Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Ananas: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE known for the edible fruit that is the source of BROMELAINS.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 126.96.36.199.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Litchi: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE that bears sweet fruits. Unusual fatty acids such as cyclopropanoic fatty acids have been identified in the seeds.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Ceratitis capitata: A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Olea: A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Punicaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.
Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Vegetable juiceSun-dried tomato: Sun-dried tomatoes are ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.Pepsi Wild Cherry: Pepsi Wild Cherry is a cherry-flavored cola first introduced in 1988 by PepsiCo as a replacement for Cherry Cola Slice, introduced as part of the line in 1986. A sugar-free version is also available, with zero calories, named Diet Pepsi Wild Cherry.Fragaria × vescana: Fragaria × vescana is a hybrid strawberry cultivar that was created in an effort to combine the best traits of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), which has large berries and vigorous plants, with the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca), which has an exquisite flavour, but small berries.Bactrocera tryoni: The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a species of tephritid fruit fly native to Australia.Pyrus cordataMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Actinidia polygama: Actinidia polygama (also known as silver vine and cat powder) is a nontoxichttp://www.cardinalglennon.Citrus productionOrange Peel (horse): Orange Peel was a Thoroughbred stallion that had a significant influence on the breeding of sport horses.Triple response of Lewis: The triple response of Lewis is a cutaneous response that occurs from firm stroking of the skin, which produces an initial red line, followed by a flare around that line, and then finally a wheal.Amelanchier alnifolia: Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry,Germplasm Resources Information Network: Amelanchier alnifolia is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north-central United States. Historically, it was also called pigeon berry.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Orange carotenoid N-terminal domain: In molecular biology the orange carotenoid N-terminal domain is a protein domain found predominantly at the N-terminus of the Orange carotenoid protein (OCP), and is involved in non-covalent binding of a carotenoid chromophore. It is unique for being present in soluble proteins, whereas the vast majority of domains capable of binding carotenoids are intrinsic membrane proteins.Capsicum frutescens: Capsicum frutescens is a species of chili pepper that is sometimes considered to be part of the species Capsicum annuum. Pepper cultivars of Capsicum frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants.PhytomedicineFlower box: __NOTOC__Passiflora edulisPineapple black rot: Pineapple black rot, also known as butt rot, base rot, or white blister, is a disease caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) Moreau (Anamorph: Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seyenes) Höhnel) is the most common and well-known post-harvest disease of the pineapple fruit which is responsible for serious losses in the fresh pineapple fruit world industry.Diospyros abyssinica: Diospyros abyssinica (also known as Giant Diospyros,Encyclopedia of Life: Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White or Kôforonto and Baforonto in local languages spoken in parts of Mali,The Malian Medicinal Plant Project, University of Oslo: Common name, description, distribution, and medical usage blidzo, blitcho, gblit∫o, blonyat∫o or gblεt∫o in some Ghanaian languagesJSTOR Global Plants: Diospyros abyssinica) is trees species in the Ebenaceae family growing in Sub-Saharan Africa.Ethanolic extract of mango peel: The ethanolic extract of mango peel (EEMP) is a product obtained from mango peel. Mango, or Mangifera indica, is a tropical and subtropical grown fruit popular for its vibrant color, unique taste, and nutrient content.CantaloupeSago: Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu.Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase: Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside.Polygalacturonase inhibitor: Polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs), also known as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, are plant proteins capable of inhibiting the action of polygalacturonase (PG) enzymes produced by bacterial and fungal pathogens.Darvill, A.Siamenoside ITomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Procyanidin A2John Cavendish: Sir John Cavendish of Cavendish (c. 1346 – 15 June 1381) was an English judge from Cavendish, Suffolk, England.Watermelon mosaic virus: Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) also known as Marrow mosaic virus (Raychaudhuri and Varma, 1975; Varma, 1988), Melon mosaic virus (Iwaki et al., 1984; Komuro, 1962), and until recently Watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (WMV-2), is a plant pathogenic virus that causes viral infection (sometimes referred to as watermelon Mosaic disease) in many different plants.Horseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Genetically modified insect: A genetically modified insect is an insect that has been genetically modified for various reasons such as agricultural production,New Report Finds Genetically Modified Insects May Offer Public Health And Agricultural Benefits, But Clear Regulatory Oversight Is Lacking oil productionChris Ayres, "Scientists find bugs that eat waste and excrete petrol", www.timesonline.Pittosporum tobira: Pittosporum tobira is a species of flowering plant in the Pittosporum family known by several common names, including Japanese pittosporum, Japanese mock-orange and Japanese cheesewood. It is native to Japan, China, and Korea, but it is used throughout the world as an ornamental plant in landscaping and as cut foliage.Olive tree of Vouves: The Olive tree of Vouves () is an olive tree in the village of Ano Vouves in the municipal unit of Kolymvari in Chania regional unit, Crete, Greece. Probably one of the oldest olive trees in the world, it still produces olives today.Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Punicacortein DPapaya ringspot virus: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a pathogenic plant virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae.CardiospermumAureusidin synthase: Aureusidin synthase (, AmAS1) is an enzyme with system name 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside:oxygen oxidoreductase.Morinda tinctoria: Morinda tinctoria, commonly known as aal or Indian mulberry (though these common names also refer to Morinda citrifolia), is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to southern Asia.
(1/4352) Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population.
High intakes of fruits and vegetables and of carotenoids are associated with a lower risk for a variety of chronic diseases. It is therefore important to test the validity of dietary questionnaires that assess these intakes. We compared intakes of five carotenoids, as calculated from responses to the Willett 126-item food-frequency questionnaire, with corresponding biochemical measures. Subjects included 346 women and 201 men, aged 67-93 y, in the Framingham Heart Study. Unadjusted correlations were higher among women than men as follows: alpha-carotene 0.33 and 0.18, beta-carotene, 0.36 and 0.25; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.44 and 0.32; lycopene, 0.35 and 0.21; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. Adjustment for age, energy intake, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), plasma cholesterol concentrations and smoking reduced the gender differences, respectively, to the following: alpha-carotene 0.30 and 0.28; beta-carotene, 0.34 and 0.31; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 and 0.36; lycopene, 0.36 and 0.31; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.24 and 0.14. Plots of adjusted mean plasma carotenoid concentration by quintile of respective carotenoid intake show apparent greater responsiveness among women, compared with men, to dietary intake of alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, but similar blood-diet relationships for lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin. Reported daily intake of fruits and vegetables correlated most strongly with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene among women and with plasma alpha- and beta-carotene among men. With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, this dietary questionnaire does provide reasonable rankings of carotenoid status among elderly subjects, with the strongest correlations for beta-cryptoxanthin. Appropriate adjustment of confounders is necessary to clarify these associations among men. (+info)
(2/4352) A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National Hepatitis A Investigation Team.
BACKGROUND: We investigated a large, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in February and March 1997 in Michigan and then extended the investigation to determine whether it was related to sporadic cases reported in other states among persons who had consumed frozen strawberries, the food suspected of causing the outbreak. METHODS: The cases of hepatitis A were serologically confirmed. Epidemiologic studies were conducted in the two states with sufficient numbers of cases, Michigan and Maine. Hepatitis A virus RNA detected in clinical specimens was sequenced to determine the relatedness of the virus from outbreak-related cases and other cases. RESULTS: A total of 213 cases of hepatitis A were reported from 23 schools in Michigan and 29 cases from 13 schools in Maine, with the median rate of attack ranging from 0.2 to 14 percent. Hepatitis A was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries in a case-control study (odds ratio for the disease, 8.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 33) and a cohort study (relative risk of infection, 7.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 53) in Michigan and in a case-control study in Maine (odds ratio for infection, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 14). The genetic sequences of viruses from 126 patients in Michigan and Maine were identical to one another and to those from 5 patients in Wisconsin and 7 patients in Arizona, all of whom attended schools where frozen strawberries from the same processor had been served, and to those in 2 patients from Louisiana, both of whom had consumed commercially prepared products containing frozen strawberries from the same processor. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a large outbreak of hepatitis A in Michigan that was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries. We found apparently sporadic cases in other states that could be linked to the same source by viral genetic analysis. (+info)
(3/4352) Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1) genetic polymorphisms do not affect human breast cancer risk, regardless of dietary antioxidants.
