Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.HexosediphosphatesFructosephosphatesFructose Intolerance: An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Fructokinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phosphofructokinase-2: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.HexosesFructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.HexosephosphatesDietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.GlucosephosphatesGlucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PhosphoenolpyruvateDihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)TriosesCarbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsGlucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.GlyceraldehydeGlucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)CitratesPhosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Gluconates

*  Formerly Known as "High Fructose Corn Syrup" - The Brian Lehrer Show - WNYC

... talks about the possible renaming of high fructose corn syrup and takes your ... ...

*  Fructose Vs. High Fructose Corn Syrup | eHow

Fructose Effects. Fructose is processed in the liver. An abnormal amount of fructose in the liver will turn the fructose into ... High-Fructose Corn Syrup Identification. High-fructose corn syrup (or HFCS) is made from corn. Corn starch is processed to ... Fructose Identification. Fructose is a monosaccharide, a simple sugar. Commonly found in fruits and honey, it has earned the ... Fructose Benefits. Many products use fructose for its advantages. It is often added to certain drinks, particularly fruit juice ...

*  High Fructose Consumption By Adolescents May Put Them At Cardiovascular Risk - Redorbit

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in fruits and veggies but also in high fructose corn syrup, the sweetener used liberally in ... "The overall amount of fructose that is in high fructose corn syrup is not much different than the amount in table sugar but ... "Adolescents consume the most fructose so it's really important to not only measure the levels of fructose but to look at what ... it is important to consider the additional fructose from sucrose when determining the overall health effect of fructose." ...

*  High Fructose Intake May Up Risk of Liver Disease in Obese and Diabetics Duke University Study

Obese people who consume increased amounts of fructose, a type of sugar that is found in particular in soft drinks and fruit ... High Fructose Intake May Up Risk of Liver Disease in Obese and Diabetics, Duke University Study ... Obese people who consume increased amounts of fructose, a type of sugar that is found in particular in soft drinks and fruit ...

*  Short communication: Glucose and fructose concentrations and expression of glucose transporters in 4- to 6-week pregnancies...

... objective was to determine if lactation affected the amount of glucose crossing the placenta by measuring glucose and fructose ... Pregnancies collected from lactating cows had less glucose and fructose in placental fluids compared with those from ... Short communication: Glucose and fructose concentrations and expression of glucose transporters in 4- to 6-week pregnancies ... objective was to determine if lactation affected the amount of glucose crossing the placenta by measuring glucose and fructose ...

*  3FatChicks on a Diet! - Diet & Weight Loss Support

These carbohydrates include flour, sugar and high - fructose corn syrups. When your carbohydrate intake is reduced, and you ...

*  New York Plans to Ban Sale of Big-Sized Sugary Drinks

Mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed banning sales of big-sized sugary drinks loaded with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). ... This means you can have the same amount of calories from fructose or glucose, fructose and protein, or fructose and fat, but ... This means you can have the same amount of calories from fructose or glucose, fructose and protein, or fructose and fat, but ... High fructose corn syrup is used in virtually everything, making it very difficult to determine just how much fructose you're ...

*  Fructose May Trick Your Brain Into Overeating - NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth

Scientists have used imaging tests to show for the first time that fructose, a sugar that saturates the American diet, can ... Fructose May Trick Your Brain Into Overeating. The study does not prove that fructose or its relative, high-fructose corn syrup ... Table sugar is sucrose, which is half fructose, half glucose. High-fructose corn syrup is 55 percent fructose and 45 percent ... It's a small study and does not prove that fructose or its relative, high-fructose corn syrup, can cause obesity, but experts ...

*  Fructose Assay Kit (ab83380) | Abcam

Colorimetric or fluorometric detection of fructose in a variety of biological and non-biological samples in 1 hr. ... In Abcam's Fructose Assay Kit, free fructose is enzymatically converted to ß-glucose, which is then specifically converted to a ... References for Fructose Assay Kit (ab83380). This product has been referenced in: *Vaughan OR et al. A physiological increase ... Fructose is a monosaccharide found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and ...

