Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.

*  Students Are Clamoring for Fossil Fuel Divestment

Now they're aiming to hit fossil fuel merchants right in their market caps. ... Students Are Clamoring for Fossil Fuel Divestment. Matt Twomey , @Matt_Twomey Published 2:34 PM ET Tue, 11 June 2013 Updated 7: ... Divesting in fossil fuel companies "would be like divesting in tobacco or drug companies-and they're hugely profitable." ... Say 5 percent of their portfolios are in the targeted fossil fuel companies, and say the campaign was so wildly successful that ...

*  Switch from fossil fuels to renewable energy |

A lot of that air pollution comes from fossil-fuel-burning power plants. It's time to shift that burden from our lungs to the ... It's time to switch from the outdated fossil-fuel burning and polluting economy to one based on clean, renewable energy. These ... A lot of that air pollution comes from fossil-fuel-burning power plants. It's time to shift that burden from our lungs to the ... It's time to switch from the outdated fossil-fuel burning and polluting economy to one based on clean, renewable energy. These ...

*  World climate accord hailed as turning point from fossil fuels |

World climate accord hailed as turning point from fossil fuels. Saturday, December 12, 2015 - 01:30 ... World climate accord hailed as turning point from fossil fuels. Saturday, December 12, 2015 - 01:30 ...

*  OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2015 - en - OECD

... and from which it derives summary results and indicators on support to fossil fuels, as well as policy recommendations.

... This publication is concerned with all policies that directly support the production or consumption of fossil fuels in OECD ... This report emphasises the problems that fossil-fuel subsidies cause in the context of broader policy efforts for mitigating ... the online OECD database that identifies and estimates direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures benefitting fossil fuels ...

*  California's Top Oil Regulator on Fracking, Climate Change, and Fossil Fuels

New technology and a little-known energy source suggest that fossil fuels may not be finite. This would be a miracle - and a ... But by pro-du-cing more fossil fuels, does this make com-batting cli-mate change harder? ... What is this be-ing fueled by? ... Obama Claims Connection Between Fuel Standards, Jobs, But ...

*  Rockefeller Family Fund divests from fossil fuels, which built family's fortune

The Rockefeller Family Fund has said that it will divest from fossil fuels and accused oil giant Exxon Mobil of 'reprehensible ... Rockefeller Family Fund divests from fossil fuels, which built family's fortune. By Terry Wade and Anna Driver. Updated. 24 ... The Rockefeller Family Fund has said that it will divest from fossil fuels as quickly as possible and 'eliminate holdings' of ... Though only a sliver of the endowment's modest $US130 million ($171 million) in assets is invested in fossil fuels, the move is ...

*  Lower electric demand reduces projected fossil fuel share

We hope you enjoyed your 7 articles this month. You can come back next month for another 7 free articles or choose unlimited access with a Digital or Print Subscription, and continueto enjoy the best journalism in Akron, anytime, anywhere and on any device. Subcribing is quick and easy.. ...

*  'U.S. Military Orders Less Dependence on Fossil...

Home , "U.S. Military Orders Less Dependence on Fossil Fuels". 'U.S. Military Orders Less Dependence on Fossil Fuels' [1]. " ... test and deploy renewable energy to decrease its need to transport fossil fuels. ... ... 1] [2] ...

*  Under what conditions does a carbon tax on fossil fuels stimulate biofuels ?

Permanent URL for this page: ...

*  Report Shows Disparity of US Investment in Renewables & Fossil Fuels -

Fossil Fuels. Friday, 25 September 2009. A new report shows that $70.2 billion was given to the fossil fuel industry over the ...

*  Fossil fuels: Helping mankind "Live long and prosper"

Do fossil fuels like coal and oil harm your health? Well many environmentalists would have you believe so, but Marlo Lewis, Senior Fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, offers a different perspective. Comments Lewis: "Since the Industrial Revolution, life expectancy has more than doubled to 69 years. Fossil fuels are the chief energy source that made the Industrial Revolution and modern civilization possible. Today's high yield agriculture, which feed billions, would also be impossible without fossil fuels. Without fossil fuels, most of today's environmental activists would be poorer and sicker or would not even exist.". ...

