Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.HexosediphosphatesFructosephosphatesFructose Intolerance: An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Fructokinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phosphofructokinase-2: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.HexosesFructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.HexosephosphatesDietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.GlucosephosphatesGlucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PhosphoenolpyruvateDihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)TriosesCarbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsGlucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.GlyceraldehydeGlucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)CitratesPhosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Gluconates

*  Regulation of the fructose transporter GLUT5 in health and disease | Endocrinology and Metabolism

It is not clear whether diabetes alters serum fructose concentration. Serum fructose concentration and urinary fructose ... Fructose is supposedly metabolized via either of two pathways, the fructose 1-phosphate and/or the fructose 6-phosphate pathway ... The Main Fructose Transporter GLUT5. How does fructose move from the intestinal lumen to the blood and from there to various ... Fructose is now such an important component of human diets that increasing attention is being focused on the fructose ...

*  High-fructose corn syrup - Wikipedia

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup[1][2]) is a sweetener made ... "Factsheet on Glucose Fructose Syrups and Isoglucose".. *^ "Glucose-fructose syrup: How is it produced?". European Food ... a b c d e f g h White J. S. Sucrose, HFCS, and Fructose: History, Manufacture, Composition, Applications, and Production. ... Cozma, Adrian (2013). "The Role of Fructose, Sucrose, and High-fructose Corn Syrup in Diabetes". U.S. Endocrinology. 9: 128-138 ...

*  KEGG PATHWAY: Fructose and mannose metabolism - Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E

Fructose and mannose metabolism - Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...

*  Extensive research demonstrates fructose does not increase food intake or impact weight | EurekAlert! Science News

These findings support the results of a similar review that analyzed the role of fructose on blood lipids, glucose, insulin and ... concludes that fructose does not increase food intake or impact body weight or blood triglycerides in overweight or obese ... Although many consumers have confused crystalline fructose with high fructose syrups [also known as high fructose corn syrup ( ... Fructose is a natural simple sugar found in fruits, vegetables and their juices, as well as honey. In its pure form, fructose ...

*  Metabolic Effects of Troglitazone on Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance in the Rat | Diabetes

Fructose feeding markedly reduced submaximal glucose disposal rate (GDR) (113.8 ± 8.3 vs. 176.0 ± 5.6 µ−1 · min−1 P , ... Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet for 3 weeks with and without troglitazone as a food admixture ( ... To determine whether this drug could prevent the development of fructose-induced insulin resistance and related abnormalities, ... Metabolic Effects of Troglitazone on Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance in the Rat. ...

*  Fructose Malabsorption - Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis |

Fructose Absorption and Glucose-to-Fructose Ratio. In a healthy person at least 25 g or more of fructose can be absorbed at one ... What Is Fructose?. Fructose is a monosacharide or a single sugar, also called fruit sugar. Fructose has the same chemical ... Fructose is not essential nutrient for a human, meaning everyone can live without fructose, so 'fructose deficiency' does not ... fructose, 50% glucose), or as a high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), somewhere called fructose-glucose syrup. ...

*  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Fructose-like phosphotransferase enzyme IIB component 3 - P32676 (PTFB3 ECOLI)

Protein]-Npi-phospho-L-histidine + D-fructoseSide 1 = [protein]-L-histidine + D-fructose 1-phosphateSide 2. UniProt ...

*  Hyperlipid: Fructose and metabolic syndrome: Uric acid

How does one define a pathological dose of fructose? I eat 1 or 2 servings of fruit a day and that's the extent of my fructose ... My diet is extremely low in carbs, particularly fructose and I avoid high fructose corn syrup like the plague. Curious if you ... Fructose enters the fructolytic pathway by being phosphorylated very rapidly to fructose-1-phosphate. Given a large enough ... Obviously the aldolase products of fructose-1-P (fructolysis) differ from those of fructose-1-6-bisphosphate (glycolysis) but ...

*  Fructose, pregnancy and later life impacts - Regnault - 2013 - Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - Wiley...

... which often incorporate the fructose-containing sugars sucrose and high-fructose corn-syrup (HFCS). The adverse metabolic ... Fructose, pregnancy and later life impacts. Authors. *. Timothy RH Regnault,. Corresponding author. *Department of Obstetrics ... C. R. Toop, B. S. Muhlhausler, K. O'Dea, S. Gentili, Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to ... Excessive intake of fructose is the combined result of increased total energy consumption and increased portion sizes of foods ...