Glutathione-S-transferases catalyze the detoxication of carcinogen metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced through a number of mechanisms. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 is polymorphic, and the null allele results in a lack of enzyme activity. Because there are indications that ROS may be involved in breast carcinogenesis, we sought to determine whether the GSTM1 null allele was associated with increased breast cancer, particularly among women with lower consumption of dietary sources of alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. In a study of diet and cancer in western New York, women with primary, incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer (n = 740) and community controls (n = 810) were interviewed and an extensive food-frequency questionnaire administered. A subset of these women provided a blood specimen. DNA was extracted and genotyping performed for GSTM1. Data were available for 279 cases and 340 controls. The null allele did not increase breast cancer risk, regardless of menopausal status. There were also no differences in associations between the polymorphism and risk among lower and higher consumers of dietary sources of antioxidants or smokers and nonsmokers. These results indicate that GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms are not associated with breast cancer risk, even in an environment low in antioxidant defenses. (+info)
(4/4352) Melain G, a cysteine protease from green fruits of the bead tree, Melia azedarach: a protease affected by specific amino acids at P3 position.
A protease (melain G) was isolated from the greenish fruits of the bead tree, Melia azedarach var. japonica Makino. Melain G shares 110 identical amino acid residues (50%) with papain, 112 (51%) with actinidain, and 91 (41%) with stem bromelain. From the sites cleaved in the oxidized insulin B-chain and synthetic oligopeptide substrates by melain G, the enzyme preferred small amino acid residues such as Gly or Ser at the P2 position and negatively charged residues such as glutamic or cysteic acid at the P3 position. This is clearly different from the specificity of papain, which prefers the large hydrophobic amino acid residues such as Phe, Val, and Leu at the P2 position. Accordingly, it is presumed that the bottom of the S2 pocket of melain G is shallow due to the presence of a Phe residue, and a bulky P2 substrate (for example Phe residue) is not preferred by the enzyme. Negatively charged residues at the P3 position of substrates well suited the S3 site of melain G for making a salt bridge. It is likely that Arg61 is the S3 position of melain G by analogy with papain. (+info)
(5/4352) Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers.
BACKGROUND: Few risk factors for pancreatic cancer have been identified, with age and cigarette smoking being the most consistent. The protective effect associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables-the major dietary sources of folate-is suggestive of a role for factors influencing cellular methylation reactions; however, to our knowledge, no study has investigated this relationship. Whether biochemical indicators of methyl-group availability are associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer risk was the focus of this investigation. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of 29133 male Finnish smokers aged 50-69 years. One hundred twenty-six subjects with incident exocrine pancreatic cancer were matched by date of baseline blood draw (+/-30 days), study center, age (+/-5 years), trial intervention group, and completion of dietary history to 247 control subjects, who were alive and free from cancer at the time the case subjects were diagnosed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by use of conditional logistic regression. Reported P values are two-tailed. RESULTS: Serum folate and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations showed statistically significant inverse dose-response relationships with pancreatic cancer risk, with the highest serum tertiles having approximately half the risk of the lowest (folate: OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.24-0.82; P for trend = .009, and PLP: OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.88; P for trend = .02). An increased pancreatic cancer risk was also observed with greater exposure to cigarettes (e.g., pack-years [number of packs smoked per day x number of years of smoking], highest versus lowest quartile: OR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.13-3.99; P for trend = .04). CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that maintaining adequate folate and pyridoxine status may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer and confirm the risk previously associated with cigarette smoking. (+info)
(6/4352) Food groups and colorectal cancer risk.