*  Corn Refiners petition FDA to change 'high fructose corn syrup' term

The reason for the petition, CRA said, is that high fructose corn syrup does not contain high levels of fructose compared to ... The organization says high fructose corn syrup is approximately half glucose and half fructose. "Consumers need to know what is ... I've heard a lot about High Fructose Corn Syrup in the news recently. Â Is it still safe for my customers?. Sweetener blending ... You claim that High Fructose Corn Syrup and sucrose (table sugar) are equivalent. In what ways?. ...

*  fructose |

Fructose is produced in huge amounts and added to a wide range of processed foods and drinks -- and thousands of studies now ...

Fructose malabsorptionHereditary fructose intoleranceFructose bisphosphatase deficiencyPhosphofructokinaseFructokinase: Fructokinase (/fruc•to•ki•nase/ [-ki´nas]) (), also known as D-fructokinase or D-fructose (D-mannose) kinase,DBGET ENZYME: 2.7.Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (), often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). Aldolase can also produce DHAP from other (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates such as fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate.Glucose transporterSweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Anaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIGlucuronamideUptake hexose phosphateGlucokinase regulatory protein: The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key enzyme of glucose metabolism.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DihydroxyacetonePhosphotransferase: Phosphotransferases are a category of enzymes (EC number 2.7) that catalyze phosphorylation reactions.Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.FODMAP: FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), disaccharides, monosaccharides and related alcohols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. These include short chain (oligo-) saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactose (galactans), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols) such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Arterial tortuosity syndrome: Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare congenital connective tissue condition disorder characterized by elongation and generalized tortuosity of the major arteries including the aorta. It is associated with hyperextensible skin and hypermobility of joints, however symptoms vary depending on the patient.XylitolPhosphocarrier proteinSports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Triose phosphate translocator: The triose phosphate translocator is an integral membrane protein found in the inner membrane of chloroplasts. It exports triose phosphate (Dihydroxyacetone phosphate) in exchange for inorganic phosphate and is therefore classified as an antiporter.Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase: Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), alternatively known as phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) or phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPI gene on chromosome 19.Sorbitol dehydrogenase: Sorbitol dehydrogenase (or SDH) is a cytosolic enzyme. In humans this protein is encoded by the SORD gene.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.SLC2A11: Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A11 gene.MalabsorptionInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==MonosaccharideTrisodium citrateINPP5E: 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, also known as phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase or Pharbin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the INPP5E gene.HexokinaseMannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Lactic acid fermentationGalactoseInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Glucagon rescueGlycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolInvertase: Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar). Alternate names for invertase include , saccharase, glucosucrase, beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid invertase, and the systematic name: beta-fructofuranosidase.Aldonic acid

(1/2197) Inhibition of transient and persistent Na+ current fractions by the new anticonvulsant topiramate.

The actions of the antiepileptic drug topiramate (TPM) on Na+ currents were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in dissociated neocortical neurons and intracellular recordings in neocortical slices. Relatively low TPM concentrations (25-30 microM) slightly inhibited the persistent fraction of Na+ current in dissociated neurons and reduced the Na+-dependent long-lasting action potential shoulders, which can be evoked in layer V pyramidal neurons after Ca++ and K+ current blockade. Conversely, the same drug concentrations were ineffective in reducing the amplitude of the fast Na+-dependent action potentials evoked in slices or the peak of transient Na+ (INaf) current evoked in isolated neurons from a physiological holding potential. Consistent INaf inhibition became, however, evident only when the neuronal membrane was kept depolarized to enhance resting Na+ channel inactivation. TPM (100 microM) was ineffective on the voltage dependence of activation but induced a leftward shift of the steady-state INaf inactivation curve. The drug-induced inhibitory effect increased with the duration of membrane depolarization, and the recovery of INaf after long membrane depolarizations was slightly delayed in comparison with that observed under control conditions. The obtained evidence suggests that the anticonvulsant action of TPM may operate by stabilizing channel inactivation, which can be induced by depolarizing events similar to those occurring in chronic epileptic conditions. Concurrently, the slight but significant inhibition of the persistent fraction of the Na+ current, obtained with the application of relatively low TPM concentrations, may contribute toward its anticonvulsant effectiveness by modulating the near-threshold depolarizing events that are sustained by this small current fraction.  (+info)

(2/2197) Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents.

