Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Cyclosporiasis: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.United StatesRestaurantsVibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Consumer Product Safety

*  Viral foodborne illnesses: (EUFIC)

Viral foodborne illnesses are caused by a number of different viruses, which can contaminate foods during all stages of the ... 2010). Foodborne Diseases: The challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge. International ... 2011). Foodborne illness acquired in the united states: major pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(1):7-15. ... How are foodborne viruses spread?. The origin of all foodborne viruses are the intestines of humans and animals. As such ...
eufic.org/en/food-safety/article/viral-foodborne-illnesses/

*  Navigating the Legal Framework for State Foodborne Illness Surveillance and Outbreak Response | Public Health Law Research

... and requirements for reporting several of the most common foodborne diseases. ... David S, Katz R. Navigating the Legal Framework for State Foodborne Illness Surveillance and Outbreak Response: Observations ... Home , Evidence , Navigating the Legal Framework for State Foodborne Illness Surveillance and Outbreak Response ... Navigating the Legal Framework for State Foodborne Illness Surveillance and Outbreak Response. ...
publichealthlawresearch.com/product/navigating-legal-framework-state-foodborne-illness-surveillance-and-outbreak-response

*  Quality Control Page 2

... strains necessary for the microbiological analysis of consumable products to identify and prevent the spread of foodborne ... disease. ...
https://atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/By_Focus_Area/Food_Applications/Quality_Control.aspx?dsNav=Ns:Organism_Accepted_Name|101|1|,N:4294922876

*  106 Years After 'The Jungle', Squalid Factories and Foodborne Diseases Are Rising Again

The aggregate cost of foodborne illnesses to the U.S. economy in 2011 was $77.7 billion. These are staggering numbers, and ... By Nicole Goodkind Foodborne illnesses kill 3,000 Americans each year. Nearly 130,000 more are hospitalized. ... Between 2006 and 2010 the rate of foodborne salmonella rose 10%.. Why is food in the United States so riddled with disease that ... Foodborne illnesses kill 3,000 Americans each year. Nearly 130,000 more are hospitalized. The aggregate cost of foodborne ...
https://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/daily-ticker/106-years-jungle-squalid-factories-foodborne-diseases-rising-144403719.html

*  Food Testing Page 1

... strains necessary for the microbiological analysis of food products to identify and prevent the spread of foodborne disease. ... By Disease / Model * By Focus Area * By Tissue * Cell Lines * Human Primary Cells ...
https://atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Bacteria/Quality_Control_Strains/Food.aspx?dsNav=Ro:10,Ns:Organism_Accepted_Name|101|1|,Up:Page_By_Accepted_Name&slp=1

*  What are the most common foodborne illness diseases?

The most common types of foodborne illnesses include salmonella, which is most commonly spread through undercooked chicken, E- ... You are here : Home » Blog » Articles » Food poisoning » What are the most common foodborne illnesses? ... What are the most common foodborne illnesses?. The Food Standards Agency estimates that around 500,000 people in the UK are ... Food poisoning: The most common foodborne illnesses. Most people who develop food poisoning suffer unpleasant symptoms for a ...
https://accidentadvicehelpline.co.uk/blog/article/common-foodborne-illness-diseases/

*  Outbreak: CDC Lists Most Sickening Foodborne Bugs - ABC News

Surveillance data on foodborne disease outbreaks in 2007 revealed that norovirus and salmonella contamination were the leading ... Surveillance data on foodborne disease outbreaks in 2007 revealed that norovirus and salmonella contamination were the leading ... "Even when no etiology or food vehicle is confirmed as the cause of foodborne illnesses, the investigative process provides ... The MMWR editors suggested that the food industry could be doing more to prevent foodborne illnesses. ...
abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/outbreak-cdc-lists-sickening-foodborne-bugs/story?id=11397006&page=2

*  Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Updated | Food Safety News

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1,397,187 cases of Salmonella occur annually in the U.S. ... Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Updated By Suzanne Schreck , June 1, 2010. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic ... The estimates of numbers of victims of food borne illnesses have not changed since the 1999 CDC report based on old data. ... By changing the case-number assumption, users can calculate the costs of foodborne illness for a particular [s]tate or region, ...
foodsafetynews.com/2010/06/foodborne-illness-cost-calculator-updated/

*  Foodborne Illnesses | NIDDK

... and complications associated with Foodborne Illnesses. Reviews treatment options and prevention strategies. Provides resources ... Digestive Diseases A-Z Foodborne Illnesses. What are foodborne illnesses?. Foodborne illnesses are infections or irritations of ... Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(1):16-22.. [2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for foodborne ... Who gets foodborne illnesses?. Anyone can get a foodborne illness. However, some people are more likely to develop foodborne ...
https://niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/foodborne-illnesses

