Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)United StatesNutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
World's Pollinators, Food Supply Threatened, Study says... of world's food supply relies on bees, birds and other pollinators, significant percentage at risk due to changes in land use, ... It is a simple but chilling statistic: 75 percent of the world's food supply relies on bees, birds and other pollinators, and ... That's a complicated way of saying that healthy bees mean more food for the nearly 800 million people the U.N. estimates are ... Improving pollinator density and diversity has a direct positive impact on crop yields, consequently promoting food and ...
CONSUMER RIGHTS / PRODUCT REPORTS | WHAT REALLY HAPPENEDYes, food is power, and all around the world we now see how the monopolization of the food supply has created a vast gulf ... The strategy to control people by controlling the food supply, first through the conversion from many small farms to fewer, ... A Common Unlisted Food Additive May Induce Food Allergies. By: ActivistPost. Tags: *CONSUMER RIGHTS / PRODUCT REPORTS ... A Common Unlisted Food Additive May Induce Food Allergies. By: ActivistPost. Tags: *CONSUMER RIGHTS / PRODUCT REPORTS ...
Resilience of food supply - News from Parliament - UK ParliamentKey themes are: the resilience of our food supply systems in the face of climate change,... ... This is the final evidence session for the inquiry on food security. ... Resilience of food supply 18 March 2014 This is the final evidence session for the inquiry on food security. Key themes are: ... the resilience of our food supply systems in the face of climate change, and technological transfer and uptake. Among other ...
State official says food supply safety a challengeYou are here: Home / Politics & Government / State official says food supply safety a challenge ... State official says food supply safety a challenge. August 13, 2005. By admin ... The administrator of the state's emergency management division says one of the challenges to protecting the food supply in Iowa ... "sound ag food security policy" in place. This week, Miller revealed his agency has joined with the state Ag Department to ...
Food Deserts: A Guest Post - Freakonomics Freakonomics... and the economics of urban food supply. The Hong Kong government originally built wet markets wherever pedestrian food shopping ... Hong Kong's food supply isn't perfect. Recent scares related to tainted fish, milk, and eggs from mainland China have left many ... help!- i'm burnin' up in da food desert known as philly- yeah, there's a Whole Foods oasis, but where are the plebes supposed ... In my view the US concept is based on food manufacturing versus preparation. That and local regulation of food vendors due to ...
food supply Archives - disinformationfood supply. Monsanto Launches Massive Biotech Project With New 'Superweeds Seeds'. Corporate Skeptics, Environment, News, ... Superweeds: A new threat to our food supply? By Tara Dodrill via Inquisitr: Monsanto is preparing to launch possibly its ... The Future of the World Food Supply is Logical, Well Known and Wrong. ... is looking to change the dominant narrative on the global food supply. He writes for ensia: There's a powerful narrative being ...
Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.Previous studies suggest that the association between food insecurity and obesity may vary by gender and race/ethnicity. We ... A high prevalence of food insecurity has persisted in the USA for the past two decades. ... Food Supply* / economics. Health Surveys. Hispanic Americans. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minority Groups*. Obesity / economics ... We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, ...
Monsanto, the TPP, and Global Food DominanceGenetic engineering has made proprietary control possible over the seeds on which the world's food supply depends. "Terminator ... "Control food and you control the people.". Global food control has nearly been achieved, by reducing seed diversity with GMO ( ... Bio-engineered foods are treated as "natural food additives," not needing any special testing. ... confirms that US Food and Drug Administration policy allows biotech companies to determine if their own foods are safe. ...
Food Supply | Care2 CausesEl Nino Could Create Food Shortages Across Africa and Asia Next Year ...
food supply. | IFPRIWatch IFPRI's discussion on the @WFP report on the state of global food assistance 2017: t.co/xq7ZgMSRUu #foodsecurity # ... International Food Policy Research Institute. Headquarters. 1201 Eye St, NW. Washington, DC 20005 USA ...
Climate change and food supply - CBC Player... scientists raise alarm about the threat to water and food ... Climate change and food supply. CBC News Vancouver at 6. July 3 ... B.C. scientists raise alarm about the threat to water and food ...
Food Supply Veterinary Medicine - ArkansasArkansas resources for food supply veterinary medicine. Workforce maps, recruiting and loan repayment info, externships, ... Food Supply Veterinary Medicine - Arkansas. State map. *Food animal concentration per food animal veterinarian ...
Food Supply Veterinary Medicine - AlaskaFood Animal Concentration per Food Animal Veterinarian View as PDFClick on the map to enlarge Copyright © and (P) 1988-2006 ... Total Food Animals *. Total Food Animal Veterinarians **. Animals per Veterinarian. Counties with 0 Veterinarians ***. ... x: Counties with 0 veterinarians where there are fewer than 5,000 food animals. y: Counties with 0 veterinarians where there ... z: Counties with 0 veterinarians where there are more than 25,000 food animals. ...
