Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

*  Frequently asked questions regarding novel foods - Evira

Novel foods refer to products which prior to May 1997 have not been used for human consumption to a significant degree within the Community. The time point is based on the Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council (EC No. 258/97) having been adopted on 15 May 1997. Also foods and food ingredients to which has been applied a production method not currently used, where that method gives rise to significant changes in the composition or structure of the foods or food ingredients which affect their nutritional value, metabolism or level of undesirable substances, are considered novel foods. Nanotechnology, for example, is such a method.. The novel food authorisation of the European Commission is required for placing a novel food on the market within the European Union. More information on novel foods.. 2. How can one know if novel ...

*  Study on food preferences

At the Montreal Neurological Institute, we are currently looking for individuals, aged between 18 and 35 to participate in a study that explores food preferences. The study involves four-day visits to our laboratory: on the first day you will undergo an functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a colour-naming task and a food image-viewing task. During the subsequent days, you will be administered transcranial magnetic stimulation, after which you will perform a ...

*  Food preferences may be caused by taste buds, not your mind | ACTIVE

Are you a picky eater? It may be more a matter of the tongue than the mind. You personal taste preferences are linked to the number of taste receptors on the...

*  Food Preferences - Montgomery Alabama news.

There are many good reasons to introduce a variety of flavors and textures into your cat's diet, experts say. Cats can easily develop strong preferences for one type of food and decline all others, which can be a problem. Canned tuna, for example, lacks some of the vital amino acids that cats need. While still kittens, Dr. Wakshlag advises pet owners to introduce not only a variety of flavors but, more importantly, textures. "The idea is to change it around so a cat doesn't develop any specific preference," he says.. As cats age, they become more prone to diseases, such as kidney disease or tooth decay. A cat that has only eaten dry food all its life may be averse to switching to a moist food. Dry foods contain only 6 to 10 percent moisture, compared with 75 percent of some canned foods, according to Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine. Many cats tend to avoid the water bowl and a wet ...

*  Food Preferences are the Window to the Soul

He was a very comfortable sort, often compromising for the greater good, until it came to fava beans. The pods had to be firm and measure between five and six inches. His desired shade of green was difficult to describe, but he knew it when he saw it. First the beans were shelled. Next, blanched, ever so briefly. Anyone could handle the first shelling and quick blanch, these were the steps that mattered least to him, but he liked to remove the little jackets himself. He found it meditative and gratifying. Only one cheese could accompany his tender little beans, Pecorino, the Romano variety, grated on the fine side of the box grater. The prepared beans had to be served in a specific ceramic oval dish, glazed in a deep periwinkle blue. There were no substitutions. The day I ate my favas in a white ramekin with Parmigiano-Reggiano felt a betrayal ...

*  Cecilia Sauter, CDE, Q4: Case Study - How to Approach Patients with Specific Ethnic Food Preferences

Cecilia Sauter answers Steve Freed's case study question regarding approaching patients who have specific ethnic high-carb foods -- such as rice -- which t

*  Fight Food Cravings - Healthy Food Substitutions

Don't blow your diet on one binge. Tell us what you crave right now, and we'll give you a healthy substitution. Good Housekeeping is here to help you fight your food cravings.

*  Fast Grow the Weeds: On seasonal food preferences

When the days start getting shorter, I notice lots of changes in my habits. I'd like to think that moving to a farm and actually being outside for some period of time every day has tuned me in more to the tilt of the planet, but I think it's more ingrained than that. I think it's biological in nature. Evolutionary biology, to be exact. Bear with me here. As far as I can trace them, my forebears came from either Ireland or France (and many more from the former than the latter). Both of these places see lots less light at this time of year than my little farm does, which, latitude-wise, is as far south as Rome. I have no known biological ties to Russia, but that is where my thoughts go at this time of year ...

*  Evolutionary Explanations of Food Preferences - Document in A Level and IB Psychology

Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...

*  Evolution of food preferences - Document in A Level and IB Psychology

Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...