*  2013 Feb05 AM Gurney 213

How fossil fuel CO2 uncertainty impacts estimates of carbon exchange and variability Kevin Gurney, Yang Song, Jianhua Huang, Kevin Coltin, Alex Garden School of Life Sciences/School of Sustainability, Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85281, USA Introduction  A focus on power plant uncertainty: More available data, particularly in US  Large proportion of total (~40%)   Examine US and global cases  Examine National inventories - total spread  Descriptive statistical characteristics of spans  Impacts of national span on high resolution fossil fuel CO2 data product (FFDAS) and atmospheric CO2 Inversions Vulcan Gurney et al., Env. Sci & Tech, 2009 Hestia See poster 217, Today FFDAS+ Uncertainty quantification in all of these data products remains challenging US Power Plants (almost 40% of US FFCO2) Comparing EPA derived data (CEMs primarily) to DOE/EIA derived data (fuel consumption-based calculation) US ...

*  Guide to occupational exposure to wood, wood dust and combustible dust hazards :: State Publications

A Guide to Occupational Exposure to Wood, Wood Dust and Combustible Dust Hazards N.C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Division 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699-1101 Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor 19 ...

*  Prevent Combustible Dust Hazards with Good Housekeeping

The U.S. Chemical Safety Board concluded in a report released Jan. 15, 2015, that combustible dust spontaneously ignited and caused an explosion in a manufacturing plant in 2012, burning seven workers.


Several OSHA combustible dust regulations in progress, including the new silica and beryllium exposure limits, their start dates are pushed back or removed.

*  Articles about Fossil Fuels - tribunedigital-thecourant

Fossil Fuels News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Fossil Fuels From The tribunedigital-thecourant

*  Fossil Fuels, Greenhouse Gases, and Global Warming - Video & Lesson Transcript |

In this video lesson, you'll learn what roles fossil fuels and greenhouse gases play in global warming, as well as what life on Earth can expect...

*  Austinites Bike to Move Beyond Fossil Fuels - Scrapbook

September 24, 2011 - Today was Moving Planet Day, promoted by to move the planet beyond fossil fuels and unsustainable practices. The Lone Star Sierra Club and hosted a green and sustainability bike tour. The group assembled at...

*  Fossil Fuels vs. Renewables, State-by-State

The people with the most to gain from the continued use of Fossil Fuels keep attacking clean energy interests. Tina Casey, from Cleantechnica, exposes them.

*  Democratic draft platform seeks DOJ probe of fossil fuel companies | Fox News

The Democratic Party's draft platform calls for the Justice Department to join several state prosecutors in investigating whether fossil fuel companies misled the public on global warming -- marking an escalation in a controversial campaign that critics liken to censorship.

*  History | Profile | About Us | Woodside Energy

Learn about Wodoside's history. In 2014 Woodside celebrated the company's 60th anniversary, 30 years of domestic gas production and 25 years of LNG exports.

*  Fossil Fuels

Each month, Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer LLP (APKS) and the Sabin Center for Climate Change Law collect and summarize developments in climate-related litigation, which we also add to our U.S. and non-U.S. climate litigation charts. If you know of any cases we have missed, please email us at columbiaclimate at gmail dot com. In June, the Sabin Center, in […]. ...

*  A call to reduce fossil fuels, without specifics - latimes

President Obama on Tuesday night capped his Oval Office address on the massive gulf oil spill with a call for new efforts to reduce U.S. dependence on oil, saying 'the tragedy unfolding on our coast

*  Media--350 Mass Action

350 Mass Action is a statewide volunteer network dedicated to eliminating the influence of fossil fuel special interests over our political process. Our primary campaign is the Clean Money for Climate Pledge, an initiative to free candidates in Massachusetts from the undue influence of fossil fuel and utility companies.

