No data available that match "Fungal Structures"

*  Fungal Reproductive Structures | Biology | Mycology

Fungal Reproductive Structures , Biology , Mycology « Hourly Book September 11, 2012 at 5:40 pm ... DVD Description Our Fungi DVD begins by describing hyphae - the filamentous, thread-like fungal cells that intertwine to form ... interwoven masses called mycelium which are usually only visible when differentiated into sexual structures such as mushrooms, ...

*  Plus it

Fungal structures were stained with WGA-Alexa Fluor 488. White arrowheads indicate characteristic mycorrhizal structures: a, ... Percent total colonization and percentage of different fungal structures in colonized roots as indicated on x axis were counted ... E, Fluorescence image of WGA-Alexa Fluor 488-stained intraradical fungal structures. F, Bright-field image of magenta GUS- ... Scale bars = 50 µm. Fungal structures were stained with Alexa Fluor 488. White arrows indicate arbuscules. B, Mycorrhization ...

*  Viroids facts, information, pictures | articles about Viroids

The downy and powdery mildews also cover the leaves with fungal structures further reducing photosynthesis. Both of the mildews ... As a fungal hypha grows over the surface of a leaf, the hyphal tip mounds up and becomes cemented to the leaf, forming an ... The fungal body consists of filamentous strands called hyphae that collectively make up a mycelium. Sometimes the hyphae become ... Fungal and bacterial inoculum (infectious material) is spread at random to both hosts and nonhosts. Mucilagenous substances on ...

*  Symbionts | Natural History Museum

We are using three different light microscopy imaging processes to describe fungal structures, identify new forms and ... Fungal colonisation in the fossil plant Asteroxylon mackiei. Transverse section of an aerial axis. ...

*  Symbiotic Status, Phosphate, and Sucrose Regulate the Expression of Two Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Genes from the Mycorrhizal...

Results showed that although very few fungal structures were visible at 15 dpi (basically only multiple appressoria on the ... These nutrients are then transported to the plant through the fungal hyphae to the inner structures of the cortex. ... and extraradical hyphae contain equal amounts of fungal material. To balance the amount of fungal RNA in the mycorrhizal root ... In terms of fungal ATPases, Ferrol et al. (2000) isolated five gene fragments coding for homologs of H+-ATPases in G. mosseae ...

*  Biotic interactions in the rhizosphere in relation to plant and soil nutrient dynamics

... granules in the fungal structures in soil and roots providing the basis for P and C interchange between fungal and plant ... Fungal and bacterial pathways of organic matter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in arable soils. In: L. Brussaard, R ... Additionally, they consume fungal mycelia regulating its growth and taking part in the dispersion and conservation of ... Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores host bacteria that affect nutrient biodynamics and biocontrol of soil-borne plant ...

*  Neo/PolyB/HC Disease Interactions -

... fungal diseases of ocular structures; mycobacterial infections, including tuberculosis, of the eye; and any acute, purulent, ...,neo-polyb-hc.html

*  Appl Environ Microbiol Volume 69(8); 2003 August

Chlorination and Cleavage of Lignin Structures by Fungal Chloroperoxidases. Patricia Ortiz-Bermúdez, Ewald Srebotnik, Kenneth E ... Functional Expression of a Fungal Laccase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Directed Evolution ...

*  FAQs on Goldfish Bacteria and Vi

True fungal 'threads' (structures), versus bacterial look-alikes,. One site brought up body fungus. also, do I need to worry ... I began treating what they told me was a fungal infection ,Based upon what? There is no indication of a fungal infection, here ... It has fungal growth on it's head and also has fin rot what should I do? My 'Goldfish care' book said something about 'the salt ... Fungal infections in fish are actually quite rare....,. with 'Love Fish Anti Bacteria and Fungus' treatment. Several weeks have ...

*  Specific impacts of beech and Norway spruce on the structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and soil microbial communities |...

Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial ... A) Bacteria, (B) Archaea, (C) Fungal communities based on ITS marker and (D) Fungal communities based on 18S rRNA gene marker. ... 36 also suggested that the structures of fungal and bacterial communities were not determined by the same drivers. Although ... Figure 2: Relative distribution (%) of the main taxa detected among the archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities in the beech ...