*  Food Cravings: Those "Torments of Expectation" | Psychology Today

Food cravings are generally considered benign and extremely common among people in many, though not all, regions of the world. Cravings can be a so-called

*  EU novel foods wrap: Clubmoss, omega-3 oils and zeaxanthin

The UK Food Standards Agency is assessing two novel food applications for clubmoss sporopollenin shell extracts and a novel omega-3 and omega-6 oil; while DSM is lauding the official EU recognition of nature-identical zeaxanthin.

*  Genetics of taste preferences - Michael Tordoff

The goal of this project is to discover genes underlying taste preferences, particularly those responsible for the preferences for sodium, calcium, and acids. O...

*  Africa's food and nutrition security: 2010-2050 | African Studies Centre Leiden

Intra-country and cross-country comparisons will be made regarding the choice of crops grown and the animals kept, and food consumption patterns (depending on dietary preferences, incomes and prices). Estimates will be made of the loss to human health and the economy. The projected demands of the future food basket on natural resources (land, water, fertilizer and energy) and the effects of emissions will also be assessed.. ...

*  Eating Well While Eating Out

We all know the importance of eating well. But how are you supposed to do so when your schedule is so demanding you're never at home? Find out how to make healthy food choices on the go.

*  Eating Well While Eating Out

We all know the importance of eating well. But how are you supposed to do so when your schedule is so demanding you're never at home? Find out how to make healthy food choices on the go.

*  Scientific Fat Loss | A Cutting-edge New Scientific Fat-Loss Technique Called Hormonal Fat-Burning That Works for Men of ANY...

When I talk with students or patients that based on science validated in a number of studies that humans are designed to live on average 120 years, most people are astonished. Astonished because they never knew that, but also more astonished because on average, in the US, we are largely, willingly, giving up 1/3 of our lives due to our poor habits, uneducated choices, and skewed priorities! Why is this, you might ask? Well many reasons of course, but a big one is the diet and one big factor in the diet is, you guessed it, SUGAR! In Chinese medicine, sweet is one of five key flavors essential to be kept in balance with other flavors (which also include bitter, salty, sour, and umami (i.e. a savoury, meaty type of flavor). Typically the American diet is rife with foods heavy in salty and sweet aspects with very few that touch on the other essential flavor elements. However, when we understand that different flavors also have different effects on organ systems, digestion, etc., we start to ...

*  Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healt

*  Diabetes prevention: 5 tips for taking control - Mayo Clinic

Diabetes prevention is in your hands. Learn how five lifestyle changes related to physical activity and healthy food choices can help.

*  Fatty Foods may Affect Your Brain and Ruin Weight Loss Plans

Consumption of foods high in fat causes inflammation that impedes the brain to control the food intake. People struggle to control the how much they eat.

*  perldata -

All data in Perl is a scalar, an array of scalars, or a hash of scalars. A scalar may contain one single value in any of three different flavors: a number, a string, or a reference. In general, conversion from one form to another is transparent. Although a scalar may not directly hold multiple values, it may contain a reference to an array or hash which in turn contains multiple values.. Scalars aren't necessarily one thing or another. There's no place to declare a scalar variable to be of type 'string', type 'number', type 'reference', or anything else. Because of the automatic conversion of scalars, operations that return scalars don't need to care (and in fact, cannot care) whether their caller is looking for a string, a number, or a reference. Perl is a contextually polymorphic language whose scalars can be strings, numbers, or references (which includes objects). Although strings and numbers are considered pretty much the same thing for nearly all purposes, references are strongly-typed, ...

*  Whole Health Source: February 2013

Or, more accurately, a rat's brain on potato chips. Last week, PLoS One published a very interesting paper by Dr. Tobias Hoch and colleagues on what happens in a rat's brain when it is exposed to a highly palatable/rewarding food (1). Rats, like humans, overconsume highly palatable foods even when they're sated on less palatable foods (2), and feeding rats a variety of palatable human junk foods is one of the most effective ways to fatten them (3). Since the brain directs all behaviors, food consumption is an expression of brain activity patterns. So what is the brain activity pattern that leads to the overconsumption of a highly palatable and rewarding food ...

*  Happy Weight After: Face the Truth Friday (Also Day 4 of SofDDDY): Feel Great, Eating On Plan, but Up From Salty and Carby...