Egypt insists food supply secure... but state and private buyers insist they still have funds to keep the nation supplied with its staple bread. ... Egypt insists food supply secure Cairo, February 25, 2013. Egypt's wheat imports are sharply down this year as it endures ... There is a good local supply, both on the private side and on the GASC side. People keep talking about shortage of stocks - no ... Egypt has a history of bread riots but maintained supplies of heavily subsidised flat loaves - which sell to the poor for just ...
Improving Food Supply Chain in the EU - English... at the 1st Meeting of the Food and Beverages Processing Expert Group, OECD Inves… ... Improving Food Supply Chain in the EU * 1. The High Level Forum for a Better Functioning Food Supply Chain Benjamin Vallin DG ... High Level For for a Better Functioning Food Supply Chain Task: Help with the development of industrial policy in the food ... Food Supply Chain Management and Lo... by redfordjenet 462 views * Corporate Governance and Performanc... by OECDglobal 1189 ...
Food Supply Veterinary Medicine - WyomingCopyright © and (P) 1988-2006 Microsoft Corporation and/or its suppliers. All rights reserved. http://www.microsoft.com/mappoint/ Portions © 1990-2005
Food supply per capita added... We added a new indicator that measures the kilocalories available, on average, for each person ... " - "consumption". However, it is a rather poor indicator of malnutrition in a country, since the distribution of food ...
USDA scientist works to keep food supply safe - The Washington PostProtecting the nation's food supply is at top of his priority list. ... Esteban oversees three USDA laboratories where the food supply is analyzed for potential food-borne hazards. The labs run some ... healthier food supply. In addition, I have the opportunity to travel around the world to learn how others conduct food safety- ... staff epidemiologist and assistant director for food safety. He moved to the USDA in 2001 and has held the roles of food safety ...
War and Drought Threaten Afghan Food Supply - The New York TimesThe United States government announced this week that it would supply nearly half the emergency food aid requested in the ... The World Food Program, which was assisting 4.5 million of the most vulnerable Afghans with food aid in recent years, widened ... War and Drought Threaten Afghan Food Supply. By CARLOTTA GALL. SEPT. 18, 2008. ... was quick to mount an appeal at the beginning of the year to prevent a food shortage as world food prices soared and ...
Afghanistan requests for extra food supplies - Thaindian NewsAfghanistan has appealed to the international community for extra supplies of wheat. Afghanistan is partially dependent on ... Afghanistan requests for extra food supplies. January 5th, 2008 - 7:18 pm ICT by admin Tweet. ... There is increasing discontent in Afghanistan at the spiralling cost of wheat and other basic food.. Helmand is one of the ... Afghanistan has appealed to the international community for extra supplies of wheat.. Afghanistan is partially dependent on ...
GMO in Your Food Supply | The Seeds of Freedom... reveals that crop seeds are being transformed into expensive products to control the global food supply. ... Food Facts. Find out food facts, nutrition facts, and healthy recipes of common healthy foods that you should add to your ... Pharmaceutical and/or industrial crops, not intended for consumption as food. In terms of food crops, the most common ... How to Avoid Genetically Engineered Foods. Until GE foods are labeled, your BEST strategy is to simply buy USDA certified 100% ...
Is the Hepatitis Vaccine Safe? My Story | What to Expect... which spreads through contaminated food or water. My mother battled with my relentless cries as my liver swelled causing ...
How to Fix a Broken Denture Plate | eHow UKDentures provide many adults the ability and confidence to eat all kinds of food, as well as smile. However, dentures sometimes ... Disposal of Cleaning Supplies & Chemicals * How to Get Stains Off of Dentures ...
Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV TropesHe's been driven a bit bonkers with his desire for revenge, and not contaminating the water supply is not his biggest priority ... lots of food here, it makes much more sense to just ignore it and start eating my original kill." It just went "SOMETHING IS ... Does he have a limited supply of torpedoes or something? * Probably. Nero's ship seems to have exotic ordinance, so it may take ... and an odd assortment of Eldritch Abominations that view bipeds as food. Even if Jim didn't press charges, Spock was ...
Medicine: The Ephedra Supplement: Alternative M...09-25-2017, 07:49 PM in Diabetic Recipes & Supplies, etc * Gas Hog Alert. Last Post By bluejeanfrog (317 replies) 09-25-2017, ... Dehydrated-Dried Foods. *Dirt Cheap Recipe. *Ethnic Inexpensively. *Make Your Own. *Mix Recipes ⟹ *All Mix Recipes ...
Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.SAFE FOODSHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Master StrokeChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Carbonization: Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. It is often used in organic chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from raw coal.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Hesquiaht First NationMicronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Compensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Foundation Course for Agricultural Research ServiceVistive: Vistive is the brand name for a type of soybeans developed by Monsanto. Currently the only Vistive seed on the market is a low-linolenic soybean that reduces or eliminates the need for addition of trans-fatty acids.Pesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.Timeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Global Health Security Initiative: The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) is an international partnership between countries in order to supplement and strengthen their preparedness to respond to threats of biological, chemical, radio-nuclear terrorism (CBRN) and pandemic influenza.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Griffon: Griffon is a type of dog, a collection of breeds of originally hunting dogs. There are three lines of the griffon type recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI): the griffon vendéens, the wirehaired pointers, and the smousje (Belgian companion dogs or Dutch Smoushond).List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsHealth food storeFood Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Criticism of fast foodPublic water systemList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightClimate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).EcosystemAnimal fatEvolution in Variable EnvironmentThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActMeramec Conservation AreaPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,Beneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.The Flash ChroniclesCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.IontocaineLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Functional food: A functional food is a food given an additional [(often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.[http://www4.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Yellow soybean paste: Yellow soybean paste is a fermented paste] made from yellow [[soybeans, salt, and water; wheat flour, though not formerly used, is often used as an additional ingredient in the modern day, and potassium sorbate may also be used as a preservative. Yellow soybean paste is produced in China and is used primarily in Beijing cuisine and other cuisines of northern China.Caramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Smoothie King: Smoothie King (A hangover you don't deserve)}}QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Direct Benefit Transfer: Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to change the mechanism of transferring subsidies launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013. This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.Preservative: A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationProtein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Vegetable juiceOrganic food: Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming. While the standards differ worldwide, organic farming in general features cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.Glucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.
(1/1030) Validation of measures of food insecurity and hunger.
The most recent survey effort to determine the extent of food insecurity and hunger in the United States, the Food Security Supplement, included a series of questions to assess this complex phenomenon. The primary measure developed from this Food Security Supplement was based on measurement concepts, methods and items from two previously developed measures. This paper presents the evidence available that questionnaire-based measures, in particular the national food security measure, provide valid measurement of food insecurity and hunger for population and individual uses. The paper discusses basic ideas about measurement and criteria for establishing validity of measures and then uses these criteria to structure an examination of the research results available to establish the validity of food security measures. The results show that the construction of the national food security measure is well grounded in our understanding of food insecurity and hunger, its performance is consistent with that understanding, it is precise within usual performance standards, dependable, accurate at both group and individual levels within reasonable performance standards, and its accuracy is attributable to the well-grounded understanding. These results provide strong evidence that the Food Security Supplement provides valid measurement of food insecurity and hunger for population and individual uses. Further validation research is required for subgroups of the population, not yet studied for validation purposes, to establish validity for monitoring population changes in prevalence and to develop and validate robust and contextually sensitive measures in a variety of countries that reflect how people experience and think about food insecurity and hunger. (+info)
(2/1030) Measuring food insecurity and hunger in the United States: development of a national benchmark measure and prevalence estimates.
Since 1992, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has led a collaborative effort to develop a comprehensive benchmark measure of the severity and prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. Based on prior research and wide consultation, a survey instrument specifically relevant to U.S. conditions was designed and tested. Through its Current Population Survey (CPS), the U.S. Bureau of the Census has fielded this instrument each year since 1995. A measurement scale was derived from the data through fitting, testing and validating a Rasch scale. The unidimensional Rasch model corresponds to the form of the phenomenon being measured, i.e., the severity of food insufficiency due to inadequate resources as directly experienced and reported in U.S. households. A categorical measure reflecting designated ranges of severity on the scale was constructed for consistent comparison of prevalence estimates over time and across population groups. The technical basis and initial results of the new measure were reported in September 1997. For the 12 months ending April 1995, an estimated 11.9% of U.S. households (35 million persons) were food insecure. Among these, 4.1% of households (with 6.9 million adults and 4.3 million children) showed a recurring pattern of hunger due to inadequate resources for one or more of their adult and/or child members sometime during the period. The new measure has been incorporated into other federal surveys and is being used by researchers throughout the U.S. and Canada. (+info)
(3/1030) Economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity in the United States.
This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes <50% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are higher for adult women and elderly individuals from food-insufficient households. Preschoolers from food-insufficient households do not consume significantly lower amounts than those from food-sufficient households, but mean intakes for the rest of members in those very same households are significantly lower for the food insufficient. This research highlights the importance of food insecurity and hunger indicators, further validates the use of self-reported measures and points to areas of need for future research and interventions. (+info)
(4/1030) Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger.
