Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Obsessive Hoarding: Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Mice, Inbred C57BLRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.

*  Effect of acute food deprivation on lactational infertility in rats is reduced by leptin administration | Regulatory,...

It has been suggested that the GnRH suppression that is observed after periods of food restriction or food deprivation is ... 11, 15) and in laboratory experiments in which food restriction or food deprivation is imposed on animals in various ... during food deprivation was sufficient to reduce the length of lactational infertility compared with vehicle-treated food- ... We found that food deprivation ondays 13 and14 pp prolonged lactational infertility by 7 days and that the nutritional ...
ajpregu.physiology.org/content/274/6/R1653

*  food deprivation - helpmeoutDOC

News tag: food deprivation. Eating little may keep you living longer 23 Jun, 2015 , by Daniel Tomas , 0 comments Among other ... The study, published in 'Cell Metabolism', zooms in on the effects of eating small amounts of food on daily basis, which ...
https://helpmeoutdoc.com/news/tag/food-deprivation

*  The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation.

9038999 - Food hoarding is increased by pregnancy, lactation, and food deprivation in siberian ha.... 24226039 - Risk ... Food Deprivation / physiology*. Gastrointestinal Agents / administration & dosage, pharmacology. Ghrelin. Injections, ... ghrelin and 0.1 and 1 nmol i3vt ghrelin all generalized to a state of 24 h food deprivation, indicating that exogenous ghrelin ... but not when 1 h food deprived (24+ group). A second group was trained using the opposite sucrose-deprivation level contingency ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/interoceptive-cue-properties-ghrelin-generalize/16112399.html

*  Details - Cocaine and food deprivation : effects on food-reinforced fixed-ratio performance in pigeons / - Biodiversity...

title,Cocaine and food deprivation : effects on food-reinforced fixed-ratio performance in pigeons /,/title,. ,/titleInfo,. , ... title = {Cocaine and food deprivation : effects on food-reinforced fixed-ratio performance in pigeons / },. copyright = {Not ... Cocaine and food deprivation : effects on food-reinforced fixed-ratio performance in pigeons / ... Cocaine and food deprivation : effects on food-reinforced fixed-ratio performance in pigeons / ...
https://biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/48854

*  Ric O'Barry on Food Deprivation & Dolphin Training | Ric O'Barry's Dolphin Project

Following on from my interview on food deprivation with Drs. John Jett and Jeffrey Ventre, I was fortunate enough to sit down ... Which is why when I asked him about food deprivation at marine parks, he cut straight to the chase:. Food deprivation is still ... Following on from my interview on food deprivation with Drs. John Jett and Jeffrey Ventre, I was fortunate enough to sit down ... Food deprivation is very obvious to me, but you may not even see it. ...
https://dolphinproject.net/blog/post/ric-obarry-on-food-deprivation-and-dolphin-training/

*  Yesterday 's Lies: James Stewart survives torture in LA County jail - hypothermia, food deprivation, raw human sewage

How James was subjected to severe food deprivation.. * How he was interrogated by deputies and accused of being a "sovereign," ... James Stewart survives torture in LA County jail - hypothermia, food deprivation, raw human sewage ... How he was made to suffer through total sleep deprivation all night long as other prisoners were screaming and banging on the ...
tickergrail.blogspot.com/2012/03/james-stewart-survives-torture-in-la.html

*  Study: Sleep Deprivation Leads To Poor Food Choices | HPPR

Study: Sleep Deprivation Leads To Poor Food Choices By editor • Aug 7, 2013 ... A new study from the University of California, Berkeley, suggests sleep deprivation leads to poor food choices. Researchers ...
hppr.org/post/study-sleep-deprivation-leads-poor-food-choices

*  Equine Collapse: Once in a Lifetime? | TheHorse.com

Effects of Food Deprivation on Horses' Cardiac Function. * Article. Diagnosing Equine Ataxia: Go Back to Basics. ...
thehorse.com/articles/26670/equine-collapse-once-in-a-lifetime