BACKGROUND: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. DESIGN: Twelve healthy, male adolescents aged 14-16 y received, for 9 d, 15 g oligofructose or sucrose (control treatment) daily over 3 main meals. The treatments were given according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 19-d washout period. On the 8th day of each treatment period, 44Ca was given orally with a standard breakfast containing approximately 200 mg Ca. Within half an hour after administration of 44Ca, 48Ca was administered intravenously. Fractional calcium absorption was computed from the enrichment of 44Ca:43Ca and 48Ca:43Ca in 36-h urine samples, which was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: An increase in true fractional calcium absorption (%) was found after consumption of oligofructose (mean difference +/- SE of difference: 10.8+/-5.6; P < 0.05, one sided). The results are discussed in relation to the methods used. CONCLUSION: Fifteen grams of oligofructose per day stimulates fractional calcium absorption in male adolescents.  (+info)

(3/2197) Antioxidants improve impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevent migration and proliferation of cultured rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose.

BACKGROUND: To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose-induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or alpha-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic high-glucose-medium (22. 2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and alpha-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose-induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and alpha-tocopherol suppressed high glucose-induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, alpha-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, alpha-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that probucol and alpha-tocopherol may suppress high glucose-induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress.  (+info)

(4/2197) Adjunctive therapy in epilepsy: a cost-effectiveness comparison of two AEDs.

The objective of this study was to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two AEDs by a prospective clinical audit. Patients starting on the adjunctive therapies lamotrigine and topiramate were recruited from the out-patient epilepsy clinics at Queen Square. Three interview were scheduled: baseline; three months follow-up and six months from baseline. Of the 81 patients recruited, a total of 73 patients completed all three interviews. An intention to treat analysis was performed on the data. Seizure severity and frequency were assessed using the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale. Side-effects, adverse events and reasons for stopping medication were also recorded. At the third interview, a total of 47/73 (64%) were still on the prescribed adjunctive drug. Outcome was assessed by two methods: the > 50% seizure reduction cited in the literature and a more stringent assessment of patient 'satisfaction' which we defined operationally on clinical criteria. Using this definition, a total of 10/73 (14%) patients were 'satisfied'. The relative costs of starting patients on each of the two AEDs were calculated, both drug costs and the costs of adverse events (the latter were defined as events requiring urgent medical attention). The costs of the two drugs were compared. A number of methodological issues relating to cost comparison are discussed. Outcome and pharmaco-economic studies need to assess more than reduction in number of seizures. They should take into account variables important for quality of life including side-effects and adverse events.  (+info)

(5/2197) Topiramate for intractable childhood epilepsy.

To better define the efficacy and tolerability of the new anticonvulsant topiramate in pediatric patients, the clinical courses of 49 children with intractable seizures were monitored during topiramate therapy. The 80% of children who had complex partial seizures experienced better seizure control with topiramate than the 20% who had generalized seizures. Efficacy was greatest with doses between 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg/day. More than half the children on topiramate experienced adverse effects which could interfere with learning at school, but 20% demonstrated increased alertness or improved behavior. Topiramate is effective and may be considered as part of the treatment pathway for complex partial seizures in children, although careful monitoring of cognitive function is required.  (+info)

(6/2197) Novel alleles of yeast hexokinase PII with distinct effects on catalytic activity and catabolite repression of SUC2.

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose or fructose represses the expression of a large number of genes. The phosphorylation of glucose or fructose is catalysed by hexokinase PI (Hxk1), hexokinase PII (Hxk2) and a specific glucokinase (Glk1). The authors have shown previously that either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for a rapid, sugar-induced disappearance of catabolite-repressible mRNAs (short-term catabolite repression). Hxk2 is specifically required and sufficient for long-term glucose repression and either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for long-term repression by fructose. Mutants lacking the TPS1 gene, which encodes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase, can not grow on glucose or fructose. In this study, suppressor mutations of the growth defect of a tps1delta hxk1delta double mutant on fructose were isolated and identified as novel HXK2 alleles. All six alleles studied have single amino acid substitutions. The mutations affected glucose and fructose phosphorylation to a different extent, indicating that Hxk2 binds glucose and fructose via distinct mechanisms. The mutations conferred different effects on long- and short-term repression. Two of the mutants showed very similar defects in catabolite repression, despite large differences in residual sugar-phosphorylation activity. The data show that the long- and short-term phases of catabolite repression can be dissected using different hexokinase mutations. The lack of correlation between in vitro catalytic hexokinase activity, in vivo sugar phosphate accumulation and the establishment of catabolite repression suggests that the production of sugar phosphate is not the sole role of hexokinase in repression. Using the set of six hxk2 mutants it was shown that there is a good correlation between the glucose-induced cAMP signal and in vivo hexokinase activity. There was no correlation between the cAMP signal and the short- or long-term repression of SUC2, arguing against an involvement of cAMP in either stage of catabolite repression.  (+info)