*  Hepatic intralobular mapping of fructose metabolism in the rat liver | Biochemical Journal

The majority of fructose uptake occurred in the periportal region; 45% of fructose taken up in the periportal half of the ... was increased in the presence of fructose. During fructose infusion there was a small decrease in cell pH periportally, but ... Hepatic intralobular mapping of fructose metabolism in the rat liver. Shamus P. BURNS, Helena C. MURPHY, Richard A. ILES, ... Hepatic intralobular mapping of fructose metabolism in the rat liver. Shamus P. BURNS, Helena C. MURPHY, Richard A. ILES, ...

*  High Fructose Corn Syrup and Memory Loss Research Study Needs a Control Group

... Yet again it seems that mass media is not ... Posted in: brain health, HFCS, high fructose corn syrup, research studies. by Brooke Randolph - Licensed Mental Health ... The headlines are claiming that high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) damages memory or "makes you stupid". Unfortunately, the study ...

*  Development of Method of Fructose Identification in Urine to Detect the Viral Infection - Full Text View -

The study will collect 10ml urine and examined fructose and fructose-diphosphate using the polarographic method. ... in particular the development of the polarographic method of fructose and fructose diphosphate identification and its ... in particular the development of the polarographic method of fructose and fructose diphosphate identification and its ... Fructose Identification in Urine to Detect the Viral Infection : Number of Participants With Positive and Negative Waveform [ ...

*  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose and Its...

... fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), protein-bound ... Keywords: glycation; kinetics; glucose; fructose; ribose; polyphenols; flavonoids; AGEs glycation; kinetics; glucose; fructose ... Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose and Its Prevention by Food Components. ... Sadowska-Bartosz I, Galiniak S, Bartosz G. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose ...

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | In Silico Identification of Structure Requirement for Novel Thiazole and Oxazole Derivatives as Potent...

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has been identified as a drug discovery target for lowering glucose in type 2 diabetes ... Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has been identified as a drug discovery target for lowering glucose in type 2 diabetes ... In Silico Identification of Structure Requirement for Novel Thiazole and Oxazole Derivatives as Potent Fructose 1,6- ... "In Silico Identification of Structure Requirement for Novel Thiazole and Oxazole Derivatives as Potent Fructose 1,6- ...

*  Boronophenylalanine-Fructose Complex (BPA-F) and/or Sodium Borocaptate (BSH) Followed By Surgery in Treating Patients With...

Drug: boronophenylalanine-fructose complex Drug: sodium borocaptate Procedure: conventional surgery Phase 1 ... Boronophenylalanine-Fructose Complex (BPA-F) and/or Sodium Borocaptate (BSH) Followed By Surgery in Treating Patients With ... Bendel P, Wittig A, Basilico F, Mauri PL, Sauerwein W. Metabolism of borono-phenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-fr) and ... Group I: Patients receive boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) IV over 1 hour. Two hours later, patients undergo ...

*  Pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase and glycolysis in non-photosynthetic tissues of higher plants |...

As net flux from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in these tissues is unlikely, it is suggested that PFK (PPi ... Pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase and glycolysis in non-photosynthetic tissues of higher plants. T ap ... PPi and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in Arum clubs were measured. The above measurements are consistent with a glycolytic role for ... Pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase and glycolysis in non-photosynthetic tissues of higher plants ...

*  Sugar's Health Effects & Risks: Is Sugar Sweet Poison? Sugar-a Silent Killer: an Extensive Discussion of the Sugars: Sucrose,...

Krilanovich, Nicholas J. "Fructose Misuse, the Obesity Epidemic, the Special Problems of the Child, and a Call to Action " Am. ... Fructose, Honey, Xylitol, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Malt Syrup. ...

*  ECMDB: Fructose 6-phosphate (ECMDB00124) (M2MDB000047)

Fructose 6-phosphate. Fructose 6-phosphate + Phosphate + Fructose 6-phosphate , Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + Water + Fructose 1, ... D-Fructose + HPr - phosphorylated + D-Fructose , HPr + Fructose 6-phosphate + Fructose 6-phosphate. Sorbitol-6-phosphate + NAD ... Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + Water ,, Fructose 6-phosphate + Phosphate. Adenosine triphosphate + D-Fructose , ADP + Fructose 6- ... Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + Water , Fructose 6-phosphate + Inorganic phosphate. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + Water , Fructose 6- ...

*  Hyperlipid: Paleo and fructose

I think fructose is fructose is fructose.... Pyker, he's making choices from the SCD list, I doubt chestnuts are allowed, dunno ... I'd also compare fructose to alcohol as many have done, but extend the Drinking Man's Diet to fructose as well as alcohol. Is ... From hepatically crippling fructose to liveable with, if not ideal, fructose.. So, in answer to the question, yes, the diet is ... Certainly your corn oil cirrhosis post didn't implicate fructose as the sole actor. If you eat say, 50 g of fructose a day, is ...