*  Dentistry in Horses | Video | TheHorse.com

Effects of Food Deprivation on Horses' Cardiac Function. * Article. Supportive Care for Foals with Pharyngeal Dysfunction. ...
thehorse.com/videos/30318/dentistry-in-horses

*  British Olympic Eventer Retired due to Cardiac Condition | TheHorse.com

Effects of Food Deprivation on Horses' Cardiac Function. * Article. Not all Equine Heart Abnormalities are Abnormal. ...
thehorse.com/articles/33400/british-olympic-eventer-retired-due-to-cardiac-condition

*  Foreign Object Consumption | TheHorse.com

Effects of Food Deprivation on Horses' Cardiac Function. * Article. Supportive Care for Foals with Pharyngeal Dysfunction. ...
thehorse.com/articles/31976/foreign-object-consumption

*  Compensatory growth in juvenile roach Rutilus caspicus: effect of starvation and re-feeding on growth and digestive surface...

... caspicus which depended on the duration of food deprivation. Complete compensatory growth occurred in the fish that were food ... Sung Hwoan Cho, Effects of Food Deprivation and Feeding Ratio on the Growth, Feed Utilization and Body Composition of Juvenile ... during starvation and re-feeding in the fish that were food deprived for 2 and 3 weeks. This knowledge may have application in ... and re-feeding had no significant effect on the digestive somatic index and intestinal surface areas in the fish that were food ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03407.x/abstract

*  British Library EThOS: Food insecurity in the UK and its association with deprivation and attitude : the consequence on dietary...

Food insecurity in the UK and its association with deprivation and attitude : the consequence on dietary patterns using a diet ...
ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.437870

*  Bulimia - definition of bulimia by The Free Dictionary

hunger, hungriness - a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation ... an eating disorder in which a person eats excessive amounts of food and then vomits in order not to gain weight. bulimie ضَوْر ...
thefreedictionary.com/bulimia

*  The effects of bicuculline and muscimol on glutamate-induced feeding behavior in broiler cockerels.

... on glutamate-induced eating response in 24-h food-deprived (FD24) broiler c ... Food Deprivation. GABA Agonists / pharmacology*. GABA Antagonists / pharmacology*. Glutamic Acid / pharmacology. Injections, ... 6413877 - Effects of tsh, trh, lh and lhrh on thermoregulation and food and water intake in the rat.. 17720777 - Influence of ... The results of this study showed that glutamate decreases food consumption in FD24 broiler cockerels (P ,or= 0.05), and this ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/effects-bicuculline-muscimol-glutamate-induced/19415297.html

*  Endogenous nociceptin modulates diet preference independent of motivation and reward.

Previous studies show that the opioid peptide nociceptin stimulates food intake. Here, we studied nociceptin receptor knockout ... Food Deprivation. Food Preferences / physiology*, psychology*. Insulin / blood. Leptin / blood. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL ... Although NOP KO mice re-fed following food-deprivation showed normal increases in plasma glucose and insulin, multidimensional ... 16811605 - Two temporal parameters of food postponement.. 7953785 - Inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, food restriction and ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Endogenous-nociceptin-modulates-diet-preference/19138695.html

*  Activation of autophagy during cell death requires the engulfment receptor Draper.

Food Deprivation. Genes, Insect / genetics. Membrane Proteins / deficiency, genetics, metabolism*. Oligonucleotide Array ... Third instar larvae were either allowed to remain in the food (fed) or removed from food and placed on moist petri dishes for 4 ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Activation-autophagy-during-cell-death/20577216.html

*  Potential efficacy and toxicity of GM1 ganglioside against trimethyltin-induced brain lesions in rats: comparison with...

... or gradual food restriction leading to a reduction in body weight to 75% of control were tested for their ability to block or ... Food Deprivation / physiology*. G(M1) Ganglioside / toxicity*. Hippocampus / pathology, physiology. Male. Motor Activity / drug ... Neither GM1 nor greater food restriction affected hippocampal weight. Greater food restriction prevented TMT's effects on ... GM1 ganglioside (one week each at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg GM1/kg per day, ip) or gradual food restriction leading to a reduction in ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Potential-efficacy-toxicity-GM1-ganglioside/7566684.html

*  Moderate food restriction abolishes the pregnancy-associated rise in serum growth hormone and decreases serum insulin-like...