*  Galvanic microcells as control agent of indoor microorganisms | Scientific Reports

For microscopic observation and photography of fungal morphological structures, Nikon SMZ 1500 and Nikon Eclipse 80i light ... Fungal isolation. Fungal isolation following fungal species were used: Aureobasidium pullulans var. pullulans, Cladosporium ... Figure 3: Barrier protection by copper-zinc galvanic microcells against fungal colonization (Penicillium spinulosum).. (A) ... Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Air-Conditioned Office Buildings in Warsaw, Poland - The Winter Season. . JOSE. 16, 465-476 ( ...

*  Met receptor Signal | Met receptor tyrosine kinase

Cellular membranes were compromised and also disrupted if the fungal structures were incubated with pleurocidin or Plc-2. The ... However, antimicrobial activity is not restricted exclusively to α-helical structures. Lee et al. [27] attributed the activity ... p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate structures. Some known AMP can ...

*  Biology-Online • View topic - Need help in Micro!

Functionally, endospores are survival structures whereas fungal spores are reproductive structures (assume conidiospores ala ... 2. Discuss fungal sexual spore formation. Be sure to include the 3 phases, products, sexual spore producing components.. 3. ... 1. Compare and contrast Endospore formation and fungal spore formation. be sure to include and identify the following:. a) ... List 5 environmental requirements/conditions as well as nutrient requirements for fungal growth.. 4.List and discuss the life ... billed

*  0374 Use of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for differentiation between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides...

FISH technique using a probe labeled with Texas Red showed a satisfactory signal emission of the hybridised fungal structures. ... Fungal samples for standardisation of FISH and TSA-FISH methods - Three P. brasiliensis isolates (T16B1, Pb192 and T15LN1) and ... and other fungal species according to the in silico and in vitro analysis performed. For the probes' specificity test against ... 4A-B, we can observe the natural fluorescence of the fungal cells in a few points, due to accumulation of probes and/or ...

*  Comparative secretome analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates with different host ranges reveals unique secretomes and cell...

Biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens employ specialized structures such as haustoria to colonise the plant. ... The mechanisms by which fungal effectors are delivered into the host cell are poorly understood and fungal effector prediction ... fungal gene expression in infected wheat roots and the presence of homologs in fungal pathogens of plants, animal pathogens and ... having homology in the predicted secretomes of other fungal pathogens of plants, 14) having homology in fungal pathogens of ...

*  RCSB PDB for 1CMJ

Proton delivery in NO reduction by fungal nitric-oxide reductase. Cryogenic crystallography, spectroscopy, and kinetics of ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF FERRIC-NO COMPLEXES OF FUNGAL NITRIC OXIDE REDUCTASE AND THEIR SER286 MUTANTS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE. * ...

*  Sequential Delivery of Host-Induced Virulence Effectors by Appressoria and Intracellular Hyphae of the Phytopathogen...

Our findings indicate new functions for fungal infection structures and suggest a model for how this fungus switches from ... Fungal and plant material. C. higginsianum isolate IMI349063A was used for EST generation and as background strain for fungal ... which we found to be activated before fungal entry. We also show that later-expressed effectors accumulate in structures formed ... showed in addition labelling of discrete intracellular structures in the fungal cytoplasm (Figure 3E, G). Transmission electron ...

*  Publication : USDA ARS

Interpretive Summary: There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and ... Technical Abstract: There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and ...

*  Most recent papers with the keyword Histoplasma cutaneous | Read by QxMD

... exam presented a chronic dermatitis with epithelioid granulomas and Grocott staining revealed numerous fungal structures with a ... The information on the prevalence of fungal infections in the Caribbean region including Trinidad and Tobago (population ... and 2544-4608 with severe asthma and fungal sensitisation (SAFS). An estimated 23,763 women have ≥4 attacks of vaginal ... ...