*  22 dead from food-borne disease in 2008 - UPI.com

1,034 food-borne disease outbreaks were reported, resulting in 23,152 illnesses, 1,276 hospitalizations and 22 deaths, U.S. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System collects data on food-borne disease ... 8 (UPI) -- In 2008, 1,034 food-borne disease outbreaks were reported, resulting in 23,152 illnesses, 1,276 hospitalizations and ... Food-borne agents cause an estimated 48 million illnesses annually in the United States, including 9.4 million illnesses from ...
upi.com/Health_News/2011/09/08/22-dead-from-food-borne-disease-in-2008/UPI-35541315511061/

*  Foodborne Diseases

Foodborne illness is also extremely costly; the estimated yearly cost of all foodborne diseases in this country is $5 to $6 ... and preventing foodborne diseases. Those described below are among the more common and serious. *Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia ... Foodborne illness is a common, distressing, and sometimes life-threatening problem for millions of people in the United States ... Persons infected with foodborne organisms can remain symptom-free or can develop symptoms ranging from mild intestinal ...
personalhealthzone.com/disease/allergies/foodbornediseases.html

*  Foodborne Infections Remain Issue Despite Progress - MPR

... reports that although rates for some foodborne infections are on the decline, others remain stagnant or increased in 2013. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... Data was collected from the Foodborne Diseases Active ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that although rates for some foodborne infections are on the ... The CDC also encourages consumers to be aware of the risks of consuming foods that carry a higher risk for foodborne illness ...
empr.com/news/foodborne-infections-remain-issue-despite-progress/article/343148/

*  Foodborne illnesses is costing U.S. billions annually | Healthy Living - Simple Ripple's Blog

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 76 million people in the United States get sick ... Foodborne illness is costing the U.S. $152 billion annually, according to a new report released by the Make Our Food Safe ... Foodborne illnesses is costing U.S. billions annually. March 4, 2010 in Health ... What states topped the list with highest foodborne illness-related costs? Connecticut, Hawaii, Florida, Pennsylvania, South ...
https://simpleripples.wordpress.com/2010/03/04/foodborne-illnessess-is-costing-u-s-billions-annually/

*  Preventing Listeriosis - Minnesota Dept. of Health

Reporting Suspected Foodborne Illness. Please call the Minnesota Department of Health if you suspect you have a foodborne or ... use our IDEPC Comment Form or call 651-201-5414 for the MDH Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Division. ... Do you suspect that you have a foodborne illness? Visit reporting suspected foodborne illnesses. ... As a food manager or worker you have a responsibility to protect yourself and your guests from foodborne illness. ...
health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/listeriosis/prevention.html

*  Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

... this Journal bridges the gap between science and policy to reduce the burden of foodborne illness worldwide. ... New Vital Web Resource on Foodborne Illnesses Lauded by Editor of Foodborne Pathogens and Disease (04/20/2011) ... Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. The first authoritative peer-reviewed journal providing ... basic and applied research on diseases transmitted to humans by invertebrate vectors or non-human vertebrates. ...
liebertpub.com/pressreleases/foodborne-pathogens-and-disease/108/

*  Food-Borne Illnesses | Rentokil

Food-Borne Illnesses. Food-borne illnesses, also referred to as food borne diseases, food borne infections and food poisoning, ... Food borne illness symptoms. Although there is a wide range of different foodborne diseases you can catch, they all show ... Mad cow disease. Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a food borne infection commonly found in cattle and ... There are roughly around 250 different food-borne illnesses currently in existence. The majority of these food borne diseases ...
https://rentokil.co.uk/food-safety/food-borne-illnesses/

*  DPH: Foodborne Pathogens Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)

The Foodborne Diseases ActiveSurveillance Network (FoodNet) is the principal foodborne disease component ofthe United States ... Determine the burden of foodborne illness in the United StatesMonitor trends in the burden of specific foodborne illness over ... conduct epidemiologic studies designed to help public healthofficials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases ... FoodNet is an active laboratory andpopulation-based surveillance system to monitor the incidence of foodbornediseases and to ...
ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=3136&q=388294&dphNav_GID=1601&dphPNavCtr=|

*  Foodborne Disease Handbook, Volume 3: Plant Toxicants: Edited By: Y Hui | NHBS Book Shop

Buy Foodborne Disease Handbook, Volume 3 (9780824703431) (9780824791667): Plant Toxicants: NHBS - Edited By: Y Hui, Marcel ... The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases NHBS Price: £51.99 $69/€59 approx ...
https://nhbs.com/foodborne-disease-handbook-volume-3-book

*  The state of food hygiene and foodborne diseases: requirements for the future.