To study the effect of food restriction during pregnancy on the IGF system, pregnant rats either had free access to food ( ... Food Deprivation / physiology*. Gene Expression Regulation. Growth Hormone / blood*. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding ... pregnant rats either had free access to food (control) or were fed 60% of control food intake. Serum and liver samples were ... Moderate food restriction abolishes the pregnancy-associated rise in serum growth hormone and decreases serum insulin-like ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Moderate-food-restriction-abolishes-pregnancy/8632230.html

*  New hope for stranded whales in Florida - Life Lines

Animals periodically undergo periods of food deprivation…. * People with diabetes have less sRAGE. ...
scienceblogs.com/lifelines/2013/12/06/new-hope-for-stranded-whales-in-florida/

*  Experimental Biology 2011- Day 3 - Life Lines

Animals periodically undergo periods of food deprivation…. Recent Comments. *Tabitha on The domestication of dogs ...
scienceblogs.com/lifelines/2011/04/11/experimental-biology-2011-day-1-2/

*  fossil - Life Lines

Animals periodically undergo periods of food deprivation…. Recent Comments. *Tabitha on The domestication of dogs ...
scienceblogs.com/lifelines/tag/fossil/

*  hunt - Life Lines

Animals periodically undergo periods of food deprivation…. * People with diabetes have less sRAGE. ...
scienceblogs.com/lifelines/tag/hunt/

*  Help for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Strange but true: Sleep deprivation can help depression. Penn scientists want to know why ...
philly.com/philly/blogs/healthy_kids/Help-for-Childhood-Apraxia-of-Speech.html

*  The Sandman is from Mars: Defeating the Non-24hr sleep-wake syndrome

Rule 11: Eating a healthy balanced diet (natural foods).. I eat a balanced and healthy diet. I do not eat any junk food or ... which was good because that led to sleep deprivation!!), I noticed that over time my sleep cycle would get out of sync, it just ... Rule 12: No sugary foods within three hours of bedtime.. I have noticed that sugary foods consumed at night can affect sleep, ... 11] Eating a healthy balanced diet (natural foods).. [12] No sugary foods within three hours of bedtime.. [13] Finishing dinner ...
non24.blogspot.com/2009/09/synopsis-from-my-teenage-years-until-my.html?showComment=1338187026091

Compensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance: It has been estimated that over 20% of adults suffer from some form of sleep deprivation. Insomnia and sleep deprivation are common symptoms of depression and can be an indication of other mental disorders.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Colmar Treasure: The Colmar Treasure or Colmar hoard is a hoard of precious objects buried by Jews at the time of the Black Death.Indian Famine Codes: The Indian Famine Codes, developed by the colonial British in the 1880s, were one of the earliest famine scales. The Famine Codes defined three levels of food insecurity: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.Photostimulated luminescence: Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) is the release of stored energy within a phosphor by stimulation with visible light, to produce a luminescent signal. Commonly this is used to allow the storage of a weak radioactive signal in a phosphor plate that takes the place of X-ray film, potentially over a prolonged period, which PSL transforms to obtain a highly sensitive image of the original pattern of radiation.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Gynaephora groenlandica: Gynaephora groenlandica, the Arctic woolly bear moth, is a lymantriid moth found within the Arctic circle, in Greenland and Canada. It is best known for its very slow rate of development.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.LeptinCorticosteroneMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCastleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association: United StatesList of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GINeuropeptide S: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.Health food storeSAFE FOODSAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Criticism of fast foodGlucose transporterClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Animal fatMyokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Midnight: Midnight is the transition time period from one day to the next: the moment when the date changes. In ancient Roman timekeeping, midnight was halfway between sunset and sunrise, varying according to the seasons.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Shivering: Shivering (also called rigors or shuddering) is a bodily function in response to early hypothermia or just feeling cold in warm-blooded animals. When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Androgen deprivation therapy: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also called androgen suppression therapy, is an antihormone therapy whose main use is in treating prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells usually require androgen hormones, such as testosterone, to grow.Beneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.