*  Agricultural Trade

The term ergot refers to fungal structures produced by Claviceps species that develop in place of kernels on grain ears or ... Hundreds of fungal species from , 12 fungal genera produce , 300 identified mycotoxins which can pose a threat to the health of ... Some of these fungal metabolites are extremely toxic even at very low concentrations and are included as possible bioterrorism ... This fruit is a good substrate for fungal invasion and aflatoxin formation. Figs are one of the top Turkish export commodities ...

*  Biology-Online • View topic - The Fiber Disease

There was absolutely no indication that the fibrous structures are fungal in origin or that fungi. co-exist within the ... But I suspect I could have more than one kind of mites.. might be their advanced morphing in new generations… Structures built ... At the microscopic level (examined at 100x and 450x), the structures appear as tightly woven, but irregularly shaped stands of ... Two of the 15 structures contained a single nematode-like organism. Although this is outside my area of expertise, the ... health care

*  In vivo trans-specific gene silencing in fungal cells by in planta expression of a double-stranded RNA | BMC Biology | Full Text

... were unable to cause an evident gus gene silencing in transformed fungus structures and a large number of fungal structures ... a small number of fungal structures exhibiting the gus gene expression (7 ± 3 blue spots/cm2) were observed by GUS protein ... leaving the plant more time to respond and restrict fungal growth [40]. In this study, the infection started from fungal ... Fungal Genet Biol. 2007, 44: 504-516. 10.1016/j.fgb.2006.09.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...

*  Dauer Behavior

On laboratory growth medium, C. elegans dauers are frequently found nictating upon filamentous structures, such as fungal ... The dauer animal has modified body structures to prevent normal feeding behavior, including a closed mouth and a somewhat ...

*  Patent US7354433 - Disinfection, destruction of neoplastic growth, and sterilization by ... - Google Patentsuche

The amount of chitin present (dry weight) in the fungal cell wall differs among the particular life cycle structures. The ... The presence of chitin in the fungal cell walls of several of the major fungal groups is a distinguishing feature that sets ... Disrupting the proteins in any of these structures will prevent bacteria from proliferating, and hence all of these structures ... have been utilized as a way to determine fungal growth especially in assessing the growth of fungal plant pathogens. According ...

*  Expression profiles of a phosphate transporter gene (GmosPT) from the endomycorrhizal fungusGlomus mosseae | SpringerLink

... experiments were carried out to study GmosPT expression profiles in structures corresponding to different fungal life stages ( ... The first step of the fungus-mediated uptake is carried out by fungal membrane Pi transporters (PT) that transfer Pi from the ... Schüßler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C (2001) A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycol Res 105(12): ... White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. ...

No data available that match "Fungal Structures"

(1/28) A novel gene, CBP1, encoding a putative extracellular chitin-binding protein, may play an important role in the hydrophobic surface sensing of Magnaporthe grisea during appressorium differentiation.

The conidial germ tube of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, differentiates a specialized cell, an appressorium, required for penetration into the host plant. Formation of the appressorium is also observed on artificial solid substrata such as polycarbonate. A novel emerging germ tube-specific gene, CBP1 (chitin-binding protein), was found in a cDNA subtractive differential library. CBP1 coded for a putative extracellular protein (signal peptide) with two similar chitin-binding domains at both ends of a central domain with homology to fungal chitin deacetylases and with a C-terminus domain rich in Ser/Thr related extracellular matrix protein such as agglutinin. The consensus sequence of the chitin-binding domain found in CBP1 has never been reported in fungi and is similar to the chitin-binding motif in plant lectins and plant chitinases classes I and IV. CBPI was disrupted in order to identify its function. Null mutants of CBP1 failed to differentiate appressoria normally on artificial surface but succeeded in normally differentiating appressoria on the plant leaf surface. Since the null mutant Cbp1- showed abnormal appressorium differentiation only on artificial surfaces and was sensitive to the chemical inducers, CBP1 seemed to play an important role in the recognition of physical factors on solid surfaces.  (+info)

(2/28) Two novel fungal virulence genes specifically expressed in appressoria of the rice blast fungus.

The PMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase gene regulates appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth in the rice blast fungus. To further characterize this mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we constructed a subtraction library enriched for genes regulated by PMK1. Two genes identified in this library, GAS1 and GAS2, encode small proteins that are homologous with gEgh16 of the powdery mildew fungus. Both were expressed specifically during appressorium formation in the wild-type strains, but neither was expressed in the pmk1 mutant. Mutants deleted in GAS1 and GAS2 had no defect in vegetative growth, conidiation, or appressoria formation, but they were reduced in appressorial penetration and lesion development. Interestingly, deletion of both GAS1 and GAS2 did not have an additive effect on appressorial penetration and lesion formation. The GAS1-green fluorescent protein and GAS2-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were expressed only in appressoria and localized in the cytoplasm. These two genes may belong to a class of proteins specific for filamentous fungi and function as novel virulence factors in fungal pathogens.  (+info)

(3/28) Evidence for carbon source regulated protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling in the duplication cycle, polarization and septum formation in Aspergillus nidulans.

The effects of glucose and of a pectic substrate in the duplication cycle, spore polarization and septation of Aspergillus nidulans were tested in poor and rich media. Growth on poor conditions and on sodium polypectate slowed nuclear duplication and reduced the coupling of polarization to mitosis. Coupling of septation to the third mitosis was also reduced by changing growth conditions. When protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) activators were added to the media the results suggested a role for PKA in slowing the duplication cycle, while allowing polarization. Addition of a PKC activator to poor media uncoupled the first septum formation from the third mitosis in a carbon source-regulated manner, suggesting a role for PKC in coordinating cell cycle signals, growth and cytokinesis.  (+info)

(4/28) A mitogen-activated protein kinase gene (MGV1) in Fusarium graminearum is required for female fertility, heterokaryon formation, and plant infection.

Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of small grains and maize in many areas of the world. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins harmful to humans and animals. During the past decade, F. graminearum has caused several severe epidemics of head scab in wheat and barley. In order to understand molecular mechanisms regulating fungal development and pathogenicity in this pathogen, we isolated and characterized a MAP kinase gene, MGV1, which is highly homologous to the MPS1 gene in Magnaporthe grisea. The MGV1 gene was dispensable for conidiation in F. graminearum but essential for female fertility during sexual reproduction. Vegetative growth of mgv1 deletion mutants was normal in liquid media but reduced on solid media. Mycelia of the mgv1 mutants had weak cell walls and were hypersensitive to cell wall degrading enzymes. Interestingly, the mgv1 mutants were self-incompatible when tested for heterokaryon formation, and their virulence was substantially reduced. The ability of the mutants to accumulate trichothecene mycotoxins on inoculated wheat was also greatly reduced. Our data suggest that MGV1 in F. graminearum is involved in multiple developmental processes related to sexual reproduction, plant infection, and cell wall integrity.  (+info)

(5/28) The AVR4 elicitor protein of Cladosporium fulvum binds to fungal components with high affinity.

The interaction between tomato and the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum complies with the gene-for-gene system. Strains of C. fulvum that produce race-specific elicitor AVR4 induce a hypersensitive response, leading to resistance, in tomato plants that carry the Cf-4 resistance gene. The mechanism of AVR4 perception was examined by performing binding studies with 125I-AVR4 on microsomal membranes of tomato plants. We identified an AVR4 high-affinity binding site (KD = 0.05 nM) which exhibited all the characteristics expected for ligand-receptor interactions, such as saturability, reversibility, and specificity. Surprisingly, the AVR4 high-affinity binding site appeared to originate from fungi present on infected tomato plants rather than from the tomato plants themselves. Detailed analysis showed that this fungus-derived, AVR4-specific binding site is heat- and proteinase K-resistant. Affinity crosslinking demonstrated that AVR4 specifically binds to a component of approximately 75 kDa that is of fungal origin. Our data suggest that binding of AVR4 to a fungal component or components is related to the intrinsic virulence function of AVR4 for C. fulvum.  (+info)

(6/28) The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene MAF1 is essential for the early differentiation phase of appressorium formation in Colletotrichum lagenarium.