*  Hyperlipid: Fructose and Gout

Ultimately fructose is fructose is fructose. Eat an orange and your liver will immediately set about defending you as best it ... Ultimately fructose is fructose wherever it comes from. Mind you, in healthy people not much fructose ever gets in to the ... but it sure is full of fructose, usually in a much higher percentage than HFCS.. As much as 92% of sugars are fructose in some ... Fructose and the misconceptions about what it is and what it isn't have been giving me fits lately. I've got a friend who is ...

*  Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Gastroscopy, Fructose & Lactose Test Melbourne | Direct Endoscopy

Fructose & Lactose Test and many other treatments. ... Fructose & Lactose Hydrogen Breath Test *Fructose Intolerance ...

*  High fructose diets of pregnant women linked to fetal problems

Fructose is a sugar found commonly in fruits and honey. Manufacturers have increasingly introduced fructose and it's more ... It is, therefore, advisable for pregnant women to restrict the intake of fructose and high-fructose foods in their diet. ... High fructose diets of pregnant women linked to fetal problems. If you thought adopting a diet rich in fruits and vegetable ... Unlike other sugars, fructose is not converted into energy by the body but is instead broken down in the liver to form fat ...

*  The Single Best Strategy To Use For fructose test - Blog

The Single Best Strategy To Use For fructose test. October 30, 2017, 9:16 am / ...

*  Is fruit bad for you? The story of fructose and the myth of fruit - Pain doesnt hurt

The story of fructose and the myth of fruit Whether it be on T.V. The internet, magazine, or that smelly person in the ... Fructose in the things mentioned is HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP (HFCS). You see why it can get mixed up? High fructose corn syrup ... Is fruit bad for you? The story of fructose and the myth of fruit. Is fruit bad for you? The story of fructose and the myth of ... Fructose in fruit is fine and there's virtually no way you can over consume fructose by eating fruit. The culprit for that is ...

Fructose malabsorptionHereditary fructose intoleranceFructose bisphosphatase deficiencyPhosphofructokinaseFructokinase: Fructokinase (/fruc•to•ki•nase/ [-ki´nas]) (), also known as D-fructokinase or D-fructose (D-mannose) kinase,DBGET ENZYME: 2.7.Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (), often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). Aldolase can also produce DHAP from other (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates such as fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate.Glucose transporterSweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Anaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIGlucuronamideUptake hexose phosphateGlucokinase regulatory protein: The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key enzyme of glucose metabolism.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DihydroxyacetonePhosphotransferase: Phosphotransferases are a category of enzymes (EC number 2.7) that catalyze phosphorylation reactions.Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.FODMAP: FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), disaccharides, monosaccharides and related alcohols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. These include short chain (oligo-) saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactose (galactans), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols) such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Arterial tortuosity syndrome: Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare congenital connective tissue condition disorder characterized by elongation and generalized tortuosity of the major arteries including the aorta. It is associated with hyperextensible skin and hypermobility of joints, however symptoms vary depending on the patient.XylitolPhosphocarrier proteinSports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Triose phosphate translocator: The triose phosphate translocator is an integral membrane protein found in the inner membrane of chloroplasts. It exports triose phosphate (Dihydroxyacetone phosphate) in exchange for inorganic phosphate and is therefore classified as an antiporter.Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase: Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), alternatively known as phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) or phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPI gene on chromosome 19.Sorbitol dehydrogenase: Sorbitol dehydrogenase (or SDH) is a cytosolic enzyme. In humans this protein is encoded by the SORD gene.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.SLC2A11: Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) also known as glucose transporter type 10/11 (GLUT-10/11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A11 gene.MalabsorptionInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==MonosaccharideTrisodium citrateINPP5E: 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, also known as phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase or Pharbin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the INPP5E gene.HexokinaseMannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Lactic acid fermentationGalactoseInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Glucagon rescueGlycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolInvertase: Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar). Alternate names for invertase include , saccharase, glucosucrase, beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid invertase, and the systematic name: beta-fructofuranosidase.Aldonic acid

(1/2197) Inhibition of transient and persistent Na+ current fractions by the new anticonvulsant topiramate.

