Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Consumer Product SafetyFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Mercury PoisoningFood Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.RestaurantsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.

*  What would happen if one organism is taken out of the food web? | Reference.com

This is because organisms in a food web are interconnected and rely on one another for survival. If one organism... ... Removing just one organism from a food web is potentially devastating to an ecosystem. ... Why is a food web a more realistic model than a food chain?. A: A food web consists of all the different food chains in a ... What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?. ... All organisms exist as part of food webs and all food webs ...
https://reference.com/science/would-happen-one-organism-taken-out-food-65d008ae304e36ff

*  Zoo News Digest

... a lot of the food must come from outside the enclosures)? What kinds of food sources are naturally available within those ... When the elephants aren't working, they're likely to be kept inside concrete pens and shackled by short chains in separate ... 4.) When elephants are placed in enclosures, what is the level of abundance of food within those enclosures? How often do they ... The animals will be reintroduced to the nature reserve to provide enough food for the tigers when they are relocated from ...
zoonewsdigest.blogspot.co.uk

*  Eutrophication in Planktonic Ecosystems: Food Web Dynamics and Elemental Cycling: Edited By: T Tamminen and H Kuosa | NHBS...

Food Web Dynamics and Elemental Cycling (9780792351115): Proceedings of the International PELAG Symposium, August 26-30, 1996 ... Retention Versus Export Food Chains: Processes Controlling Sinking Loss from Marine Pelagic Systems; P. Wassmann. A Theoretical ... nutrient cycles in the planktonic food web + DOM sources, composition, and uptake; resource limitation vs shaping of the food ... Planktonic Food Web in Marine Mesocosms in the Eastern Mediterranean: Bottom-Up or Top-Down Regulation? P. Pitta, et al. ...
nhbs.com/eutrophication-in-planktonic-ecosystems-food-web-dynamics-and-elemental-cycling-book

*  What is the food chain in the tropical rainforest? | Reference.com

... most tropical rainforest food chains follow the same general pattern of producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and ... What are some facts about the African grassland food web?. A: As with any complex food chain, the food chain of the African ... What is the food chain of a pond?. A: The food chain of a pond starts with the producers, such as algae and plankton. Next are ... What information is on a desert food chain diagram?. A: Information on a desert food chain diagram includes the primary ...
https://reference.com/science/food-chain-tropical-rainforest-9d02f1bffc2a1243

*  Food Chain by Eric Hutchinson - Pandora

Eric Hutchinson - Pandora
https://pandora.com/artist/eric-hutchinson/sounds-like-this/food-chain/TRpjKXX4qwXgw26

*  Horsemeat scandal exposes complex food chain

Critics say the widening horsemeat scandal in particular is a result of a food supply chain that has become too complex to be ... Europe's horsemeat scandal has exposed a food supply chain set up to fulfill that demand - one in which meat from a Romanian ... In Britain, for instance, food once was one of the major household expenses, but now U.K. households spend less on food than on ... It's true that in many Western countries food has rarely been so cheap, and we have never been so dependent on cheap food. ...
onlineathens.com/national-news/2013-02-13/horsemeat-scandal-exposes-complex-food-chain

*  Global marine analysis suggests food chain collapse

"There will be a species collapse from the top of the food chain down." The analysis also showed that with warmer waters or ... Global marine analysis suggests food chain collapse. Tuesday, 13 October 2015. A world-first global analysis of marine ... "With higher metabolic rates in the warmer water, and therefore a greater demand for food, there is a mismatch with less food ... From a total food web point of view, primary production from the smallest plankton is expected to increase in the warmer waters ...
adelaide.edu.au/news/news81042.html

*  Food Chain Seafood Packaging : smoked seafood

Stats for Food Chain Seafood Packaging Trending: Older & Buzzing. Research: 1,584 clicks in 70 w Interest: 2.3 minutes Concept: ... 65 Remixed Hispanic Food Products. From Meatless Bean Sliders to Zesty Fast Food Soups ... Related Reports: Beverage Report, Restaurant Report, Marketplace Report, Pet Report, Food Product Report SCORE 6.3 ... The concept features the imagery of a black bear mixed with vibrant imagery of the food within including such options as shrimp ...
https://trendhunter.com/trends/smoked-seafood

