Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.Drug allergyBanquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.
(1/860) Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3.
Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions. (+info)
(2/860) Involvement of tachykinin receptors in sensitisation to cow's milk proteins in guinea pigs.
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence for a pivotal role for tachykinins in gut neuroimmune interactions. AIMS: To determine whether NK1, NK2, and NK3 tachykinin receptors are involved in milk protein induced allergic sensitisation. METHODS: Eight groups of 12 Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (250-300 g) were used. Four groups were sensitised to milk proteins for three weeks. During this period, these animals were injected intraperitoneally each day with NK1 (SR 140333; 0.3 mg/kg), NK2 (SR 48968; 5 mg/kg), or NK3 (SR 142801; 5 mg/kg) receptor antagonist or vehicle. The fifth group had water available instead of milk and was used as a non-sensitised control. The three other groups received the NK receptor antagonists for three weeks but were not sensitised to milk proteins. RESULTS: Sensitised animals treated with NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists had both lower IgE and IgG serum titres, evaluated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and lower specific IgG serum titres, determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), than vehicle treated animals. Sensitisation induced an increase in intestinal mast cell number which was abolished by treatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist. Antigenic challenge-induced jejunal hypersecretion was also blocked by treatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist. CONCLUSION: In guinea pigs, NK1 and NK3 but not NK2 receptors are involved in sensitisation to cow's milk. However, NK1 but not NK3 receptor antagonists abolish both the hypermastocytosis induced by food allergy and the hypersecretion induced by antigenic challenge, suggesting different roles for NK1 and NK3 receptors in the mechanisms of sensitisation to beta-lactoglobulin. (+info)
(3/860) Dental surgeons with natural rubber latex allergy: a report of 20 cases.
Latex allergy is becoming a major occupational health issue and dental surgeons are at risk from becoming sensitized to natural rubber latex. A study was conducted to investigate risk factors and glove-related symptoms reported by dentists with natural rubber latex allergy. Twenty dentists, who had undergone serological or dermatological testing for a Type I allergy to latex, were identified from a questionnaire survey. Risk factors investigated were: gender, years in clinical practice, exposure to latex gloves, atopic history and food allergy. The majority of dentists (75%) gave an atopic history. Glove-related adverse reactions ranged from cutaneous to systemic manifestations. All twenty dentists reported itching of the hands in response to latex gloves. One respondent was unable to continue in dental practice because of her glove-related allergies; nineteen dentists were able to continue by using synthetic, non-latex gloves. (+info)
(4/860) Acute liver injury that followed food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
We describe an unusual case of acute liver injury that followed food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn). A 45-year-old man who experienced anaphylactic shock induced by postprandial exercise and took alcohol that night was admitted the following day to our hospital because of general fatigue. Laboratory examinations revealed elevated hepatic enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 6,110 IU, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 4,178 IU). He had two similar episodes in the past. We speculated that acute liver injury in this case might be induced by interaction of anaphylactic shock and alcohol. (+info)
(5/860) Allergen mimotopes in food enhance type I allergic reactions in mice.
BIP1is a murine IgG antibody capable of enhancing the IgE binding to Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. We have previously generated a mimotope of BIP1, designated Bet mim 1, from a constrained phage display peptide library. We demonstrated that oral immunization of BALB/c mice with the Bet mim 1 mimotope resulted in the induction of Bet v 1-specific IgG. The aim of this study was to test the influence of such an oral immunization with Bet mim 1 on a subsequent type I allergic response to Bet v 1. Phages displaying Bet mim 1 or control mimotopes, or PBS alone, were delivered to BALB/c mice by intragastric gavages prior to systemic sensitization with recombinant Bet v 1 and Al(OH)(3), an adjuvant inducing preferentially IgE antibody responses. Only mice fed with Bet mim 1-phages displayed substantially enhanced type I allergic skin reactivity to Bet v 1, as compared to mice pretreated with control mimotopes or PBS. A gastric digestion assay indicated that Bet v 1 and its homologue from apple, Mal d 1, were degraded within seconds under physiological conditions. In contrast, phage-displayed mimotopes were resistant to digestion. Our data indicate that allergen mimics in the diet that resist digestion, can induce allergen specific IgG able to enhance an allergic response. We therefore conclude that sensitization via the oral route may represent a mechanism for aggravating type I allergic reactions, probably leading to an earlier onset of symptoms even at lower allergen dosage. (+info)
(6/860) Characterisation of immune mediator release during the immediate response to segmental mucosal challenge in the jejunum of patients with food allergy.
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is a common complaint among patients with a broad spectrum of abdominal and extra-abdominal symptoms that must be distinguished from other more common non-immunological food intolerances. AIMS: To investigate whether human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are associated with detectable release of inflammatory mediators from activated cells, which may serve as a biological marker of true allergic reactions. PATIENTS/METHODS: In eight patients with food allergy and seven healthy volunteers, a closed-segment perfusion technique was used to investigate the effects of jejunal food challenge on luminal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D(2), eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase activity, and water flux. RESULTS: Intraluminal administration of food antigens induced a rapid increase in intestinal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D(2), and peroxidase activity (p<0.05 v basal period) but not eosinophil cationic protein. The increased release of these mediators was associated with a notable water secretory response. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are characterised by prompt activation of mast cells and other immune cells, with notable and immediate secretion of water and inflammatory mediators into the intestinal lumen. Analysis of the profile of markers released into the jejunum after food provocation may be useful for the objective diagnosis of food allergy. (+info)
(7/860) Characterization of a core alpha1-->3-fucosyltransferase from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis that is involved in the synthesis of complex-type N-glycans.
We have identified a core alpha1-->3-fucosyltransferase activity in the albumin and prostate glands of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Incubation of albumin gland extracts with GDP-[(14)C]Fuc and asialo/agalacto-glycopeptides from human fibrinogen resulted in a labeled product in 50% yield. Analysis of the product by 400 MHz (1)H-NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of a Fuc residue alpha1-->3-linked to the Asn-linked GlcNAc. Therefore, the enzyme can be identified as a GDP-Fuc:GlcNAc (Asn-linked) alpha1-->3-fucosyltransferase. The enzyme acts efficiently on asialo/agalacto-glycopeptides from both human fibrinogen and core alpha1-->6-fucosylated human IgG, whereas bisected asialo/agalacto-glycopeptide could not serve as an acceptor. We propose that the enzyme functions in the synthesis of core alpha1-->3-fucosylated complex-type glycans in L. stagnalis. Core alpha1-->3-fucosylation of the asparagine-linked GlcNAc of plant- and insect-derived glycoproteins is often associated with the allergenicity of such glycoproteins. Since allergic reactions have been reported after consumption of snails, the demonstration of core alpha1-->3-fucosylation in L. stagnalis may be clinically relevant. (+info)
(8/860) Alternative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.
Conventional treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) present a number of problems, in terms of both safety and efficacy. A number of different alternative therapies have been studied, including dietary modifications, nutritional supplements, botanicals, and antibiotics. While the response to these treatments is variable and often unpredictable, some patients have shown dramatic improvement or even complete and long-lasting remission. Moreover, alternative therapies, with the exception of antibiotics, have a low incidence of adverse effects. Consideration of these treatment options has the potential to benefit many patients with RA. (+info)