(1/1450) Modulation of estrogen action in the rat pituitary and mammary glands by dietary energy consumption.

We are investigating the mechanisms through which estrogens induce development of prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary tumors and mammary carcinomas in rats and how these mechanisms are affected by dietary energy consumption. The hypothesis under examination is that dietary energy restriction inhibits tumorigenesis in estrogen-responsive tissues by altering cellular responsiveness to estrogenic hormones. In the Fischer 344 (F344) rat strain, a 40% restriction of energy consumption virtually abolishes development of estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Inhibition of pituitary tumorigenesis in the F344 strain by energy restriction results from modulation of estrogen regulation of cell survival, not cell proliferation. In contrast, energy restriction has no inhibitory effect on estrogen-induced pituitary tumor development in the ACI rat strain. However, energy restriction markedly inhibits induction of mammary carcinomas in female ACI rats treated with 17beta-estradiol. Data presented herein indicate that dietary energy restriction modulates the responsiveness of specific cell populations to estrogenic hormones and thereby inhibits estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in a manner specific to both rat strain and tissue.  (+info)

(2/1450) Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence.

Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior.  (+info)

(3/1450) Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females.

The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.  (+info)

(4/1450) Expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck), a zinc-finger signal transduction protein, is elevated by dietary zinc deficiency and diet restriction in mice.

Compromised immune function is common to Zn deficiency, protein and energy malnutrition; however, the causative mechanisms at the molecular level have not been elucidated. The T lymphocyte signal transduction pathway contains several Zn-finger proteins, and it is possible that the in vivo functioning of these proteins could be affected by dietary deficiency of Zn and amino acids. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects, on expression of the T lymphocyte signal transduction proteins p56(lck), phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) and protein kinase C (PKCalpha), of dietary Zn deficiency (ZnDF, < 1 mg Zn/kg diet) and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes [2% protein deficiency (LP), combined Zn and 2% protein deficiency (ZnDF+LP), and diet restriction (DR, body weight equal to ZnDF)] compared with control (C) mice. Indices of nutritional status and splenocyte counts were also determined. Based on serum albumin and liver lipid concentrations, the ZnDF+LP and LP groups had protein-type malnutrition, whereas the ZnDF and DR groups had energy-type malnutrition. For Western immunoblotting of the signal transduction proteins, mouse splenic T lymphocytes were isolated by immunocolumns. The expression of T lymphocyte p56(lck) was significantly elevated in the ZnDF+LP, ZnDF and DR groups compared to the C group. In contrast, the expression of PLCgamma1 and PKC was unaffected. There was a significant negative correlation between T lymphocyte p56(lck) expression and serum Zn (r= -0.65, P = 0.0007) or femur Zn (r = -0.73, P = 0.0001) concentrations. We propose that elevated T lymphocyte p56(lck) may contribute to altered thymoctye maturation, apoptosis and lymphopenia in Zn deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition syndromes.  (+info)

(5/1450) Interaction between genetic and dietary factors determines beta-cell function in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of type 2 diabetes.

The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes. We studied the interaction between diet and diabetic predisposition for beta-cell function. A 4-day high-energy (HE) diet induced a 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold increase in serum glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, respectively, in diabetes-prone (DP) but not diabetes-resistant (DR) P. obesus. Hyperglycemia and concurrent 90% depletion of islet immunoreactive insulin stores were partially corrected by an 18-h fast. In vitro early insulin response to glucose was blunted in both DR and DP perifused islets. The HE diet augmented early and late insulin response in DR islets, whereas in DP islets, secretion progressively declined. Dose-response studies showed a species-related increase in islet glucose sensitivity, further augmented in DP P. obesus by a HE diet, concomitant with a decreased threshold for glucose and a 55% reduction in maximal response. These changes were associated with a fourfold increase in glucose phosphorylation capacity in DP islets. There were no differences in islet glucokinase (GK) and hexokinase (HK) Km; however, GK Vmax was 3.7- to 4.6-fold higher in DP islets, and HK Vmax was augmented 3.7-fold by the HE diet in DP islets. We conclude that the insulin-resistant P. obesus has an inherent deficiency in insulin release. In the genetically predisposed P. obesus (DP), augmented islet glucose phosphorylation ability and diet-induced reduction of the glucose threshold for secretion may lead to inadequate insulin secretion and depletion of insulin stores in the presence of caloric abundance. Thus, genetic predisposition and beta-cell maladaptation to nutritional load seem to determine together the progression to overt diabetes in this species. It is hypothesized that similar events may occur in obese type 2 diabetic patients.  (+info)

(6/1450) Phosphate depletion in the rat: effect of bisphosphonates and the calcemic response to PTH.