*  The Truth Behind the Government's "Clean Power Plan" - AOL Finance

The EPA's Clean Power Plan is part of Barack Obama's larger agenda to battle climate change caused by the burning of coal and other fossil fuels. It aims to cut carbon emissions 30% by

*  University of Sunderland and Nissan to unveil innovative hydrogen-powered car

This vehicle will act as a test bed to evaluate novel hydrogen technologies in vehicles and will enhance the region's status as an important automotive research and development centre.". Dirk Kok says: "The whole subject of hydrogen as a fuel for cars is intriguing. It all depends upon the price of oil, the driving range of these new green vehicles, ease of safely filling these vehicles, and the availability of competing systems, which we are also researching.. "The HyPower project does demonstrate that hydrogen is a practical and environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels. But though this is a significant step forward, there is still a long way to go before we see these vehicles driving about our roads.". ...

*  BBC NEWS | Science & Environment | 'Safe' climate means 'no to coal'

Keeping global temperatures within 'safe' limits means leaving most of the world's fossil fuel reserves unburned, scientists conclude.

*  Performance/Engine/Drivetrain - Air/Fuel Delivery - Fuel Injection Kits, Components, and Accessories - Fuel Injection...

Performance/Engine/Drivetrain - Air/Fuel Delivery - Fuel Injection Kits, Components, and Accessories - Fuel Injection Components - Throttle Body Injector Pod

*  Will New Fuel Rules for SUVs Cut U.S. Oil Use?

The Bush Administration has announced new fuel economy standards for SUVs that it says will save millions of gallons of gas a year. But some observers say that's just a drop in the bucket.

*  how much fuel do you use??? | PlowSite

i just filled my tank up yeterday and salte and plowed today, about 1' 1/2 it finished the day with a quater tank. but was wondering what normal usage...

Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.Energy security of the People's Republic of China: Energy security of the People's Republic of China concerns the need for the People's Republic of China to guarantee itself and its industries long- term access to sufficient energy and raw materials. China has been endeavoring to sign international agreements and secure such supplies; its energy security involves the internal and foreign energy policy of China.Glen Davis Shale Oil Works: The Glen Davis Shale Oil Works was a shale oil extraction plant in Glen Davis, New South Wales, Australia which operated from 1940 until 1952 and was the last oil-shale operation in Australia until the Stuart Oil Shale Project in the late 1990s.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Natural gas vehicleEnergy policy of Malaysia: The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.Caninia (genus)National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Tidewater (marine services)CreosoteP-AnisidineCarbon dioxide removal: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods refers to a number of technologies which reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, direct air capture, ocean fertilization and enhanced weathering.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.Acid Rain Retirement Fund: The Acid Rain Retirement Fund (A.R.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Dye-sensitized solar cell: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC or DYSCWan, Haiying "Dye Sensitized Solar Cells", University of Alabama Department of Chemistry, p. 3) is a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsHuman impact on the nitrogen cycleKimberliteMiljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Benzo(k)fluorantheneFood Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Nippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Exhaust gasMeramec Conservation AreaPolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.EcosystemHadrosaur diet: Hadrosaurids, also commonly referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs, were large terrestrial herbivores. The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids were grazers who fed on vegetation close to the ground, or browsers who ate higher-growing leaves and twigs.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventAnoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Bioelectrochemical reactor: Bioelectrochemical reactors are a type of bioreactor where bioelectrochemical processes can take place. They are used in bioelectrochemical syntheses, environmental remediation and electrochemical energy conversion.Index of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Timeline of historic inventionsGasoline gallon equivalent: Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline. GGE allows consumers to compare the energy content of competing fuels against a commonly known fuel—gasoline.Coulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Cranial vault: The cranial vault is the space in the skull within the neurocranium, occupied by the brain. In humans, the size and shape of the brain, may be affected by the size of the vault as shown in craniometry, but studies relating it to intelligence have found no conclusive evidence.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.TuataraTridecaneBert (horse): Bert}}

(1/171) Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress.