The actions of the antiepileptic drug topiramate (TPM) on Na+ currents were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in dissociated neocortical neurons and intracellular recordings in neocortical slices. Relatively low TPM concentrations (25-30 microM) slightly inhibited the persistent fraction of Na+ current in dissociated neurons and reduced the Na+-dependent long-lasting action potential shoulders, which can be evoked in layer V pyramidal neurons after Ca++ and K+ current blockade. Conversely, the same drug concentrations were ineffective in reducing the amplitude of the fast Na+-dependent action potentials evoked in slices or the peak of transient Na+ (INaf) current evoked in isolated neurons from a physiological holding potential. Consistent INaf inhibition became, however, evident only when the neuronal membrane was kept depolarized to enhance resting Na+ channel inactivation. TPM (100 microM) was ineffective on the voltage dependence of activation but induced a leftward shift of the steady-state INaf inactivation curve. The drug-induced inhibitory effect increased with the duration of membrane depolarization, and the recovery of INaf after long membrane depolarizations was slightly delayed in comparison with that observed under control conditions. The obtained evidence suggests that the anticonvulsant action of TPM may operate by stabilizing channel inactivation, which can be induced by depolarizing events similar to those occurring in chronic epileptic conditions. Concurrently, the slight but significant inhibition of the persistent fraction of the Na+ current, obtained with the application of relatively low TPM concentrations, may contribute toward its anticonvulsant effectiveness by modulating the near-threshold depolarizing events that are sustained by this small current fraction.  (+info)

(2/2197) Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents.

BACKGROUND: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. DESIGN: Twelve healthy, male adolescents aged 14-16 y received, for 9 d, 15 g oligofructose or sucrose (control treatment) daily over 3 main meals. The treatments were given according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 19-d washout period. On the 8th day of each treatment period, 44Ca was given orally with a standard breakfast containing approximately 200 mg Ca. Within half an hour after administration of 44Ca, 48Ca was administered intravenously. Fractional calcium absorption was computed from the enrichment of 44Ca:43Ca and 48Ca:43Ca in 36-h urine samples, which was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: An increase in true fractional calcium absorption (%) was found after consumption of oligofructose (mean difference +/- SE of difference: 10.8+/-5.6; P < 0.05, one sided). The results are discussed in relation to the methods used. CONCLUSION: Fifteen grams of oligofructose per day stimulates fractional calcium absorption in male adolescents.  (+info)

(3/2197) Antioxidants improve impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevent migration and proliferation of cultured rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose.

BACKGROUND: To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose-induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or alpha-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic high-glucose-medium (22. 2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and alpha-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose-induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and alpha-tocopherol suppressed high glucose-induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, alpha-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, alpha-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that probucol and alpha-tocopherol may suppress high glucose-induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress.  (+info)

(4/2197) Adjunctive therapy in epilepsy: a cost-effectiveness comparison of two AEDs.

The objective of this study was to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two AEDs by a prospective clinical audit. Patients starting on the adjunctive therapies lamotrigine and topiramate were recruited from the out-patient epilepsy clinics at Queen Square. Three interview were scheduled: baseline; three months follow-up and six months from baseline. Of the 81 patients recruited, a total of 73 patients completed all three interviews. An intention to treat analysis was performed on the data. Seizure severity and frequency were assessed using the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale. Side-effects, adverse events and reasons for stopping medication were also recorded. At the third interview, a total of 47/73 (64%) were still on the prescribed adjunctive drug. Outcome was assessed by two methods: the > 50% seizure reduction cited in the literature and a more stringent assessment of patient 'satisfaction' which we defined operationally on clinical criteria. Using this definition, a total of 10/73 (14%) patients were 'satisfied'. The relative costs of starting patients on each of the two AEDs were calculated, both drug costs and the costs of adverse events (the latter were defined as events requiring urgent medical attention). The costs of the two drugs were compared. A number of methodological issues relating to cost comparison are discussed. Outcome and pharmaco-economic studies need to assess more than reduction in number of seizures. They should take into account variables important for quality of life including side-effects and adverse events.  (+info)

(5/2197) Topiramate for intractable childhood epilepsy.

To better define the efficacy and tolerability of the new anticonvulsant topiramate in pediatric patients, the clinical courses of 49 children with intractable seizures were monitored during topiramate therapy. The 80% of children who had complex partial seizures experienced better seizure control with topiramate than the 20% who had generalized seizures. Efficacy was greatest with doses between 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg/day. More than half the children on topiramate experienced adverse effects which could interfere with learning at school, but 20% demonstrated increased alertness or improved behavior. Topiramate is effective and may be considered as part of the treatment pathway for complex partial seizures in children, although careful monitoring of cognitive function is required.  (+info)

(6/2197) Novel alleles of yeast hexokinase PII with distinct effects on catalytic activity and catabolite repression of SUC2.