This paper explores how food insecurity and hunger relate to health and nutrition outcomes in food-rich countries such as the United States. It focuses on two subgroups of the population for whom data are available: women of childbearing age and school-age children. Special consideration is given to examining how food insecurity relates to these outcomes independently of socioeconomic status and poverty. In a population-based sample of women of childbearing age, the least severe level of food insecurity (household food insecurity) was correlated with higher body mass index (BMI), controlling for other available and known influences on obesity including income level. In low income school-age children from two large urban areas of the U.S., risk of hunger and hunger were associated with compromised psychosocial functioning, controlling for maternal education and estimated household income. The nutrition and health consequences of food insecurity comprise a potentially rich area for future, socially relevant research in the field of nutritional sciences. (+info)
(5/1030) Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food. (+info)
(6/1030) Women's dietary intakes in the context of household food insecurity.
A study of food insecurity and nutritional adequacy was conducted with a sample of 153 women in families receiving emergency food assistance in Toronto, Canada. Contemporaneous data on dietary intake and household food security over the past 30 d were available for 145 of the women. Analyses of these data revealed that women who reported hunger in their households during the past 30 d also reported systematically lower intakes of energy and a number of nutrients. The effect of household-level hunger on intake persisted even when other economic, socio-cultural, and behavioral influences on reported dietary intake were considered. Estimated prevalences of inadequacy in excess of 15% were noted for Vitamin A, folate, iron, and magnesium in this sample, suggesting that the low levels of intake associated with severe household food insecurity are in a range that could put women at risk of nutrient deficiencies. (+info)
(7/1030) Abbreviated measures of food sufficiency validly estimate the food security level of poor households: measuring household food security.
This study was designed to develop an abbreviated method that captures both the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of household food security (HFS). Women in poor and very poor households (n = 238) in a peri-urban barrio in Caracas, Venezuela, provided data on food availability and their perception of food resource constraints and hunger experiences within the home. Socioeconomic data and food-related behavior that may predict HFS levels were gathered. On average, the top 12 food contributors of energy provided 81% and predicted more than 90% of the variation in households' total energy availability using stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, a 4-point 12-item scale was shown to have face, content and construct validity with reiterative testing, factor analysis and a Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92. Assessing predictors of energy availability together with a self-perceived HFS scale may provide a valid and reliable method for identifying and monitoring food security levels among poor urban households. (+info)
(8/1030) Developing the effectiveness of an intersectoral food policy coalition through formative evaluation.
There is a difference between bringing parties together and making them work effectively. We present a case study of an intersectoral food policy Committee, part of a three-tiered coalition nested within local municipal government, which sought to promote and nutrition in a rapidly growing metropolitan region by tackling food supply issues in the first instance. This was new territory for all players. After 12 months, the group felt it was floundering and requested an evaluation. In-depth qualitative interviews with committee members (n = 21) and quantitative assessment of Committee processes revealed insufficient mechanisms for engaging new members, conflict between perceived roles for the group and a notable lack of confidence in the group's capacity to achieve its goals, or outcome efficacy. Feedback of the data and subsequent discussion led to a reform of project structure, stronger mechanisms to realize its goals and better incentive management, or ways to maximize the benefits and limit the costs for the diverse parties involved. The impact was reflected in a 4 year time series analysis of media releases, decision making and related municipal government actions. The study illustrates how theory-informed formative evaluation can help to improve health promotion practice. (+info)
- By contrast, food loss is when food is unintentionally lost during production. (universalpasteurization.com)
- Food producers know that some food loss is unavoidable. (universalpasteurization.com)
- We can plan for it and try to improve upon it, but there's no surefire way to eliminate food loss completely. (universalpasteurization.com)
- As a result, food producers often just accept food loss and food waste as an unavoidable expense that can't be helped without ever stopping to consider the magnitude of the problem. (universalpasteurization.com)
- 3 This statistic speaks more to food loss. (universalpasteurization.com)
- They can no extend the shelf life of their products without a freezer, maintaining quality while trimming their food waste expenses. (universalpasteurization.com)
- The effects of food waste can even be felt by our wallets, as every piece of food in the trash is one that can't (or at least shouldn't) be eaten. (universalpasteurization.com)
- It's amazing and terrifying how small things like a damaged case of product, an incomplete harvest or food spoilage adds up to create so much waste. (universalpasteurization.com)
- High pressure processing, or HPP, is one of the newest, most effective technologies to help with this problem as it can double the shelf-life of foods and beverages without the addition of artificial preservatives or large amounts of sodium, creating a longer-shelf life product with a cleaner label. (universalpasteurization.com)
- Chairman's Foods once froze all of their product because they were concerned about shelf-life. (universalpasteurization.com)