I have had weird salty food cravings, carb cravings, and an occasional chocolate craving this week. Were I not menopausal, I'd feel certain my period was due. I was even cranky with my near-perfect hubby (for about 15 seconds) yesterday. I've had a pretty even keel emotion-wise, so the PMS-like cravings and spots of irritability make me think I may have a little hormonal blip due to the recent weight losses (ie, release of hormones stored in adipose cells with the fat loss). Could be why I"m retaining water (not just the salt, natch), even though I took potassium supplements yesterday--and ate fruit and veggies! Well, could be. Dunno ...

*  10 American Foods That Are Banned in Other Countries

Americans are slowly waking up to the sad fact that much of the food sold in the US is far inferior to the same foods sold in other nations. In fact, many of

*  Turn Ordinary Foods into Nutritional Superpowers

If you keep eating the way you always have, you'll never improve on the body you've got. That's why we're providing you with 15 sneaky diet tips that will give you better results from the same foods.

Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Pittosporum tobira: Pittosporum tobira is a species of flowering plant in the Pittosporum family known by several common names, including Japanese pittosporum, Japanese mock-orange and Japanese cheesewood. It is native to Japan, China, and Korea, but it is used throughout the world as an ornamental plant in landscaping and as cut foliage.Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.The great imitator: The Great Imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.J.Shape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Electrogustometry: Electrogustometry is the measurement of taste threshold by passing controlled anodal current through the tongue. When current passes through the tongue a unique and distinct metallic taste is perceived.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Emergency (UK television programme): Emergency was a twentieth century UK television programme presented by Sue Robbie where a panel of experts gave advice on emergency situations. The programme was produced by David Crossman, and was an Action Time production for This Morning and Granada Television.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Statistical relational learning: Statistical relational learning (SRL) is a subdiscipline of artificial intelligence and machine learning that is concerned with domain models that exhibit both uncertainty (which can be dealt with using statistical methods) and complex, relational structure. Typically, the knowledge representation formalisms developed in SRL use (a subset of) first-order logic to describe relational properties of a domain in a general manner (universal quantification) and draw upon probabilistic graphical models (such as Bayesian networks or Markov networks) to model the uncertainty; some also build upon the methods of inductive logic programming.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.PropylthiouracilFruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Vegetable juiceHealth claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Biological ornament: A biological ornament is a secondary sexual characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than an ostensible, utilitarian function. Ornaments are used in displays to attract mates in a process known as sexual selection.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.SAFE FOODSHealth food storeCriticism of fast foodHungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Compensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.

(1/1652) Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats.

Under states of protein deficiency, the dietary limiting amino acid, rather than protein content, can act as the dietary stimulus to control diet selection. If fact, threonine-deficient rats will alter their diet selection patterns solely on the basis of very small changes (0.009 g/100 g) in the dietary threonine concentration. In these studies, we assessed whether lysine-deficient rats will also alter their diet selection patterns on the basis of small changes in dietary Lys concentration. In all experiments, growing rats were adapted to diets in which the protein fraction (purified amino acids or wheat gluten) was limiting in Lys. They were then given a choice between the adaptation diet (AD) diet and a slightly more deficient diet. Rats that were adapted to a Lys-deficient diet (0.25 g Lys/100 g) selected their AD over diets containing as little as 0.01% less Lys (P < 0.01) within 5 d. To determine how deficient rats must be before they alter their selection patterns, rats were adapted to diets containing various levels of Lys, i.e., 2 levels below the requirement for growth and 2 levels above the requirement for growth, but below the requirement for maximal nitrogen retention. Only rats adapted to diets containing Lys below their requirement for growth selected their AD over a diet containing 0.05% less Lys (P < 0.005). Finally, to determine whether rats will alter their selection to whole protein-based diets, rats were adapted to 25% wheat gluten diets supplemented with 0.03-0.21% Lys. Rats selected the AD over a diet containing as little as 0.09% less supplemental Lys by d 4 of the trial (P < 0.05). We conclude that rats are sensitive to changes as small as 0.01% in dietary Lys concentration, but that sensitivity requires prior adaptation to Lys-deficient diets.  (+info)

(2/1652) Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children.