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose or fructose represses the expression of a large number of genes. The phosphorylation of glucose or fructose is catalysed by hexokinase PI (Hxk1), hexokinase PII (Hxk2) and a specific glucokinase (Glk1). The authors have shown previously that either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for a rapid, sugar-induced disappearance of catabolite-repressible mRNAs (short-term catabolite repression). Hxk2 is specifically required and sufficient for long-term glucose repression and either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for long-term repression by fructose. Mutants lacking the TPS1 gene, which encodes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase, can not grow on glucose or fructose. In this study, suppressor mutations of the growth defect of a tps1delta hxk1delta double mutant on fructose were isolated and identified as novel HXK2 alleles. All six alleles studied have single amino acid substitutions. The mutations affected glucose and fructose phosphorylation to a different extent, indicating that Hxk2 binds glucose and fructose via distinct mechanisms. The mutations conferred different effects on long- and short-term repression. Two of the mutants showed very similar defects in catabolite repression, despite large differences in residual sugar-phosphorylation activity. The data show that the long- and short-term phases of catabolite repression can be dissected using different hexokinase mutations. The lack of correlation between in vitro catalytic hexokinase activity, in vivo sugar phosphate accumulation and the establishment of catabolite repression suggests that the production of sugar phosphate is not the sole role of hexokinase in repression. Using the set of six hxk2 mutants it was shown that there is a good correlation between the glucose-induced cAMP signal and in vivo hexokinase activity. There was no correlation between the cAMP signal and the short- or long-term repression of SUC2, arguing against an involvement of cAMP in either stage of catabolite repression.  (+info)

(7/2197) Sucrase-isomaltase and hexose transporter gene expressions are coordinately enhanced by dietary fructose in rat jejunum.

We previously demonstrated that the levels of mRNAs of both sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and sodium/D-glucose transporter (SGLT1) are modulated by dietary sucrose in the rat jejunum. In the present study, we investigated whether the transcription of the gene coding SI is regulated by certain types of monosaccharides. Force-feeding a fructose and sucrose diet, (40% energy as fructose or sucrose) gave rise to parallel increases in the transcripts of SI and intestinal hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2) within 12 h. Force-feeding a glycerol-containing diet also caused an enhancement of SI, SGLT1, and GLUT2 mRNA levels. However, feeding the diet containing glucose or alpha-methylglucoside generally did not increase the transcript levels of SI or the intestinal hexose transporters. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that fructose as well as sucrose increased the transcription of both SI and GLUT5 genes and that the transcription rates of these genes were unaffected by glucose. These results suggest that fructose (or a metabolite) is capable of increasing the mRNA levels of SI and hexose transporters in the small intestine and that transcriptional regulation might play a pivotal role in the carbohydrate-induced coordinate enhancement of SI and fructose transporter gene expression  (+info)

(8/2197) Fructooligosaccharides and lactulose cause more symptoms in lactose maldigesters and subjects with pseudohypolactasia than in control lactose digesters.

BACKGROUND: Many lactose maldigesters tolerate more lactose in experimental studies than in everyday life, in which their symptoms may result from other carbohydrates as well. OBJECTIVE: The question of whether the symptoms caused by large quantities of carbohydrates are more severe in lactose maldigesters than in control lactose digesters or in lactose digesters who report milk to be the cause of their gastrointestinal symptoms (pseudohypolactasic subjects) was studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Comparisons between commonly used diagnostic methods for lactose maldigestion were also made. DESIGN: The subjects were 40 women aged 20-63 y from 3 groups: lactose maldigesters (n = 12), pseudohypolactasic subjects (n = 15), and control lactose digesters (n = 13). The subjects were given either 50 g lactose, 50 g sucrose, 25 g lactulose, or 25 g fructooligosaccharides. After carbohydrate ingestion, urine was collected and the breath-hydrogen concentration was measured every 30 min for 3 h. Blood glucose was measured every 20 min for 1 h and subjective gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored for 8 h with a questionnaire. RESULTS: When lactulose and fructooligosaccharides were ingested, the lactose maldigesters (P = 0.04 and 0.09, respectively) and the pseudohypolactasic subjects (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively) reported more symptoms than did the control lactose digesters. Sucrose caused more symptoms in the lactose maldigesters than in the control lactose digesters (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lactose maldigesters and lactose digesters with pseudohypolactasia experience more symptoms than control lactose digesters after a single intake of large amounts of indigestible carbohydrates. Lactose maldigesters also experience more symptoms after ingesting sucrose.  (+info)