The current world situation of foodborne diseases is reviewed with an analysis of the factors responsible for their occurrence ... Disease Outbreaks. Food Handling / standards*. Foodborne Diseases / prevention & control*. Forecasting. Humans. Hygiene / ... The current world situation of foodborne diseases is reviewed with an analysis of the factors responsible for their occurrence ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/state-food-hygiene-foodborne-diseases/1303036.html

*  Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) | CEIP

Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria ... Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Selected Publications. Clogher P, Hurd S, Hoefer D, Hadler JL, ... More Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). *Food Service Manager Employee Health Project ... Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) *Food Service Manager Employee Health Project ...
ceip.us/projects/foodnet/

*  Foodborne Diseases Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement | FoodCORE | CDC

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that each year, foodborne diseases cause illness in 1 in 6 ... Foodborne Diseases Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers work together to develop new and better methods ... National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). , Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental ... The ability to detect and investigate viral and parasitic foodborne disease outbreaks will also be strengthened. ...
https://cdc.gov/foodcore/

*  BK Virus - Automated - QIAGEN

How Can We Fight an Ancient Disease? * How Can We Keep Animals Healthy? ...
https://qiagen.com/dk/products/molecular-diagnostics/infectious-disease/bk-virus-automated/

*  TopTaq Master Mix Kit - QIAGEN

This product is not intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a disease. ...
https://qiagen.com/us/shop/genes-and-pathways/technology-portals/browse-qpcr/mirna-gene-expression/mirna-isolation/toptaq-master-mix-kit/

*  Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog » Blog Archive New CA Law Protects Farmers from GE Contamination of Crops - Beyond...

Glyphosate Causes Changes to DNA Function Resulting in Chronic Disease, According to Study (13,659) ... Food Borne Illness (1) *Gulf War Syndrome (4) *Infertility (10) *Kidney failure (3) ... Glyphosate Causes Changes to DNA Function Resulting in Chronic Disease, According to Study (13,659) ...
beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2008/10/new-ca-law-protects-farmers-from-ge-contamination-of-crops/

List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Master StrokeSAFE FOODSThe Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.CyclosporiasisViral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.CampylobacteriosisCastleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Norovirus: Norovirus, sometimes known as the winter vomiting bug in the UK, is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideBismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.Escherichia coli O121: Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals.http://www.Emergency Digital Information Service: Emergency Digital Information Service (EDIS) is a wireless datacast based emergency and disaster information service operated by the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Services. In operation since 1990 the system was upgraded in 1999 to support image and sound capabilities via satellite broadcast.Bacillary dysenteryIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen.Campylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.BotulismPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.

(1/861) Study of an epidemic of venoocclusive disease in India.

Twenty-five cases of rapidly developing ascites occurring in an epidemic form were observed in a tribal district in Central India during August 1972-May 1973. Eleven of the patients died. Six patients were brought to hospital and studied for periods of two to 17 months. Necropsy was performed on one patient who died. The clinical features suggested an outflow tract obstruction such as a Budd-Chiari-like syndrome or venoocclusive disease. Radiographic and haemodynamic studies demonstrated a combination of post and perisinusoidal blocks. Liver dysfunction was indicated by the presence of a marked bromsulphthalein retention and mild to moderate hypoalbuminaemia. Histological examination of the liver biopsies showed changes that ranged from centrizonal haemorrhagic necrosis to an extensive centrilobular fibrosis associated with central vein occlusion. The disease was apparently caused by a food toxin, and the possible nature of this is discussed.  (+info)

(2/861) Toxic oil syndrome mortality: the first 13 years.

BACKGROUND: The toxic oil syndrome (TOS) epidemic that occurred in Spain in the spring of 1981 caused approximately 20000 cases of a new illness. Overall mortality and mortality by cause in this cohort through 1994 are described for the first time in this report. METHODS: We contacted, via mail or telephone, almost every living member of the cohort and family members of those who were known to have died in order to identify all deaths from 1 May 1981 through 31 December 1994. Cause of death data were collected from death certificates and underlying causes of death were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. RESULTS: We identified 1663 deaths between 1 May 1981 and 31 December 1994 among 19 754 TOS cohort members, for a crude mortality rate of 8.4%. Mortality was highest during 1981, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 4.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.39-5.50) compared with the Spanish population as a whole. The highest SMR, (20.41, 95% CI: 15.97-25.71) was seen among women aged 20-39 years during the period from 1 May 1981 through 31 December 1982. Women <40 years old, who were affected by TOS , were at greater risk for death in most time periods than their unaffected peers, while older women and men were not. Over the follow-up period, mortality of the cohort was less than expected when compared with mortality of the general Spanish population, or with mortality of the population of the 14 provinces where the epidemic occurred. We also found that, except for deaths attributed to external causes including TOS and deaths due to pulmonary hypertension, all causes of death were decreased in TOS patients compared to the Spanish population. The most frequent underlying causes of death were TOS, 350 (21.1%); circulatory disorders, 536 (32.3%); and malignancies, 310 (18.7%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while on average people affected by toxic oil syndrome are not at greater risk for death over the 13-year study period than any of the comparison groups, women <40 years old were at greater risk of death.  (+info)

(3/861) Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.

Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain.  (+info)

(4/861) Food safety training for nutritionists.

A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious.  (+info)

(5/861) A community outbreak of food-borne small round-structured virus gastroenteritis caused by a contaminated water supply.

In August 1994, 30 of 135 (23%) bakery plant employees and over 100 people from South Wales and Bristol in the United Kingdom, were affected by an outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiological studies of employees and three community clusters found illness in employees to be associated with drinking cold water at the bakery (relative risk 3.3, 95%, CI 1.6-7.0), and in community cases with eating custard slices (relative risk 19.8, 95%, CI 2.9-135.1) from a variety of stores supplied by one particular bakery. Small round-structured viruses (SRSV) were identified in stool specimens from 4 employees and 7 community cases. Analysis of the polymerase and capsid regions of the SRSV genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated viruses of both genogroups (1 and 2) each with several different nucleotide sequences. The heterogeneity of the viruses identified in the outbreak suggests that dried custard mix may have been inadvertently reconstituted with contaminated water. The incident shows how secondary food contamination can cause wide-scale community gastroenteritis outbreaks, and demonstrates the ability of molecular techniques to support classical epidemiological methods in outbreak investigations.  (+info)

(6/861) Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology associated with eating burritos--United States, October 1997-October 1998.

From October 1997 through October 1998, 16 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness associated with eating burritos occurred in Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. All but one outbreak occurred in schools, and most of the approximately 1700 persons affected were children. This report summarizes investigations of two of these outbreaks and describes the collaborative efforts of CDC, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify the etiologic agent(s); these outbreaks may have been caused by an undetected toxin or a new agent not previously associated with illness.  (+info)

(7/861) Semiautomated metabolic staining assay for Bacillus cereus emetic toxin.

This paper describes a specific, sensitive, semiautomated, and quantitative Hep-2 cell culture-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for Bacillus cereus emetic toxin. Of nine Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Paenibacillus species assessed for emetic toxin production, only B. cereus was cytotoxic.  (+info)

(8/861) Incidence of foodborne illnesses: preliminary data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)--United States, 1998.

Estimates of the magnitude of foodborne illness in the United States have been imprecise. To quantify, better understand, and more precisely monitor foodborne illness, since 1996 the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) has collected data to monitor nine foodborne diseases in selected U.S. sites. This report describes preliminary data from FoodNet surveillance for 1998 and compares findings with those for 1996 and 1997; compared with 1996, the overall incidence of the foodborne illnesses under surveillance during 1998 declined, particularly for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, and the data continued to demonstrate regional and seasonal differences in the reported incidence of diseases.  (+info)



Active Surveillance Network


  • With FoodNet Fast, you can create custom searches and download data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), which covers about 15% of the United States population including the State of Connecticut. (ct.gov)

outbreaks


  • Although foodborne outbreaks are common, approximately 95% of foodborne infections occur as sporadic (non-outbreak) cases. (ct.gov)
  • Foodborne Diseases Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers work together to develop new and better methods to detect, investigate, respond to, and control multistate outbreaks of foodborne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • The ability to detect and investigate viral and parasitic foodborne disease outbreaks will also be strengthened. (cdc.gov)

FoodNet


  • FoodNet is an active laboratory and population-based surveillance system to monitor the incidence of foodborne diseases and to conduct epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases of public health importance in the United States. (ct.gov)
  • FoodNet is a collaborative project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the EIP network, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (ceip.us)
  • CEIP's FoodNet project works in close partnership with local and state health jurisdictions to implement active surveillance and epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States. (ceip.us)
  • The ten FoodNet sites nationwide serve as a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases of national importance. (ceip.us)
  • FoodNet personnel identify and collect demographic, clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory information on all laboratory-confirmed cases of selected foodborne illnesses from catchment area laboratories. (ceip.us)
  • FoodNet data are also used for other analyses such as periodic estimates of the burden of foodborne illness in the United States. (ceip.us)

illness


  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that each year, foodborne diseases cause illness in 1 in 6 Americans (or about 48 million people) resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. (cdc.gov)

Centers


  • The NARMS Now: Human Data Dashboard , is an interactive tool from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that contains antibiotic resistance data from bacteria isolated from humans as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). (ct.gov)