Most studies of diet and colorectal cancer have considered nutrients and micronutrients, but the role of foods or food groups remains open to debate. To elucidate the issue, we examined data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in the Swiss canton of Vaud. Cases were 223 patients (142 men, 81 women) with incident, histologically confirmed colon (n= 119) or rectal (n= 104) cancer (median age 63 years), linked with the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud, and controls were 491 subjects (211 men, 280 women, median age 58 years) admitted to the same university hospital for a wide spectrum of acute non-neoplastic conditions unrelated to long-term modifications of diet. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity and total energy intake. Significant associations were observed for refined grain (OR = 1.32 for an increase of one serving per day), and red meat (OR = 1.54), pork and processed meat (OR = 1.27), alcohol (OR = 1.28), and significant protections for whole grain (OR = 0.85), raw (OR = 0.85) and cooked vegetables (OR = 0.69), citrus (OR = 0.86) and other fruits (OR = 0.85), and for coffee (OR = 0.73). Garlic was also protective (OR = 0.32 for the highest tertile of intake). These findings in a central European population support the hypothesis that a diet rich in refined grains and red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer; they, therefore, support the recommendation to substitute whole grains for refined grain, to limit meat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. (+info)
(7/4352) The vacuolar H+-ATPase of lemon fruits is regulated by variable H+/ATP coupling and slip.
Lemon fruit tonoplasts, unlike those of seedling epicotyls, contain nitrate-insensitive H+-ATPase activity (Muller, M. L., Irkens-Kiesecker, U., Rubinstein, B., and Taiz, L. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 1916-1924). However, the degree of nitrate-insensitivity fluctuates during the course of the year with a seasonal frequency. Nitrate uncouples H+ pumping from ATP hydrolysis both in epicotyls and in nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPases. Neither bafilomycin nor oxidation cause uncoupling. The initial rate H+/ATP coupling ratios of epicotyl and the nitrate-sensitive fruit proton pumping activities are the same. However, the H+/ATP coupling ratio of the nitrate-insensitive fruit H+ pumping activity is lower than that of nitrate-sensitive and epicotyl V-ATPases. Several properties of the nitrate-insensitive H+-ATPase of the fruit indicate that it is a modified V-ATPase rather than a P-ATPase: 1) insensitivity to low concentrations of vanadate; 2) it is initially strongly uncoupled by nitrate, but regains coupling as catalysis proceeds; 3) both the nitrate-sensitive and nitrate-insensitive fruit H+-pumps have identical Km values for MgATP, and show similar pH-dependent slip and proton leakage rates. We conclude that the ability of the juice sac V-ATPase to build up steep pH gradients involves three factors: variable coupling, i.e. the ability to regain coupling under conditions that initially induce uncoupling; a low pH-dependent slip rate; the low proton permeability of the membrane. (+info)
(8/4352) Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and related fractures will be growing public health problems as the population ages. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between dietary components contributing to an alkaline environment (dietary potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables) and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects. DESIGN: Dietary intake measures were associated with both cross-sectional (baseline) and 4-y longitudinal change in BMD among surviving members of the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire, and BMD was measured at 3 hip sites and 1 forearm site. RESULTS: Greater potassium intake was significantly associated with greater BMD at all 4 sites for men and at 3 sites for women (P < 0.05). Magnesium intake was associated with greater BMD at one hip site for both men and women and in the forearm for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with BMD at 3 sites for men and 2 for women. Greater intakes of potassium and magnesium were also each associated with less decline in BMD at 2 hip sites, and greater fruit and vegetable intake was associated with less decline at 1 hip site, in men. There were no significant associations between baseline diet and subsequent bone loss in women. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that alkaline-producing dietary components, specifically, potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables, contribute to maintenance of BMD. (+info)