  • High-fructose corn syrup ( HFCS ) (also called glucose-fructose , isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup ) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose . (
  • The purified solution is then run over immobilized xylose isomerase , which turns the sugars to ~50-52% glucose with some unconverted oligosaccharides and 42% fructose (HFCS 42), and again demineralized and again purified using activated carbon. (
  • HFCS is 24% water, the rest being mainly fructose and glucose with 0-5% unprocessed glucose oligomers . (
  • HFCS 42 (≈42% fructose if water were removed) is used in beverages, processed foods, cereals, and baked goods. (
  • Although many consumers have confused crystalline fructose with high fructose syrups [also known as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and isoglucose], they are not the same. (
  • Fructose has a low glycemic index and, unlike table sugar or HFCS, it does not cause a rapid rise and subsequent large fall in blood glucose levels. (
  • In commercial foods and drinks , fructose can be naturally present, or is added as a sweetener, like sucrose (table sugar containing 50% fructose, 50% glucose), or as a high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) , somewhere called fructose-glucose syrup . (
  • The chemical process for the rapid commercial conversion of glucose to fructose was developed in 1957 ( 99 ), and this technological advance led to the gradual increase in the manufacture and consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) ( 11 ). (
  • HFCS typically contains 42, 55, or 90% fructose ( 68 ). (
  • Fructose is the sweetest of all natural sugars, and this is the primary reason why glucose is converted to fructose and why HFCS is used in the formulation of food and beverage products. (
  • Excessive intake of fructose is the combined result of increased total energy consumption and increased portion sizes of foods, which often incorporate the fructose-containing sugars sucrose and high-fructose corn-syrup (HFCS). (


  • Like sucrose, high fructose syrups contain nearly equal amounts of glucose and fructose. (
  • 0.01 mM, but in those consuming fructose or sucrose, serum fructose concentrations reached 0.10-0.30 mM ( 19 ). (
  • In healthy humans consuming high-fructose or -sucrose diets, serum fructose can reach 0.2-0.5 mM ( 92 ), but this concentration is still very low compared with normal blood glucose levels (5.5 mM). (


  • : 374-376 High-temperature enzymes are added to further metabolize the starch and convert the resulting sugars to fructose. (
  • Research released last year by Dr. Bernadette Marriott, Senior Scientist and Principal Associate for Abt Associates, found that although dietary fructose consumption has increased in recent decades, relative consumption of fructose compared to other sugars has remained constant. (
  • The adverse metabolic effects following excessive fructose consumption have become a hot topic in mainstream media and there is now rigorous scientific debate regarding periods of exposure, dosage levels, interactive effects with other sugars and fats and mechanisms underlying the actions of fructose. (


  • Fructose and mannose metabolism - Streptomyces sp. (
  • The review examined data regarding the normal consumption of fructose and any subsequent development of alterations in lipid or and/or glucose metabolism or weight gain in overweight people. (
  • The myriad effects of fructose are possible only if fructose reaches physiologically significant concentrations in the plasma and extracellular fluids and if subsequently transported into cells of various organ systems, thereby potentially altering normal metabolism in those organs. (
  • This will not just affect fructose metabolism, acetyl-CoA from glucose, entering the TCA as citrate, will also be diverted to DNL. (
  • Detailed mapping of glucose and lactate metabolism along the radius of the hepatic lobule was performed in situ in rat livers perfused with 1.5 mM lactate before and during the addition of 5 mM fructose. (

high in fructose

  • These results suggest that troglitazone treatment could completely prevent the insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia induced by a diet high in fructose and that the drug might prove useful in the treatment and/or prevention of nonhyperglycemic insulin-resistant states as well as in the treatment of established NIDDM. (

dietary fructose

  • Fructose malabsorption (FM) was previously known as 'dietary fructose intolerance' (DFI), but this term should be avoided to prevent confusion with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) . (


  • Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat which demonstrated that they (NMRs) appear to generate and use fructose as a coping stratagem for dealing with hypoxia or even anoxia. (
  • So I've been looking at why fructose is different to glucose and to do this you end up asking rather difficult questions about the upper sections of both glycolysis and fructolysis. (
  • Obviously the aldolase products of fructose-1-P (fructolysis) differ from those of fructose-1-6-bisphosphate (glycolysis) but these pathways are very difficult to get at experimentally and I've not found any papers looking at what controls why dihydroxyacetone phosphate from fructolysis doesn't drive mtG3Pdh, but that appears to be the case. (
  • The evidence suggests that in situ the apparent direct conversion of fructose into lactate represents, to a substantial extent, the result of periportal conversion of fructose into glucose and the subsequent uptake and glycolysis to lactate in the perivenous zone of some of that glucose. (
  • Fructose-6-phosphate is an important intermediate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. (