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

(2/171) Nitrogen management and the future of food: lessons from the management of energy and carbon.

The food system dominates anthropogenic disruption of the nitrogen cycle by generating excess fixed nitrogen. Excess fixed nitrogen, in various guises, augments the greenhouse effect, diminishes stratospheric ozone, promotes smog, contaminates drinking water, acidifies rain, eutrophies bays and estuaries, and stresses ecosystems. Yet, to date, regulatory efforts to limit these disruptions largely ignore the food system. There are many parallels between food and energy. Food is to nitrogen as energy is to carbon. Nitrogen fertilizer is analogous to fossil fuel. Organic agriculture and agricultural biotechnology play roles analogous to renewable energy and nuclear power in political discourse. Nutrition research resembles energy end-use analysis. Meat is the electricity of food. As the agriculture and food system evolves to contain its impacts on the nitrogen cycle, several lessons can be extracted from energy and carbon: (i) set the goal of ecosystem stabilization; (ii) search the entire production and consumption system (grain, livestock, food distribution, and diet) for opportunities to improve efficiency; (iii) implement cap-and-trade systems for fixed nitrogen; (iv) expand research at the intersection of agriculture and ecology, and (v) focus on the food choices of the prosperous. There are important nitrogen-carbon links. The global increase in fixed nitrogen may be fertilizing the Earth, transferring significant amounts of carbon from the atmosphere to the biosphere, and mitigating global warming. A modern biofuels industry someday may produce biofuels from crop residues or dedicated energy crops, reducing the rate of fossil fuel use, while losses of nitrogen and other nutrients are minimized.  (+info)

(3/171) Domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian villages.

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is an important public health problem worldwide. A study was undertaken to examine the association between exposure to air pollution from domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian highland villages: a village in which cooking is done exclusively indoors and a village in which cooking is done primarily outdoors. Apart from this difference, the villages were virtually identical in terms of socioeconomic status, climate, altitude, access to health care, and other potential confounders. METHODS: Pollution exposure was assessed by combining information on concentrations of particulate matter of <10 microm diameter (PM(10)) in 12 randomly selected households in each village in all potential microenvironments of exposure with time allocation information. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was assessed using the British Medical Research Council's questionnaire on individuals >20 years of age in both villages (n = 241). RESULTS: Daily pollution exposure was significantly higher in the indoor cooking village (range for adults: 9840-15 120 microg-h/m(3)) than in the outdoor cooking village (range for adults: 5520-6240 microg-h/m(3)) for both seasons and for men and women. The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 22% and 13% for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Logistic regression analysis, which excluded the few smokers present in the population, showed a 60% reduced risk of chronic bronchitis in the outdoor cooking village compared with the indoor cooking village (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8; p = 0.0102) after adjusting for age and sex. Individuals aged >40 years were 4.3 times more likely to have chronic bronchitis than the younger age group (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.3; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest an association between chronic bronchitis and exposure to domestic biomass fuel combustion, but further large scale studies from other areas of the developing world are needed to confirm the association. Results from this and other studies will assist the development of culturally acceptable and feasible alternatives to the high exposure cooking stoves currently being used by most people worldwide.  (+info)

(4/171) Respiratory symptoms in older people and use of domestic gas appliances.

BACKGROUND: Studies in children and young women have indicated an increased risk of respiratory illness in association with the use of domestic gas appliances, possibly caused by oxides of nitrogen generated when gas is burned. It is not known whether risks are similarly increased in older subjects. METHODS: A questionnaire about respiratory symptoms in the past year and potential risk factors for respiratory disease was mailed to 6000 men and women aged 65 years and older who were selected at random from the lists of general practices in North Bristol, UK. Associations between symptoms and the use of gas appliances were examined by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, social class, and smoking habits. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 4792 (80%) of those mailed. The most common symptoms were exercise induced breathlessness, wheeze, or chest tightness (51%); wheeze (27%); morning phlegm (20%); and daytime breathlessness at rest (19%). In an analysis that included all subjects only weak associations were found with use of gas appliances, odds ratios all being 1.2 or less. The risks associated with use of a gas hob tended to be higher in women, with odds ratios of 1.36 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.83) for wheeze and 1.33 (95% CI 0.56 to 3.17) for morning chest tightness, but were lower than had been reported previously in younger women. CONCLUSION: The absence of stronger associations cannot readily be explained by bias or confounding. Gas cookers and fires are unlikely to be an important cause of respiratory illness in the elderly. If they do cause such illness, the largest risks are likely to be in women who use gas hobs.  (+info)