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

(3/1652) A technique for assessing the effects of olfaction on feed preference in lactating Holstein cows.

Our objective was to develop a method for assessing the effects of olfaction on feed preference. Two multiparous lactating Holstein cows were offered a totally mixed ration consisting of corn silage, alfalfa haylage, and a ground corn and soybean meal-based concentrate mixture (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for their ad libitum consumption in four consecutive 2.5-h periods daily for 5 d. An apparatus was developed that allowed odorants to be distributed at a set rate over two feeding containers with limited possibility of odor carryover. Four odorants and a control (no odorant) were compared against each other. All possible comparisons were conducted on the left and right feeding sides to avoid potential lateral-preference effects. Rank values of 0 or .5 were assigned to each odorant based on the percentage of total feed consumed in a period. A test of overall equality based on the sums of squares of ranks was used to determine whether odors affected preference. The limited results indicated that inhalation of odorants did not affect preference. Rank values were doubled for several odorants when compared with others, which suggested that the sample size limited experimental sensitivity. To attain reasonable power, we estimated that at least six cows were needed per study. Large effects of odorants on feed preference would have been required to reach statistical significance in this trial; however, the method provides a practical technique for testing the effects of olfaction on feed preference in cattle when the suggested number of cows is used.  (+info)

(4/1652) Nutrient-specific preferences by lambs conditioned with intraruminal infusions of starch, casein, and water.

We hypothesized that lambs discriminate between postingestive effects of energy and protein and associate those effects with a food's flavor to modify food choices. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that 1) lambs would acquire a preference for a poorly nutritious food (grape pomace) eaten during intraruminal infusions of energy (starch) or protein (casein) and that 2) shortly after an intraruminal infusion of energy or protein (preload), lambs would decrease their preferences for foods previously conditioned with starch or casein, respectively. Thirty lambs were allotted to three groups and conditioned as follows. On d 1, lambs in each group received grape pomace containing a different flavor and water was infused into their rumens as they ate the pomace. On d 2, the flavors were switched so each group received a new flavor and a suspension of starch (10% of the DE required per day) replaced the water infusion. On d 3, the flavors were switched again, and a suspension of casein (2.7 to 5.4% of the CP required per day) replaced the starch infusion. Conditioning was repeated during four consecutive trials. Lambs in Trial 1 had a basal diet of alfalfa pellets (e.g., free access from 1200 to 1700) and 400 g of rolled barley. Lambs in Trials 2, 3, and 4 received a restricted amount of alfalfa pellets (990 g/d) as their basal diet. After conditioning, all animals received an infusion of water, and, 30 min later, they were offered a choice of the three flavors previously paired with water, starch, or casein. On the ensuing days, the choice was repeated, but starch, casein, and barley replaced the water preload. The nutrient density of the infused preloads was increased during consecutive trials. Lambs preferred the flavors paired with starch > water > casein during Trial 1 (P < .05) and the flavors paired with starch > casein > water during Trials 2 (P < .05), 3 (P < .001), and 4 (P < .001). Preloads of casein decreased preferences for flavors previously paired with casein (P < .10 [Trial 2]; P < .001 [Trial 3], and increased preferences for flavors paired with starch (P < .05 [Trial 2]; P < .001 [Trial 3]). Preloads of energy (barley) had the opposite effect (P < .05 [Trial 3]). These results indicate that lambs discriminated between the postingestive effects of starch and casein and associated the effects with specific external cues (i.e., added flavors) to regulate macronutrient ingestion.  (+info)

(5/1652) Genetic effects on weight change and food intake in Swedish adult twins.