  • To determine whether this drug could prevent the development of fructose-induced insulin resistance and related abnormalities, we studied the effects of troglitazone on the insulin resistance induced by fructose feeding in rats. (
  • Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet for 3 weeks with and without troglitazone as a food admixture (0.2%) or were fed normal chow to serve as a control group. (
  • Troglitazone treatment completely restored the GDR (submaximal 158.2 ± 5.6, maximal 305.3 ± 6.1 µ −1 · min −1 ) and submaximal HGP (9.4 ± 2.8 µ −1 · min −1 ) to control levels and also normalized the elevated plasma triglyceride concentration and systolic blood pressure levels in fructose-fed rats. (


  • These findings support the results of a similar review that analyzed the role of fructose on blood lipids, glucose, insulin and obesity among the healthy, normal weight population. (
  • This takes place before aldolase generates the trioses which probably (or don't, in the case of fructose) control insulin signalling through mtG3Pdh and the glycerophosphate shuttle. (
  • In the Protons series I have worked on the (incorrect) basis that fructose should drive the glycerophosphate shuttle hard enough to generate RET (reverse electron transport) and so signal insulin resistance. (
  • The degree of insulin resistance should neatly reduce insulin mediated glucose supply by an appropriate amount to offset the fructose and so maintain a stable flux of ATP generation from the combined fructose and glucose. (
  • I think it is a reasonable assumption that the hydrogen peroxide generated by NOX4 will be what signals the insulin resistance induced by fructose, rather than RET via mtG3Pdh. (
  • My own concept is that there is the necessity to developing insulin resistance when fructose is available so as to limit glucose ingress to offset the ATP from that fructose ingress. (


  • Fructose is sweeter than sugar and so less can be used to sweeten foods and beverages," said Beth Hubrich, a registered dietitian with the Calorie Control Council, an international non-profit trade association. (
  • They both have about the same caloric value, but fructose is sweeter. (


  • The conclusion drawn from the two studies was that consumption of fructose does not increase triglycerides, body weight, or food intake in either normal weight or overweight/obese people. (
  • A 2008 meta-analysis by Geoffrey Livesey and Richard Taylor found that moderate fructose consumption (50 grams or less per day) had no negative effect on the body and may even be beneficial, while high doses of pure fructose (100 grams/day or less) had no effect on body weight. (
  • Marriott also found that average fructose consumption across all age groups is approximately 49 grams per day, which is well below the 100 gram threshold found by Livesey and Taylor and is at a level they report may provide benefits. (
  • Most of the increase in consumption is derived from refined or processed fructose ( 63 ). (
  • Recent studies have shown that there seems to be a direct relationship between increases in consumption of fructose and increases in incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 12 , 69 , 114 , 120 ). (
  • These variations can also arise from differences in fructose consumption, which is a potent regulator of intestinal fructose transport. (


  • This low fructose level results from rates of intestinal absorption lower than that of glucose and from efficient clearance of blood fructose mainly by the liver (50-70%) and, to a lesser extent, (20%) by the kidneys ( 103 ). (
  • Fructose is significantly better than glucose for supporting anoxic liver cells, possibly something you might expect, possibly not. (
  • RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy. (
  • Determine the boron concentration in the tumor, surrounding tissues, and blood of patients with operable thyroid cancer, squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, or liver metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma who receive boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) before surgical resection. (


  • Fructose enters the fructolytic pathway by being phosphorylated very rapidly to fructose-1-phosphate. (
  • The interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, the second step of the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway, is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI). (

metabolic syndrome

  • Uric acid is the evil molecular link between fructose and metabolic syndrome via NOX4. (


  • Periportal lactate uptake was markedly decreased by addition of fructose. (


  • Fructose is a natural simple sugar found in fruits, vegetables and their juices, as well as honey. (
  • for thousands of years , humans consumed about 16-24 g of fructose each day, mainly as fruits and honey obtained from foraging and agricultural activity. (


  • In its pure form, fructose has been used as a sweetener since the mid-1850s and has advantages for certain groups, including people with diabetes and those trying to control their weight. (
  • Fructose in crystalline form has been widely used for the past 20 years as a nutritive sweetener in foods and beverages. (


  • GLUT5 expression levels and fructose uptake rates are also significantly affected by diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and inflammation and seem to be induced during carcinogenesis, particularly in the mammary glands. (


  • In normal humans, serum fructose concentration was estimated to be 0.008 mM ( 80 ), while plasma fructose was 0.030 mM ( 92 ). (
  • 31 P NMR spectroscopy showed that the cellular concentration of phosphomonoesters changes very little periportally during fructose infusion, but there was an approximate twofold increase perivenously, presumably due to the accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate. (
  • This detection technique, after a viral infection caused by the use of cell pathological changes and urine metabolic waste - fructose concentration, derivatives.Health News voltage changes to detect viral pathogens of activity and virulence. (