(5/171) The effect of gas cooking on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the role of immunoglobulin E.

Some studies have shown an association between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether gas cooking affects bronchial responsiveness and whether particular subjects are more sensitive to this effect. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the dose-response slope (Percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) divided by total dose of methacholine given) as the dependent variable in 1,921 subjects from a random sample of the Dutch population, aged 20-70 yrs. Whether the association was different according to sex, age, total immunoglobulin (Ig)E, specific IgE to inhalant allergens or smoking habits was tested by including interaction terms into the regression model. Subjects who used gas for cooking had a higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (provocative dose causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20) < or = 2 mg) than those who used electricity (21% versus 14%) and this was dependent on the presence of atopy. Especially subjects with total IgE levels in the highest quartile had a significantly higher dose-response slope when using gas for cooking. This was independent of the presence of specific IgE to inhalant allergens. These results show increased bronchial responsiveness with gas cooking, which was only found in subjects with high total immunoglobulin E levels. This suggests that atopic subjects are sensitive to adverse effects of gas cooking on respiratory health.  (+info)

(6/171) Neonatal tetanus associated with topical umbilical ghee: covert role of cow dung.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Pakistan have shown that ghee (clarified butter) is commonly applied to umbilical wounds of neonates, and have documented that such applications are a risk factor for neonatal tetanus (NNT). In-use contamination of ghee with Clostridium tetani has been demonstrated, but mechanisms underlying the risk of ghee have been incompletely evaluated epidemiologically. METHODS: Detailed information on ghee usage, including fuels used to heat it, was obtained from cases of NNT (n = 229) and their matched controls (n = 687) from a population-based study of NNT in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Design variables were created to evaluate the impact of different fuel sources on risk of ghee applications. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of all infants had ghee applied, and it was nearly always heated before application to umbilical wounds of newborns. After controlling for all factors found to be significantly associated with NNT in conditional logistic regression, only ghee that had always been heated with dried cow dung fuel was significantly associated with NNT. Topical antimicrobials and ghee were never applied together. CONCLUSIONS: Ghee applications to umbilical wounds, when heated with 'clean' fuels, appear to pose no increased risk of NNT, although handling practices undoubtedly result in hazardous microbial contamination. In contrast, ghee heated with dung fuel was significantly associated with NNT. The effective promotion of topical antimicrobials might help reduce ghee use, since the intended purpose of each is to enhance healing.  (+info)

(7/171) Occupational risk factors for lung cancer in the French electricity and gas industry: a case-control survey nested in a cohort of active employees.

The main aim of this study was the analysis of occupational lung cancer risk factors in the French national electricity and gas company (Electricite de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF)). A case-control survey nested in a cohort of male employees was undertaken. The study population consisted of all male staff who were active at EDF-GDF between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 1989. During this period, 310 cases of lung cancer were identified in the cancer register set up by the medical department of the company. For each case, four age-matched controls who were free of cancer at the time of occurrence of the case's lung cancer were randomly selected. Occupational exposures to 21 chemical agents were assessed for each subject using a job exposure matrix. The associations between lung cancer and the different agents were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for various occupational confounding factors, the analysis showed increased lung cancer risks linked to exposure to crystalline silica (highest exposure class: odds ratio = 2.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 4.68) and creosotes (highest exposure level: odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 4.31), with significant dose-response relationships for both exposures.  (+info)

(8/171) Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario.