BACKGROUND: The removal of phosphate from the diet of the growing rat rapidly produces hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and hypophosphaturia. Increased calcium efflux from bone has been shown to be the important cause of the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. It has been proposed that the increased calcium efflux from bone is osteoclast mediated. Because bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this study was performed to determine whether bisphosphonate-induced inhibition of osteoclast function changed the biochemical and bone effects induced by phosphate depletion. METHODS: Four groups of pair-fed rats were studied: (a) low-phosphate diet (LPD; phosphate less than 0.05%), (b) LPD plus the administration of the bisphosphonate Pamidronate (APD; LPD + APD), (c) normal diet (ND, 0.6% phosphate), and (d) ND + APD. All diets contained 0.6% calcium. A high dose of APD was administered subcutaneously (0.8 mg/kg) two days before the start of the study diet and on days 2, 6, and 9 during the 11 days of the study diet. On day 10, a 24-hour urine was collected, and on day 11, rats were either sacrificed or received an additional APD dose before a 48-hour parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion (0.066 microgram/100 g/hr) via a subcutaneously implanted miniosmotic pump. RESULTS: Serum and urinary calcium were greater in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND and ND + APD groups [serum, 11.12 +/- 0.34 and 11.57 +/- 0.45 vs. 9.49 +/- 0.17 and 9.48 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (mean +/- SE), P < 0.05; and urine, 8.78 +/- 2.74 and 16.30 +/- 4.68 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 and 0.67 +/- 0.28 mg/24 hr, P < 0.05]. Serum PTH and serum and urinary phosphorus were less in the LPD and LPD + APD than in the ND and ND + APD groups (P < 0.05). The calcemic response to PTH was less (P < 0.05) in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND group and was less (P = 0.05) in the LPD + APD than in the ND + APD group. Bone histology showed that phosphate depletion increased the osteoblast and osteoclast surface, and treatment with APD reduced the osteoblast surface (LPD vs. LPD + APD, 38 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2%, P < 0.05, and ND vs. ND + APD, 20 +/- 2 vs. 5 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and markedly altered osteoclast morphology by inducing cytoplasmic vacuoles. CONCLUSIONS: (a) Phosphate depletion induced hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria that were not reduced by APD administration. (b) The calcemic response to PTH was reduced in phosphate-depleted rats and was unaffected by APD administration in normal and phosphate-depleted rats, and (c) APD administration markedly changed bone histology without affecting the biochemical changes induced by phosphate depletion.  (+info)

(7/1450) Growth hormone promotes somatic and skeletal muscle growth recovery in rats following chronic protein-energy malnutrition.

The efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) and/or a diet enriched in protein and energy to improve growth recovery following prolonged malnutrition was examined in male rats food-restricted from birth until 120 d of age. At d 121, restricted rats were randomly assigned to recovery groups receiving either a control or enriched diet with or without daily subcutaneous injections of GH. Rats were killed after 16 or 47 d of recovery. At d 16, GH treatment stimulated liver, heart, plantaris, soleus, carcass and body weight gain and inhibited fat gain when compared to recovery controls. Rats receiving GH also exhibited the highest serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and total muscle protein. At d 47, GH effects on body and muscle recovery were minimal, and differences among recovery groups in serum IGF-I concentration and total muscle protein were no longer present. Consumption of an enriched diet increased fat pad and liver mass, but did not promote muscle recovery. There were no differences among treatment groups in skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA levels at d 16 or 47. In summary, GH had positive effects on somatic and skeletal muscle growth early in the recovery process, possibly via endocrine IGF-I-stimulated protein accretion. In contrast, the enriched diet promoted fat deposition with no impact on skeletal muscle growth recovery.  (+info)

(8/1450) Feed deprivation affects crop environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of leghorn hens.

Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion.  (+info)



restriction


  • 11 , 15 ) and in laboratory experiments in which food restriction or food deprivation is imposed on animals in various reproductive states (see Refs. (physiology.org)
  • The extended period of lactational infertility seen after 2 wk of food restriction appears to be related to a prolonged suppression in circulating levels of LH, which has been attributed to a decrease in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the hypothalamus ( 28 ), and it is not dependent on increases in suckling stimulation from the pups ( 30 ). (physiology.org)
  • Determining the effects of such an acute energy intake manipulation on lactational diestrus would provide more information about the parameters of food restriction necessary to prolong lactational infertility and provide insight into the underlying mechanisms. (physiology.org)
  • It has been suggested that the GnRH suppression that is observed after periods of food restriction or food deprivation is caused by changes in metabolic fuel availability ( 24 , 26 , 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • When presented a choice under food restriction, NOP KO mice displayed reduced preference for high sucrose diet, but lower intake of high fat diet under no-choice conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Potential efficacy and toxicity of GM1 ganglioside against trimethyltin-induced brain lesions in rats: comparison with protracted food restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GM1 ganglioside (one week each at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg GM1/kg per day, ip) or gradual food restriction leading to a reduction in body weight to 75% of control were tested for their ability to block or reverse histopathologic and behavioral effects of trimethyltin (TMT) poisoning in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neither GM1 nor greater food restriction affected hippocampal weight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Greater food restriction prevented TMT's effects on autoshaping but not on PFR behavior, was without behavioral effects in animals not treated with TMT, and did not affect hippocampal histology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Like GM1, food restriction induces complex and potentially beneficial effects, but it lacked GM1's biochemical and behavioral "side effects" (i.e. toxicity) in these experiments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moderate food restriction abolishes the pregnancy-associated rise in serum growth hormone and decreases serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations without altering IGF-I mRNA expression in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To study the effect of food restriction during pregnancy on the IGF system, pregnant rats either had free access to food (control) or were fed 60% of control food intake. (biomedsearch.com)

behavior


  • These results support the notion that endogenous ghrelin contributes to an interoceptive hunger cue, and that this may be a mechanism by which ghrelin influences food intake and appetitive behavior. (biomedsearch.com)

Operant


  • Furthermore, operant food self-administration under a variety of conditions showed no genotype-dependent differences, suggesting no differences in the motivational properties of food. (biomedsearch.com)

intake


  • More recently, it has become evident that circulating signals from adipose tissue also regulate food intake and reproductive function. (physiology.org)
  • Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene expressed in adipocytes, produces a marked decrease in food intake and body weight in genetically obese and wild-type mice when administered systemically and centrally ( 8 , 12 , 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • In experiment 3, chickens received muscimol prior to the injection of glutamate, and cumulative food intake was determined at 3-h postinjection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that there is an interaction between glutamatergic and GABAergic systems (through GABA(A) receptor) on food intake in broiler cockerels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous studies show that the opioid peptide nociceptin stimulates food intake. (biomedsearch.com)

Eating


  • an eating disorder in which a person eats excessive amounts of food and then vomits in order not to gain weight. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) and muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) on glutamate-induced eating response in 24-h food-deprived (FD24) broiler cockerels. (biomedsearch.com)

effects


  • Testing was conducted in extinction, eliminating confounding effects of food consumption. (biomedsearch.com)

rats


  • The present study employs the deprivation intensity discrimination paradigm to assess the interoceptive sensory properties of ghrelin in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this paradigm, one group of rats was placed in a training context and presented with sucrose pellets when 24 h food deprived, but not when 1 h food deprived (24+ group). (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, food restricting female prepubertal rats delays the onset of their first estrus ( 6 ). (physiology.org)
  • Similarly, a 48-h food deprivation regimen suppresses luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in adult female rats ( 7 , 16 ) and disrupts the estrous cycle of female hamsters ( 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • In experiment 1 , therefore, lactating rats were food deprived for 48 h at the end of the second week of lactation and their length of lactational diestrus was compared with that of ad libitum-fed (AL) counterparts. (physiology.org)
  • These data suggest that in food-restricted pregnant rats, serum IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA are insensitive to serum GH concentrations and are not regulated at the level of transcription. (biomedsearch.com)