  • It is transport protein GLUT5 in the small intestinal mucosa that is necessary for fructose absorption, but no digestive enzymes are needed ( 1 ). (
  • Protein]-N pi -phospho-L-histidine + D-fructose Side 1 = [protein]-L-histidine + D-fructose 1-phosphate Side 2 . (


  • How does fructose move from the intestinal lumen to the blood and from there to various tissues? (
  • As net flux from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in these tissues is unlikely, it is suggested that PFK (PPi) does not contribute to gluconeogenesis or starch synthesis. (


  • Fructose is now such an important component of human diets that increasing attention is being focused on the fructose transporter GLUT5. (
  • Fructose is transported passively across membranes by a member of the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) family, named GLUT5 ( 19 , 20 , 72 , 98 , 137 ). (
  • The structure and kinetic properties of GLUT5 and other GLUTs will not be reviewed here, nor will fructose transport studies not clearly linked to GLUT5 and GLUT2. (


  • A new comprehensive review, recently published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , concludes that fructose does not increase food intake or impact body weight or blood triglycerides in overweight or obese individuals. (
  • Dr. Laurie Dolan, lead author of both studies concluded that "there is no evidence that ingestion of normal amounts of fructose is associated with an increase in food intake or body weight (compared to other carbohydrates), when it is not consumed in caloric excess. (
  • About 330-380 kcal/day of the energy intake of average Americans (corresponding to 17-20% of daily energy intake) is derived from fructose ( 48 ). (
  • Although an integral component of our pre-industrial revolution diet, over the past two decades human and animal studies have highlighted that excessive fructose intake appears to be associated with adverse metabolic effects. (
  • This review aims to understand the role of early life fructose exposure in modifying postnatal risk of disease in the offspring, focusing on fructose intake during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. (


  • After studying all of the research, the reviews' authors concluded that there was "no evidence to suggest that ingestion of fructose" had an adverse effect on body weight or serum triglycerides. (


  • Health professionals say the recent reviews demonstrate that fructose could be a useful tool in the battle against obesity. (


  • Glucose enhances absorption of fructose by the principle that one molecule of glucose enables absorption of one molecule of fructose, so, for example, fructose from table sugar (50% fructose, 50% glucose) is generally well absorbed even in persons with FM. (


  • There are marked variations in estimates of blood fructose concentrations arising from differences in methods of collection and analysis. (


  • Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has been identified as a drug discovery target for lowering glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (


  • The goal of this research is the attempt to implement a new research method based on modern electrochemistry successes, in particular the development of the polarographic method of fructose and fructose diphosphate identification and its implementation to detect the viral infection in early stage. (


  • Both of the recent fructose reviews utilized an evidence-based approach employed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration when evaluating potential health claims for foods, beverages and food ingredients. (


  • A human intestine cannot absorb an unlimited amount of fructose, but most people can absorb 25-50 g of fructose per sitting ( 1 ). (
  • Fructose malabsorption was found to be correlated with low levels of folic acid in blood plasma in some cases, supposedly due to reduced amount of intestinal bacteria that produce folic acid ( 3 ). (
  • Today, the per capita amount of fructose consumed each day ranges from 8 to 100 g, and the average is ∼80 g/day in the United States ( 16 , 56 , 86 , 130 ). (


  • In a healthy person at least 25 g or more of fructose can be absorbed at one sitting in the small intestine (glass of orange juice or a can of Coke contain about 15 g of fructose). (


  • In one clinical trial, a group of persons with a diagnosis of IBS were tested with a hydrogen breath test with fructose, and 30% of them were found to have fructose malabsorption ( 1,12 ). (


  • Fructose is not essential nutrient for a human, meaning everyone can live without fructose, so 'fructose deficiency' does not exist. (
  • Fructose deficiency', on the other hand, does n0t exist, since fructose is not an essential nutrient in a human. (


  • Fructose is an increasingly common constituent of the Westernized diet due to cost and production efficiencies. (


  • Researchers were unable to find any relationship between fructose and hyperlipidemia or increased weight. (


  • Fructose is a monosacharide or a single sugar, also called fruit sugar. (


  • They appear within 2-24 or more hours after the fructose-containing meal. (


  • Fructose has the same chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O6), but different molecular structure. (


  • Fructose malabsorption is NOT a food allergy, meaning there is no production of IgE antibodies or release of histamine. (
  • Greater the glucose-to-fructose ratio in the food , easier the fructose will be absorbed ( 2 ). (


  • Fructose, unabsorbed in the small intestine, drags water from the intestinal vessels into the intestinal lumen, and travels toward the colon, where bacteria break it down to short chain fatty acids and gases (carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane) that cause diarrhea and bloating. (