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO(2) greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH(4), and N(2)O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO(2) and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO(2) GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH(4) and O(3) precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO(2) GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO(2) emissions, this reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.  (+info)

renewable energy

  • It's time to switch from the outdated fossil-fuel burning and polluting economy to one based on clean, renewable energy. (
  • With insurgents increasingly attacking the American fuel supply convoys that lumber across the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan, the military is pushing aggressively to develop, test and deploy renewable energy to decrease its need to transport fossil fuels. (


  • Fossil fuel companies and banks use complicated financial instruments and structures to fund destructive projects like tar sands pipelines. (


  • She said the purpose of divestment is twofold: "Making a pariah" of fossil fuel companies and establishing their "rogue status" and building a movement that will alter and lend urgency to public discourse on climate change. (
  • The Rockefeller Family Fund has said that it will divest from fossil fuels as quickly as possible and 'eliminate holdings' of Exxon Mobil Corp, saying the oil company associated with the family fortune has misled the public about climate change risks. (
  • We supported public interest journalism to better understand how the fossil fuel industry was dealing with the reality of climate science internally and publicly,' Mr Wasserman said. (
  • Make big polluters pay for climate-fueled hurricane destruction. (
  • Understanding these funding mechanisms is the first step toward holding banks and investors accountable for their role in fueling climate disruption. (
  • Greg Laden says denial of global warming has shaped political discourse for decades , thanks to "deep pocketed one percenters and corporations harboring the unfortunate delusion that if we pretend climate change is not caused by the burning of fossil fuels, everything will be fine and they'll keep getting rich. (
  • Emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels, the main driver of man-made climate change, are set to decline this year for the first time in a period of global economic growth. (
  • An annual index ranking the best and worst countries on energy issues related to climate change shows a global shift from fossil fuels. (
  • Fossil fuels - coal, oil and, natural gas - are major contributors to climate change, accounting for the vast majority of greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Donald Trump is packing his cabinet with climate change deniers and promises to pursue more drilling, fracking, and mining of these dangerous fuels. (


  • The Fossil Free campaign, which claims activists on 300 campuses and was kicked off by an article in Rolling Stone last summer by environmentalist Bill McKibben, is targeting primarily university endowments to stop investing in the top 200 oil, gas and coal companies. (


  • Exxon Mobil spokesman Alan Jeffers says whatever the environmental arguments, the bottom line is "there is simply no viable alternative" to carbon-based energy, and that the "symbolic villainization" of Exxon by movements like Fossil Free is counterproductive. (


  • Demand politicians give their fossil fuel donations to hurricane relief. (


  • This publication is concerned with all policies that directly support the production or consumption of fossil fuels in OECD countries and in a selection of partner economies. (


  • A new report shows that $70.2 billion was given to the fossil fuel industry over the last seven years from government subsidies. (


  • This report emphasises the problems that fossil-fuel subsidies cause in the context of broader policy efforts for mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions, and reviews the various reform initiatives that have already been taken at the international level (G-20, APEC, etc. (


  • Why face the uphill battle of targeting these companies when virtually everyone is to some extent dependent on the fuels they bring to market? (
  • Say 5 percent of their portfolios are in the targeted fossil fuel companies, and say the campaign was so wildly successful that half of those schools chose divestment. (


  • A lot of that air pollution comes from fossil-fuel-burning power plants. (
  • Gov. Jerry Brown, a Demo-crat, leads the eighth-largest eco-nomy in the world, and this power-house is wad-ing in-to the na-tion-al de-bate over hy-draul-ic frac-tur-ing, the oil and nat-ur-al gas boom, and what it means for the eco-nomy and en-vir-on-ment. (
  • The 150 Marines of Company I, Third Battalion, Fifth Marines, will be the first to take renewable technology into a battle zone, where the new equipment will replace diesel and kerosene-based fuels that would ordinarily generate power to run their encampment. (


  • For Jamie Henn, communications director of Fossil Free's parent organization,, it comes down this: Scientists say a global temperature increase of more than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) will be unsafe. (