Colletotrichum lagenarium, the causal agent of cucumber anthracnose, invades host plants by forming a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. In this fungus, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene CMK1 is involved in several steps of the infection process, including appressorium formation. In this study, the goal was to investigate roles of other MAPKs in C. lagenarium. The MAPK gene MAF1, related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPK1 and Magnaporthe grisea MPS1, was isolated and functionally characterized. The maf1 gene replacement mutants grew normally, but there was a significant reduction in conidiation and fungal pathogenicity. The M. grisea mps1 mutant forms appressoria, but conidia of the C. lagenarium maf1 mutants produced elongated germ tubes without appressoria on both host plant and glass, on which the wild type forms appressoria, suggesting that MAF1 has an essential role in appressorium formation on inductive surfaces. On a nutrient agar, wild-type conidia produced elongated germ tubes without appressoria. The morphological phenotype of the wild type on the nutrient agar was similar to that of the maf1 mutants on inductive surfaces, suggesting repression of the MAF1-mediated appressorium differentiation on the nutrient agar. The cmk1 mutants failed to form normal appressoria but produced swollen, appressorium-like structures on inductive surfaces, which is morphologically different from the maf1 mutants. These findings suggest that MAF1 is required for the early differentiation phase of appressorium formation, whereas CMK1 is involved in the maturation of appressoria.  (+info)

(7/28) Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) resistance in melon is selectable at the haploid level.

The major cause of powdery mildew in melons (Cucumis melo L.) is the fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea. There are several cultivar- and season-specific races of this fungus. In order to control powdery mildew, it is important to introduce resistance to fungal infection into new cultivars during melon breeding. Haploid breeding is a powerful tool for the production of pure lines. In this study, it was investigated whether powdery mildew resistance could be manifested at the haploid level from two disease-resistant melon lines, PMR 45 and WMR 29. the effects of various races of S. fuliginea on diploid and haploid plants of PMR 45 and WMR 29 and of a disease-susceptible line, Fuyu 3 were measured. The responses of haploid and diploid plants to powdery mildew were identical. In addition, haploids that were generated from hybrids between Fuyu 3 and disease-resistant lines were examined. Seven out of 13 haploids from a Fuyu 3xPMR 45 cross and 10 out of 12 haploids from a Fuyu 3xWMR 29 cross were classified as resistant plants because they showed the same responses as their disease-resistant diploid parents to the various fungal races. These results indicate that resistance in PMR 45 and WMR 29 is selectable at the haploid level. All of the plant responses were observed by microscopy. A possible mechanism for generating powdery mildew resistance in two different melon lines is discussed.  (+info)

(8/28) A diffusible factor from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induces symbiosis-specific MtENOD11 expression in roots of Medicago truncatula.

Using dual cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Medicago truncatula separated by a physical barrier, we demonstrate that hyphae from germinating spores produce a diffusible factor that is perceived by roots in the absence of direct physical contact. This AM factor elicits expression of the Nod factor-inducible gene MtENOD11, visualized using a pMtENOD11-gusA reporter. Transgene induction occurs primarily in the root cortex, with expression stretching from the zone of root hair emergence to the region of mature root hairs. All AM fungi tested (Gigaspora rosea, Gigaspora gigantea, Gigaspora margarita, and Glomus intraradices) elicit a similar response, whereas pathogenic fungi such as Phythophthora medicaginis, Phoma medicaginis var pinodella and Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli do not, suggesting that the observed root response is specific to AM fungi. Finally, pMtENOD11-gusA induction in response to the diffusible AM fungal factor is also observed with all three M. truncatula Nod(-)/Myc(-) mutants (dmi1, dmi2, and dmi3), whereas the same mutants are blocked in their response to Nod factor. This positive response of the Nod(-)/Myc(-) mutants to the diffusible AM fungal factor and the different cellular localization of pMtENOD11-gusA expression in response to Nod factor versus AM factor suggest that signal transduction occurs via different pathways and that expression of MtENOD11 is differently regulated by the two diffusible factors.  (+info)


  • DVD Description Our Fungi DVD begins by describing hyphae - the filamentous, thread-like fungal cells that intertwine to form interwoven masses called mycelium which are usually only visible when differentiated into sexual structures such as mushrooms, puffballs, and powdery molds. (
  • After penetration, intracellular hyphae form fine-branched structures in cortical cells termed arbuscules, representing the major site where bidirectional nutrient exchange takes place between the host plant and fungus. (
  • Once the hyphae grow into the cortical cells, they form highly branched structures, the arbuscules (Latin for little tree). (
  • These nutrients are then transported to the plant through the fungal hyphae to the inner structures of the cortex. (
  • We also show that later-expressed effectors accumulate in structures formed at the interface between primary hyphae and living host cells, implicating these hyphae in effector delivery. (


  • Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial communities differ to a great degree between rhizosphere and bulk soils, regardless of the tree species. (
  • Nonetheless, functional screenings of culturable bacterial and fungal communities have revealed rhizosphere enrichment of microorganisms capable of improving plant nutrition by providing nitrogen and nutritive cations 15 . (
  • The mechanisms by which fungal effectors are delivered into the host cell are poorly understood and fungal effector prediction is less developed than bacterial and oomycete pathogens where characterised motifs are often used to identify candidate effectors 12 . (
  • There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. (


  • Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a species complex of fungal pathogens causing substantial impact on the production of a wide range of plants important to humanity. (
  • The large genetic distance between R. solani , in the Agaricomycetes class of Basidiomycota, and other well-characterised necrotrophic fungal pathogens of plants, which are mostly in the Dothideomycetes class within Ascomycota, further obscures efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin its pathogenicity. (
  • Biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens employ specialized structures such as haustoria to colonise the plant. (
  • Necrotrophic pathogens, such as R. solani , often lack these specialised feeding structures, making physical isolation of high confidence effectors a challenge. (
  • Many fungal plant pathogens undergo a series of developmental and morphological transitions required for successful host invasion. (


  • Here we investigated the role of secreted effector proteins in mediating hemibiotrophy and their delivery at fungal-plant interfaces. (
  • We found expression of many effector genes is plant-induced and distinct sets of effectors are deployed in successive waves by particular fungal cell-types. (
  • Early-expressed effector proteins are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores and may function to suppress early plant defense responses, which we found to be activated before fungal entry. (


  • Molecular analysis of the genetic changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during symbiosis allowed us to isolate a fungal cDNA clone encoding a H + -ATPase, GmPMA1 , from Glomus mosseae (BEG12). (


  • BACKGROUND Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) associated with Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) using oligonucleotides labeled with non-radioactive fluorophores is a promising technique for detection and differentiation of fungal species in environmental or clinical samples, being suitable for microorganisms which are difficult or even impossible to culture. (


  • Our results indicate that different fungal H + -ATPases isoforms might be recruited at different developmental stages possibly responding to the different requirements of the life in symbiosis. (
  • Risk assessments for human exposure to indoor fungal bioaerosols and mycotoxins indicate that these factors are a major contributor to sick building syndrome 5 . (
  • Our findings indicate new functions for fungal infection structures and suggest a model for how this fungus switches from biotrophy to necrotrophy. (


  • We used two types of electrodes, Zn and Cu, with two potential anti-fungal mechanisms: the oligodynamic action of the metal ions themselves and the electricidal effect of the current between the electrodes. (


  • In particular, we show effectors are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores before host invasion, revealing new levels of functional complexity for this fungal organ. (


  • 2006), but in cases of few infective fungal cells or uncultivable material, molecular techniques such as in situ detection of specific target DNA could be a promising choice (Perlin & Zhao 2009, Ampel 2010, Koepsell et al. (


  • We are using three different light microscopy imaging processes to describe fungal structures, identify new forms and characterise their relationships with plants. (


  • Fungal contamination in buildings is very often connected with environmental disasters, a notable example being Hurricane Katrina, as reported by Bennett in "The fungi that ate my house" 6 . (
  • 3. List 5 environmental requirements/conditions as well as nutrient requirements for fungal growth. (


  • One risk posed by these substances is the development of fungal resistance and the accelerated evolution of virulence in pathogenic fungi connected with human activities 8 . (


  • Specifically, we hypothesize that indoor surfaces can be protected against initial pathogenic fungal colonization through the formation of an electrochemically generated, ionic conductive environment using galvanic microcells. (
  • 1. Compare and contrast Endospore formation and fungal spore formation. (
  • 2. Discuss fungal sexual spore formation. (