(7/2197) Sucrase-isomaltase and hexose transporter gene expressions are coordinately enhanced by dietary fructose in rat jejunum.

We previously demonstrated that the levels of mRNAs of both sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and sodium/D-glucose transporter (SGLT1) are modulated by dietary sucrose in the rat jejunum. In the present study, we investigated whether the transcription of the gene coding SI is regulated by certain types of monosaccharides. Force-feeding a fructose and sucrose diet, (40% energy as fructose or sucrose) gave rise to parallel increases in the transcripts of SI and intestinal hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2) within 12 h. Force-feeding a glycerol-containing diet also caused an enhancement of SI, SGLT1, and GLUT2 mRNA levels. However, feeding the diet containing glucose or alpha-methylglucoside generally did not increase the transcript levels of SI or the intestinal hexose transporters. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that fructose as well as sucrose increased the transcription of both SI and GLUT5 genes and that the transcription rates of these genes were unaffected by glucose. These results suggest that fructose (or a metabolite) is capable of increasing the mRNA levels of SI and hexose transporters in the small intestine and that transcriptional regulation might play a pivotal role in the carbohydrate-induced coordinate enhancement of SI and fructose transporter gene expression  (+info)

(8/2197) Fructooligosaccharides and lactulose cause more symptoms in lactose maldigesters and subjects with pseudohypolactasia than in control lactose digesters.

BACKGROUND: Many lactose maldigesters tolerate more lactose in experimental studies than in everyday life, in which their symptoms may result from other carbohydrates as well. OBJECTIVE: The question of whether the symptoms caused by large quantities of carbohydrates are more severe in lactose maldigesters than in control lactose digesters or in lactose digesters who report milk to be the cause of their gastrointestinal symptoms (pseudohypolactasic subjects) was studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Comparisons between commonly used diagnostic methods for lactose maldigestion were also made. DESIGN: The subjects were 40 women aged 20-63 y from 3 groups: lactose maldigesters (n = 12), pseudohypolactasic subjects (n = 15), and control lactose digesters (n = 13). The subjects were given either 50 g lactose, 50 g sucrose, 25 g lactulose, or 25 g fructooligosaccharides. After carbohydrate ingestion, urine was collected and the breath-hydrogen concentration was measured every 30 min for 3 h. Blood glucose was measured every 20 min for 1 h and subjective gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored for 8 h with a questionnaire. RESULTS: When lactulose and fructooligosaccharides were ingested, the lactose maldigesters (P = 0.04 and 0.09, respectively) and the pseudohypolactasic subjects (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively) reported more symptoms than did the control lactose digesters. Sucrose caused more symptoms in the lactose maldigesters than in the control lactose digesters (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigesters and lactose digesters with pseudohypolactasia experience more symptoms than control lactose digesters after a single intake of large amounts of indigestible carbohydrates. Lactose maldigesters also experience more symptoms after ingesting sucrose.  (+info)

amount of fructose

  • An abnormal amount of fructose in the liver will turn the fructose into fat, which is released into the bloodstream as triglycerides. (
  • The overall amount of fructose that is in high fructose corn syrup is not much different than the amount in table sugar but it's believed there's something in the syrup processing that plays a role in the bad byproducts of metabolism. (


  • Fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar, estimated to be twice as sweet as sucrose. (
  • It is so very important to provide a healthy balance of high-quality food to our children and to really pay close attention to the fructose and sucrose they are consuming at their home or anyone else's," said Dr. Vanessa Bundy, an MCG pediatric resident. (
  • A unique aspect of our study design is that we took into account the fructose released from sucrose during digestion along with the fructose found in foods and beverages," Pollock said. (
  • Because sucrose is broken down into fructose and glucose before it arrives at the liver for metabolism, it is important to consider the additional fructose from sucrose when determining the overall health effect of fructose. (
  • Table sugar is sucrose, which is half fructose, half glucose. (