BACKGROUND: Obesity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, synergistic effects of genes and environments may be important in the development of obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test for genetic effects on food consumption frequency, food preferences, and their interaction with subsequent weight gain. DESIGN: Complete data on the frequencies of consumption of 11 foods typical of the Swedish diet were available for 98 monozygotic and 176 dizygotic twin pairs aged 25-59 y who are part of the Swedish Twin Registry. The data were collected in 1973 as part of a questionnaire study. Body mass index was measured in 1973 and again in 1984. RESULTS: There was some evidence that genetic effects influenced the frequency of intake of some foods. Similarity among monozygotic twins exceeded that among dizygotic twins for intake of flour and grain products and fruit in men and women, intake of milk in men, and intake of vegetables and rice in women, suggesting that genes influence preferences for these foods. Analyses conducted for twins reared together and apart also suggested greater monozygotic than dizygotic correlations, but cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were all insignificant, suggesting that the genes that affect consumption frequencies are not responsible for mediating the relation between the frequency of intake and weight change. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic effects and the frequency of intake are independently related to change in body mass index. However, there was no suggestion of differential genetic effects on weight gain that were dependent on the consumption frequency of the foods studied.  (+info)

(6/1652) Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China.

The rapid change in diets, physical activity and body composition in low income countries has led to the coexistence of large pockets of undernutrition and overnutrition. Public health strategies for addressing this situation may be necessary, and price policy options are examined for China. Longitudinal dietary data collected in China in 1989-1993 on a sample of 5625 adults aged 20-45 y were examined. Three-day averages of food group consumption and nutrient intake were used in longitudinal statistical models to examine separately the effects of food prices on the decision to consume each food group and then the amount consumed. The effects of changes in six food prices on the consumption of each of six food groups, not just the food group whose price had changed, and on three macronutrients were estimated. The effects show large and significant price effects. If the joint effects of the nutrition transition are to be considered, then there are clear tradeoffs among which foods to tax and which to subsidize. Most important is the effect of prices in reducing fat intake of the rich but not adversely affecting protein intake for the poor. Increases in the prices of pork, eggs and edible oils are predicted to lower fat intake. Only increases in pork prices led to reduced protein intakes. This raises questions about earlier policy changes being implemented in China and provides insight into an important and controversial area for public health policy.  (+info)

(7/1652) Overt signs of toxicity to dogs and cats of dietary deoxynivalenol.

Studies were conducted to determine the dietary amounts of deoxynivalenol (DON; vomitoxin) in dog and cat food that are required to produce overt signs of toxicity (e.g., vomiting or reduced food intake). Wheat naturally contaminated with 37 mg of DON/kg was used to manufacture pet foods containing 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg of DON/kg. Deoxynivalenol concentration in pet food following manufacture was unchanged, indicating that the toxin was stable during conventional extrusion processing. Dogs previously fed DON-contaminated food were able to preferentially select uncontaminated food. Dogs not previously exposed to DON-contaminated food consumed equal quantities of contaminated and uncontaminated food. There was no effect of 6 mg of DON/kg on dog food digestibility. Food intake of dogs was significantly reduced by DON concentrations greater than 4.5 +/- 1.7 mg/kg, and DON greater than 7.7 +/- 1.1 mg/kg reduced cat food intake. Vomiting by dogs and cats was commonly observed at the 8 and 10 mg DON levels.  (+info)

(8/1652) Separation of deterrents to ingestive behavior of cattle from cattle feces.

Feeding-deterrent chemicals were extracted from cattle feces and then separated with three chromatographic methods. Behavioral two-choice test bioassays with cattle were used to examine the deterrent properties of the fractions. Cattle feces were extracted with diethyl ether, and the extracts were separated into neutral, acidic, and basic fractions. Of the three fractions, only the neutral fraction was a deterrent. Separation of the ether-soluble neutral chemicals was conducted with an open column of silica gel using four carrier solutions consisting of pentane and ether. Fraction B (eluted with the carrier solution; pentane:ether = 90:10) was the most effective deterrent among the four fractions. This fraction was divided into 10 fractions by liquid chromatography. Fractions 6, 7, and 8 seemed to deter cattle from feeding. The combined Fractions 6, 7, and 8 were separated into 15 fractions with HPLC. Deterrent activities were detected in Fractions 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, suggesting that deterrents were separated into two groups using HPLC. These results suggested that several specific chemicals in feces are involved in inhibiting cattle from ingesting grass near cattle feces.  (+info)

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