*  Track star on top of food chain, too

The food's a little heavier and lot of good meat.". Armstrong said if he could choose only one food the rest of his life it ... Track star on top of food chain, too. Iain MacIntyre, Vancouver Sun columnist 05.30.2012. ... "Your body wants energy, wants food. I'll eat, but you can't eat too, too much. Speed does matter and I have to be light on my ... "When I think back, we ate massive amounts of food," Armstrong said. "I was a growing boy. We used to get crazy on Sunday ...
vancouversun.com/sports/mma/Track star food chain/6704291/story.html

*  Biggest food chains in America: maps - Business Insider

These maps show how 15 fast food chains dominate in America. These maps show how 15 fast food chains dominate in America Fast ... These maps show how 15 fast food chains dominate in America. *Gus Lubin and Mike Nudelman ... More: Features BI Graphics BI Innovation Fast Food Subway McDonald's Starbucks Maps Burger King Domino's ... Fast food brands are fighting for every untapped corner of America.. To see which brands are winning where, we turned to ...
businessinsider.com/biggest-food-chains-in-america-maps-2016-11?op=1&r=UK&IR=T

*  UN: Toxic Waste Dumped in Abidjan Could Enter Food Chain

Nations health experts say they fear the toxic waste dumped in Ivory Coast's main city Abidjan may seep into the local food chain ...
https://voanews.com/a/a-13-2006-09-13-voa40/330042.html

*  Top of the Food Chain Pictures

Click here for Top of the Food Chain pictures! You can also find pictures of Trust, Tri orísky pro Popelku, Trio, Trigger. ... Illustration by Laura Williams Welcome to Top of the Food Chain, a column from Eat Me Daily's... Complete the Food Chains ... Food Chain 36″ x 48″ oil on canvas 2009 (sold) Regional, small chains scored the highest marks in a fast-food excellence survey ... Tags: alien , chain , food Posted in Simply funny Related Posts Real alien skeleton! Reptilians are... Food Chain is a strategy ...
picsearch.com/Top-of-the-Food-Chain-pictures.html

*  At Brazil-based fast food chain, packaging is edible | Springwise

A marketing campaign for Bob's fast food chain in Brazil has come up with a way to avoid litter and waste - by making its ... At Brazil-based fast food chain, packaging is edible. 18 Dec 2012 ... At Brazil-based fast food chain, packaging is edible. ... but now a marketing campaign for Bob's fast food chain in Brazil has come up with another solution - by making its packaging ... Packaging is a necessary part of a lot of food distribution, and yet remains an environmental problem when it ends up ...
https://springwise.com/at-brazil-based-fast-food-chain-packaging-edible/

*  Deceit in the Financial Food Chain | Equities.com

Trust and the Financial Food Chain. It reminds me how many people in the food chain do not care about any outcome beyond their ... Deceit in the Financial Food Chain Rodney Johnson Follow , Thursday, 21 September 2017 11:53 (EST). ... That's what everyone involved in the financial food chain said.. It wasn't the fault of mortgage brokers who peddled so-called ...
https://equities.com/news/deceit-in-the-financial-food-chain

*  CalorieKing - Calorie Counter - Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants - Saladworks

Find more nutritional information in CalorieKing's 50,000-food database. ... Home / Food Database Home / Food Database / Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants: Saladworks. Bakery. ... Nutritional Information for Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants. ...
calorieking.com/foods/calories-in-fast-food-chains-restaurants_c-Y2lkPTIx.html?bid=1514

*  CalorieKing - Calorie Counter - Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants - Shari's

Find more nutritional information in CalorieKing's 50,000-food database. ... Home / Food Database / Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants: Shari's. Appetizers. * Appetizer, ... Nutritional Information for Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants. ...
calorieking.com/foods/calories-in-fast-food-chains-restaurants_c-Y2lkPTIx.html?bid=2074

*  CalorieKing - Calorie Counter - Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants - Potbelly