  • Corn starch is processed to yield a type of glucose, which is then processed with enzymes to reach a high percentage of fructose-producing a crystal clear syrup with a much-extended shelf life over sugar. (
  • Fructose is a monosaccharide found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. (
  • Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate. (
  • An analysis of 559 adolescents age 14-18 correlated high-fructose diets with higher blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin resistance and inflammatory factors that contribute to heart and vascular disease. (
  • After drinking a fructose beverage, the brain doesn't register the feeling of being full as it does when simple glucose is consumed, researchers found. (
  • High-fructose corn syrup is 55 percent fructose and 45 percent glucose. (
  • For the study, scientists used magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, scans to track blood flow in the brain in 20 young, normal-weight people before and after they had drinks containing glucose or fructose in two sessions several weeks apart. (
  • It implies that fructose, at least with regards to promoting food intake and weight gain, is a bad actor compared to glucose,' said Purnell. (
  • Researchers now are testing obese people to see if they react the same way to fructose and glucose as the normal-weight people in this study did. (
  • Using MRI scans, researchers found that after drinking a beverage with fructose the brain doesn't register the feeling of being full as it does when simple glucose is consumed. (


  • Fructose is a monosaccharide, a simple sugar. (


  • Two well-known sugars are fructose and high fructose corn syrup. (
  • Fructose itself is metabolized differently than other sugars and has some byproducts that are believed to be bad for us," Bundy said. (


  • Family doctor Peter Lin talks about a study that examined high fructose corn syrup sweetener. (
  • Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in fruits and veggies but also in high fructose corn syrup, the sweetener used liberally in processed foods and beverages. (


  • Evidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk is present in the blood of adolescents who consume a lot of fructose, a scenario that worsens in the face of excess belly fat, researchers report. (
  • Adolescents consume the most fructose so it's really important to not only measure the levels of fructose but to look at what it might be doing to their bodies currently and, hopefully, to look at cardiovascular disease outcomes as they grow," Pollock said. (
  • Obese people who consume increased amounts of fructose, a type of sugar that is found in particular in soft drinks and fruit juices, are at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NFALD) and more its more severe forms, fatty inflammation and scarring. (


  • however, according to an interview with Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the Harvard School of Public Health Nutrition Department, in the New York Times, "There's no substantial evidence to support the idea that high-fructose corn syrup is somehow responsible for obesity. (
  • The study does not prove that fructose or its relative, high-fructose corn syrup, can cause obesity, but experts say it adds evidence they may play a role. (
  • Experts say this is a small study and does not prove that fructose or its relative high fructose corn syrup can cause obesity. (


  • Fructose, a sugar commonly found in the American diet, may trigger changes in the brain that can lead to overeating. (


  • Fructose is produced in huge amounts and added to a wide range of processed foods and drinks -- and thousands of studies now point to it as the main culprit in multiple diseases. (


  • Fructose is processed in the liver. (


  • In addition to honey and fruits, fructose is found in sports drinks, cereals, pastas and even in some vegetables. (

dried fruits

  • Canned and dried fruits in particular have a high level of fructose. (


  • High-fructose corn syrup (or HFCS) is made from corn. (
  • Most processed foods, including sodas and flavored juices, contain high-fructose corn syrup. (
  • The kit provides a rapid, simple, sensitive, and reliable method suitable for high throughput assayof D-fructose. (
  • The researchers noted that more study is needed to flesh out the relationship between high fructose consumption and cardiovascular risk and whether these early associations forebode adult disease. (
  • Cook more at home and limit processed foods containing fructose and high-fructose corn syrup, Purnell suggested. (


  • Scientists have used imaging tests to show for the first time that fructose can trigger brain changes that may lead to overeating. (


  • The study took a "snapshot" of the adolescents' lives, looking at overall fructose consumption, general diet history and body fat. (


  • Get a closer look at this latest piece, and see it in it's entirety, here on Hi-Fructose. (


  • Many products use fructose for its advantages. (


  • Does Fructose Make Food Addictive? (