Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Stichosome: Stichosome (from Greek stichos (στίχος) = row; soma (σῶµα) = body) is a multicellular organ that is very prominent in some stages of nematodes and consists of a longitudinal series of glandular unicellular cells (stichocytes) arranged in a row along the oesophagus that form the posterior esophageal glands. It opens into the esophageal lumen and apparently functions as a secretory gland and storage organ.Parasitic disease: A parasitic disease is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Many parasites do not cause diseases.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesPhilophthalmus gralliEffects of parasitic worms on the immune system: The effects of parasitic worms, or helminths, on the immune system is a recently emerging topic of study among immunologists and other biologists. Experiments have involved a wide range of parasites, diseases, and hosts.CestodaIndian Veterinary Research InstituteBanquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Behavior-altering parasites and parasitoids: Some parasites and parasitoids cause changes in the behavior of their hosts by directly affecting the hosts' decision-making and behavior control mechanisms. The acquired or modified behaviors assist in parasite transmission, and often result in the host's demise.Protozoan infection: Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They include organisms classified in Amoebozoa, Excavata, and Chromalveolata.Intestinal parasiteOxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.SAFE FOODSHealth food store
(1/114) Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America.
Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease. (+info)
(2/114) Gnathostomosis, an emerging foodborne zoonotic disease in Acapulco, Mexico.
Between 1993 and 1997, 98 gnathostomosis cases were clinically identified in Acapulco, Mexico. Intermittent cutaneous migratory swellings were the commonest manifestation. Larvae were identified in 26 cases, while in 72, final diagnosis was made on the basis of epidemiologic data, food habits, and positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot results. (+info)
(3/114) Epidemiologic studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala.
In 1996 and 1997, cyclosporiasis outbreaks in North America were linked to eating Guatemalan raspberries. We conducted a study in health-care facilities and among raspberry farm workers, as well as a case-control study, to assess risk factors for the disease in Guatemala. From April 6, 1997, to March 19, 1998, 126 (2.3%) of 5, 552 surveillance specimens tested positive for Cyclospora; prevalence peaked in June (6.7%). Infection was most common among children 1.5 to 9 years old and among persons with gastroenteritis. Among 182 raspberry farm workers and family members monitored from April 6 to May 29, six had Cyclospora infection. In the case-control analysis, 62 (91%) of 68 persons with Cyclospora infection reported drinking untreated water in the 2 weeks before illness, compared with 88 (73%) of 120 controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 10.8 by univariate analysis). Other risk factors included water source, type of sewage drainage, ownership of chickens or other fowl, and contact with soil (among children younger than 2 years). (+info)
Ill health related to food-borne infection transcends all geographical, political and cultural boundaries. The incidence of food-borne diseases continues to adversely affect the health and productivity of populations in most countries, especially non-industrialised ones. However, since the 1950s, the emphasis in the industrialised world had shifted away from addressing public health problems, to problems of chemical contaminants etc., but recently food-borne infections have again become of increasing concern to governments and the food industry. Improvements in international transportation means food can be distributed throughout the world, but so can the parasitic pathogens which contaminate foods. Alternatively, tourists are being affected abroad and possibly transmitting the pathogen to others at home. Thus, an increasing number of food-related illnesses are international in scope. In this review parasitic contamination of foods of animal origin, particularly meat and fish, will be discussed together with potential problems associated with water and unwashed fruits and vegetables. (+info)
(5/114) Food-borne protozoa.
Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food. (+info)
(6/114) Trichinella pseudospiralis outbreak in France.
Four persons became ill with trichinellosis after eating meat from a wild boar hunted in Camargue, France. Nonencapsulated larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis were detected in meat and muscle biopsy specimens. The diagnoses were confirmed by molecular typing. Surveillance for the emerging T. pseudospiralis should be expanded. (+info)
(7/114) Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s.
Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite that causes protracted, relapsing gastroenteritis, has a short recorded history. In retrospect, the first 3 documented human cases of Cyclospora infection were diagnosed in 1977 and 1978. However, not much was published about the organism until the 1990s. One of the surprises has been the fact that a parasite that likely requires days to weeks outside the host to become infectious has repeatedly caused foodborne outbreaks, including large multistate outbreaks in the United States and Canada. In this review, I discuss what has been learned about this enigmatic parasite since its discovery and what some of the remaining questions are. My focus is the foodborne and waterborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis that were documented from 1990 through 1999. The occurrence of the outbreaks highlights the need for health care personnel to consider that seemingly isolated cases of infection could be part of widespread outbreaks and should be reported to public health officials. Health care personnel should also be aware that stool specimens examined for ova and parasites usually are not examined for Cyclospora unless such testing is specifically requested and that Cyclospora infection is treatable with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (+info)
(8/114) Keep food safe to eat: healthful food must be safe as well as nutritious.
The inclusion of food safety in the 2000 edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an important step toward ensuring their continued relevance for health promotion and disease prevention. The inclusion of food safety is consistent with the original intent of the Guidelines and the increased focus on food safety today; it also better reflects current knowledge about diet and long-term health. A wide spectrum of surveillance methods can be used to monitor progress in reducing the incidence of foodborne illness, from surveys of food safety attitudes to epidemiologic data on foodborne illness. Surveillance data show that progress is being made, but that much work remains to be done. Strategies for reducing foodborne illness require a farm-to-table approach and the involvement of all those who have a responsibility for food safety, i.e., government, industry and the public. Federal agencies and others are finding it useful to use a risk analysis framework, i.e., risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as a means of organizing available information, identifying data gaps, quantifying risks for specific pathogens and foods, and presenting strategies for improvement. Food safety education is a critical part of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness and complements regulatory, research and other activities. (+info)