Find more nutritional information in CalorieKing's 50,000-food database. ... Home / Food Database / Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants: Potbelly. Bakery. * Chocolate Brownie ... Nutritional Information for Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants. ...
calorieking.com/foods/calories-in-fast-food-chains-restaurants_c-Y2lkPTIx.html?bid=10000004

*  CalorieKing - Calorie Counter - Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants - D'Angelo

Find more nutritional information in CalorieKing's 50,000-food database. ... Home / Food Database / Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants: D'Angelo. Desserts. * Blondie or ... Nutritional Information for Fast-Food Chains & Restaurants. ...
calorieking.com/foods/calories-in-fast-food-chains-restaurants_c-Y2lkPTIx.html?bid=259

*  High school was rough for this fast food chain. - CollegeHumor Post

View 'High school was rough for this fast food chain. ' and more funny posts on CollegeHumor ... High school was rough for this fast food chain. ... High school was rough for this fast food chain. March 24, 2008 ...
collegehumor.com/post/3325933/this-is-so-funny

*  McDonald's fast food chain to open in Yerevan - paper - PanARMENIAN.Net

Tashir Group company has acquired a license to form McDonald's fast food restaurants chain to be opened in Yerevan. ... As a result, Tashir Group company has acquired a license to form McDonald's fast food restaurants chain to be opened in Yerevan ... McDonald's fast food chain to open in Yerevan - paper September 4, 2012 - 15:27 AMT ...
panarmenian.net/eng/news/121570/

*  Controversy Erupts Over School Speaking Tour Sponsored by Fast Food Chain

... After high school science teacher John Cisna lost ... PLAYING Controversy Erupts Over School Speaking Tour Sponsored by Fast Food Chain ... the fast food chain offered to promote his documentary and speaking tour to schools throughout the United States. Now, parents ... are fighting back, arguing that the film is merely fast food propaganda and doesn't belong in the nation's schools. Click here ...
thedoctorstv.com/videos/controversy-erupts-over-school-speaking-tour-sponsored-by-fast-food-chain

*  Pew Urges International Leaders to Recommit to Protecting Southern Ocean Food Chain

... the keystone species of the Antarctic food chain.". Antarctic krill are by far the most important food in the diet of many ... Pew Urges International Leaders to Recommit to Protecting Southern Ocean Food Chain * April 06, 2009 ... Pew Urges International Leaders to Recommit to Protecting Southern Ocean Food Chain ...
pewtrusts.org/en/about/news-room/press-releases/2009/04/06/pew-urges-international-leaders-to-recommit-to-protecting-southern-ocean-food-chain

*  Spoiled: The Dangerous Truth about a Food Chain Gone Haywire - Nicols Fox - Google Books

... and prepare food, we have upset the subtle ecological balances of the food chain. And we have only begun to pay the price.'-- ... Pulling together the pieces of a complex chain of events for the reader, she tells in arresting detail what has happened to ... Now it is a tangled and messy chain of factory farming and processing, high-tech packaging, mass distribution, and importing ... Drawing from scientific and medical journals and more than 100 interviews with epidemiologists, physicians, food scientists, ...
https://books.google.com/books?id=rlgfAQAAIAAJ&q=farm&dq=related:ISBN0805813713&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en

*  Food Chains, Trophic Levels, and Biological Magnification by Tarika Gadh on Prezi

Transcript of Food Chains, Trophic Levels, and Biological Magnification. Food Chain -the transfer of food energy up the trophic ... b) local extinction of a species causes extinction of the other species in its food chain. c) most of the energy in a trophic ... e) most producers are inedible the correct answer is C Food chains are sometimes short because most of the energy in a trophic ... Food Chains, Trophic Levels, and Biological Magnification. Tarika Gadh APBio Period 4 ...
https://prezi.com/a2j348tfikvy/food-chains-trophic-levels-and-biological-magnification/

