbio.com)

cellular

  • In this study, we investigate the contribution of MMP2 activated by furin to cellular invasiveness of cumulatively irradiated cells. (aacrjournals.org)

protease

  • A 12-residue spacer, Thr-Arg-His-Arg-Gln-Pro-Arg-Gly-Trp-Glu-Gln-Leu, containing the recognition site for the protease furin, was incorporated between the toxin and the ligand to generate restrictocin-spacer-anti-TFR(scFv) and anti-TFR(scFv)-spacer-restrictocin. (biochemj.org)

consensus sequence

cells

  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Furin Antibody [NB100-- Immunolocalization of endogenous furin in mouse 3T3 cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Anthrax toxin, pseudomonas exotoxin, and papillomaviruses must be processed by furin during their initial entry into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of furin in T-cells is required for maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high photon yield of fura-2 allowed the first real time (video rate) measurements of calcium inside living cells in 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors obtained after subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of AMC-HN3R cells were larger, developed earlier and increased more furin than the tumor of parent cells, AMC-HN3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Utilizing Molecular Devices' masking technology, the Fura-2 QBT Calcium Kit significantly reduces background fluorescence in media around the cells, enabling researchers to more easily detect signal from within the cell, giving more accurate results. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The Fura-2 QBT Calcium Kit enables detection of the largest signal window available for Fura-2, and allows scientists to interrogate low-density, weakly or non-adherent cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Direct comparison of Abcam and competitor's Fura-2 AM. RAW 264.7 cells were loaded with 2 µM of Fura-2 AM from Abcam (ab120873) and competitor's in a DMSO/ HBSS solution for 30 minutes at room temperature and in the dark. (abcam.cn)

intracellular calcium

  • Fura-2, an aminopolycarboxylic acid, is a ratiometric fluorescent dye which binds to free intracellular calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fura-2 is excited at 340 nm and 380 nm of light, and the ratio of the emissions at those wavelengths is directly related to the amount of intracellular calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new kit combines the calcium indicator Fura-2 with Molecular Devices' proprietary masking technology to provide a fast, simple, and reliable ratiometric fluorescence-based assay for detecting and quantitating changes in intracellular calcium. (technologynetworks.com)

proteolytic

  • To test whether the identified FIPV S1/S2 mutations have an effect on cleavability by furin, we performed an in vitro proteolytic assay. (nih.gov)

citation

  • citation needed] Furo are part of the Japanese ritual of bathing, not meant for washing but rather for relaxing and warming oneself. (wikipedia.org)

upstream region

  • It was named furin because it was in the upstream region of an oncogene known as FES. (wikipedia.org)

assay

  • Leveraging the advantages of Fura-2 over other calcium indicators, the dye is excited at two different wavelengths, enabling ratiometric measurement of calcium flux to minimize the impact of assay variances caused by uneven dye loading, leakage or cell density. (technologynetworks.com)

fluorescent

  • Intracellular Ca2+ transients in isolated perfused rat heart: measurement using the fluorescent indicator Fura-2/AM. (abcam.cn)

rocky point

  • Furen Point (Bulgarian: нос Фурен, 'Nos Furen' \'nos 'fu-ren\) is the rocky point on Oscar II Coast, Graham Land in Antarctica formed by an offshoot of Yordanov Nunatak, and situated on the northwest coast of Borima Bay. (wikipedia.org)

settlement

  • The feature is named after the settlement of Furen in northwestern Bulgaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wherever there is a settlement of these tribes, fura, kindrimo and nono are marketed. (wikipedia.org)

Nigeria

  • Former Nigeria defender, Furo Iyenemi Mastrogiannopoulos, Alexander (21 March 2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fura are millet dough balls eaten in Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)

concentration

  • The use of the ratio automatically cancels out confounding variables, such as variable dye concentration and cell thickness, making Fura-2 one of the most appreciated tools to quantify calcium levels. (wikipedia.org)

human

  • We used human furin for these experiments. (nih.gov)
  • Human and feline furin are very similar (96% identical) and are expected to cleave in an equivalent manner. (nih.gov)

known

  • Furin is the only known PC to possess a transmembrane domain. (novusbio.com)
  • Ajmal Abdul Rahiman known by his stage name Fura is a Dubai-Based Indian rapper, music producer, and singer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abu'l-Fath al-Fadl ibn Ja'far ibn al-Furat (died 938), also known as Ibn Hinzaba, held several posts in the fiscal ministries of land revenue, vizier for a few months in 932 and in 937. (wikipedia.org)

region

  • A furo differs from a conventional Western bathtub by being of a deeper construction, typically in the region of 0.6 m (25 inches). (wikipedia.org)

Popular

  • Fura became popular after a feature verse on an R&B cover version of "Tum Hi Ho" which was uploaded on YouTube in May 2013. (wikipedia.org)

page

  • Telling Stories, Making Histories - Page 66 Certainly, the making of the classic dish, fura da nono (seasoned, boiled millet balls served with sour milk), represents such a blending of food resources and styles of cuisine. (wikipedia.org)

manner

  • Notably, TGF-β2 controls furin activity in an ALK-5-dependent manner involving the ERK/MAPK pathway. (jimmunol.org)

activity

  • We thus uncover a role of ERK1 in the regulation of furin activity by supporting a self-sustaining loop for high TGF-β activity in GIC. (jimmunol.org)

modern

  • A modern furo may be made of acrylic, and the top of the range models fitted with a re-circulation system (oidaki) which filters and re-heats the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possibly to be identified as Stanford (1896) with modern Mount Fura (Mount Darwin) in Mashonaland Central, Zimbabwe. (wikipedia.org)

available

  • Furi is an action shoot 'em up video game developed and published by indie studio The Game Bakers available for download on Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, and Nintendo Switch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fura was never available with the larger 1,010 cc unit seen in the SEAT 127, but did receive a five-speed manual transmission as standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, feline furin has not been directly studied to any degree, and reagents are not readily available. (nih.gov)

date

  • In July 19, 2011, Furo MTV completed 500 new episodes, and to commemorate the date, was broadcast the Furo Repórter, a documentary narrated by comedian Guilherme Santana (imitating Sérgio Chapelin, the Globo Repórter's host), as showed when Dani met Bento. (wikipedia.org)

simply

  • Mount Furi (also simply Furi) is a stratovolcano near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the sources, the members of the family are often simply designated as Ibn al-Furat. (wikipedia.org)

Review

  • Furi received "generally favorable" reviews, getting a critic score of 76 based off 12 critics on PC, and a 77 based off 37 critics on PlayStation 4 according to review aggregator Metacritic. (wikipedia.org)

levels

  • Autofluorescence as a confound in the determination of calcium levels in hippocampal slices using fura-2AM dye. (abcam.cn)

website

area

  • Generally Japanese bathrooms are small by Western standards, so the bathroom is set up much like a walk-in shower area but containing the furo. (wikipedia.org)

found

  • Mount Fura is a mountain found on old maps where the gold mines and capital of the Monomotapa kingdom was located. (wikipedia.org)

refer

  • Furo (or yubune (湯船) that specifically refer to the bath with water) are usually left filled with water overnight, and for some household the water reused or recycled for washing clothes the next day. (wikipedia.org)

death

  • The most notable members of the family were: Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Furat (died 904), chief fiscal minister of the caliphs al-Mu'tadid and al-Muktafi until his death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abu'l-Khattab Ja'far ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Furat (died 909/10), head of the land department of East and West from 908 to his death. (wikipedia.org)