Leptin


  • Although NOP KO mice re-fed following food-deprivation showed normal increases in plasma glucose and insulin, multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the relationship between these measures, body weight and plasma leptin was substantially disrupted in NOP KO, particularly in fasted mice. (biomedsearch.com)

pregnancy


  • A pregnancy-associated rise in serum GH was observed in control but not food-restricted dams. (biomedsearch.com)

Choices


  • A new study from the University of California, Berkeley, suggests sleep deprivation leads to poor food choices. (hppr.org)

metabolic


  • Together, these findings suggest that endogenous nociceptin differentially modulates diet preference depending on macronutrient content and homeostatic state, independently of the motivating, rewarding or orosensory properties of food, but may involve metabolic or postingestive processes. (biomedsearch.com)

sucrose


  • A second group was trained using the opposite sucrose-deprivation level contingency (1+ group). (biomedsearch.com)

dams


  • Studies conducted in our laboratory have determined that rat dams that are food restricted to 50% of the ad libitum ration during the first 2 wk of lactation prolong their period of lactational infertility for ∼1 wk ( 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • In addition, food-deprived (FD) and AL dams matched for day of parturition had their litters switched to evaluate the contribution of suckling to the length of lactational diestrus seen in the FD groups. (physiology.org)
  • The decline in IGFBP-3 was accompanied by an increase in IGFBP-1 and -2, particularly in the serum of food-restricted dams. (biomedsearch.com)

Effect


  • We found that food deprivation on days 13 and 14 pp prolonged lactational infertility by 7 days and that the nutritional experience of both the dam and her litter contributed to this effect. (physiology.org)
  • Starvation and re-feeding had no significant effect on the digestive somatic index and intestinal surface areas in the fish that were food deprived for 1 week, while they showed a significant decrease and increase, during starvation and re-feeding in the fish that were food deprived for 2 and 3 weeks. (wiley.com)

Mice


  • Conditioned place preference to high fat diet under food-deprived conditions was unaltered in NOP KO mice, suggesting no difference in reward responses. (biomedsearch.com)

results


  • Results of these tests showed that 6 nmol i.p. ghrelin and 0.1 and 1 nmol i3vt ghrelin all generalized to a state of 24 h food deprivation, indicating that exogenous ghrelin has sensory properties in common with the stimuli produced by 24 h food deprivation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results confirmed the existence of compensatory growth in R. caspicus which depended on the duration of food deprivation. (wiley.com)

growth


  • Complete compensatory growth occurred in the fish that were food deprived for at least 3 weeks. (wiley.com)

animals


  • Learning in this paradigm was demonstrated by animals approaching the food delivery location more frequently under their rewarded compared to their non-rewarded deprivation condition (prior to actual pellet delivery). (biomedsearch.com)
  • After asymptotic performance of this discrimination was achieved, these animals (1 h food deprived) were administered ghrelin or saline, either i.p. (3 or 6 nmol) or i3vt (0.1 or 1 nmol), placed in the training context, and appetitive responses were measured. (biomedsearch.com)

interview


  • Following on from my interview on food deprivation with Drs. John Jett and Jeffrey Ventre, I was fortunate enough to sit down and Skype with Dolphin Project founder and director - Ric O'Barry. (dolphinproject.net)

function


  • If energetic demands are larger than the energy resources available, reproductive function is suppressed until food becomes more abundant. (physiology.org)

control


  • food availability plays an important role in the control of reproductive rate in many species ( 6 ). (physiology.org)
  • Food deprivation is still alive and well by the way, but the industry doesn't like to admit that, but there really is no way to control a dolphin without food. (dolphinproject.net)

properties


  • The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation. (biomedsearch.com)