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

To actually answer the above question: the events of the Kelvin kicked off a chain reaction, changing who-knows-how many events ... lots of food here, it makes much more sense to just ignore it and start eating my original kill." It just went "SOMETHING IS ... it was setting off a chain reaction of other stars going nova. The large amount of red matter might have been for all the ... and an odd assortment of Eldritch Abominations that view bipeds as food. Even if Jim didn't press charges, Spock was ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.SAFE FOODSFood desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActConsumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Global Energy and Water Cycle ExperimentTropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Foresight (psychology): Foresight is the ability to predict, or the action of predicting, what will happen or what is needed in the future. Studies suggest that much of human daily thought is directed towards potential future events.BrachiopodMethylmercuryWhite meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Jet aeratorsThermal cyclerBologna sausageCastleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are by-products of various industrial processes, and are commonly regarded as highly toxic compounds that are environmental pollutants and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They include:List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.PyromorphiteSpatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.EcosystemMercury(II) reductase: Mercury(II) reductase (), commonly known as MerA, is an oxidoreductase enzyme and flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0. Mercury(II) reductase is found in the cytoplasm of many eubacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic environments and the serves the purpose of converting toxic mercury ions into its relatively inert elemental form.Isotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Health food storeCriticism of fast foodCompensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.SeaChoice: SeaChoice is a program of Sustainable Seafood Canada that uses the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch recommendations to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. It is best known for publishing consumer guides for responsible seafood purchasing.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventAgracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Phytoextraction process: Phytoextraction is a subprocess of phytoremediation in which plants remove dangerous elements or compounds from soil or water, most usually heavy metals, metals that have a high density and may be toxic to organisms even at relatively low concentrations.http://www.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Immunoglobulin light chainMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Immunoglobulin heavy chainBismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Transmissible spongiform encephalopathyBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Beneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Coles PhillipsIontocaineOxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.CampylobacteriosisCampylobacter jejuni: Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.MYH7: MYH7 is a gene encoding a myosin heavy chain beta (MHC-β) isoform (slow twitch) expressed primarily in the heart, but also in skeletal muscles (type I fibers). This isoform is distinct from the fast isoform of cardiac myosin heavy chain, MYH6, referred to as MHC-α.Cadmium acetateDry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Chicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Functional food: A functional food is a food given an additional [(often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.[http://www4.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Yellow soybean paste: Yellow soybean paste is a fermented paste] made from yellow [[soybeans, salt, and water; wheat flour, though not formerly used, is often used as an additional ingredient in the modern day, and potassium sorbate may also be used as a preservative. Yellow soybean paste is produced in China and is used primarily in Beijing cuisine and other cuisines of northern China.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Master StrokeCaramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Timeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.BacitracinSmoothie King: Smoothie King (A hangover you don't deserve)}}Direct Benefit Transfer: Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to change the mechanism of transferring subsidies launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013. This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.

(1/1057) Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain.  (+info)

(2/1057) Natural (13)C abundance reveals trophic status of fungi and host-origin of carbon in mycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests.

Fungi play crucial roles in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems, most notably as saprophytes decomposing organic matter and as mycorrhizal fungi enhancing plant nutrient uptake. However, a recurrent problem in fungal ecology is to establish the trophic status of species in the field. Our interpretations and conclusions are too often based on extrapolations from laboratory microcosm experiments or on anecdotal field evidence. Here, we used natural variations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) as an approach to distinguish between fungal decomposers and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungal species in the rich sporocarp flora (our sample contains 135 species) of temperate forests. We also demonstrated that host-specific mycorrhizal fungi that receive C from overstorey or understorey tree species differ in their delta(13)C. The many promiscuous mycorrhizal fungi, associated with and connecting several tree hosts, were calculated to receive 57-100% of their C from overstorey trees. Thus, overstorey trees also support, partly or wholly, the nutrient-absorbing mycelia of their alleged competitors, the understorey trees.  (+info)

(3/1057) Unanswered questions in ecology.

This is very much a personal view of what I think are some of the most important unanswered questions in ecology. That is, these are the questions that I expect will be high on the research agenda over the coming century. The list is organized hierarchically, beginning with questions at the level of individual populations, and progressing through interacting populations to entire communities or ecosystems. I will try to guess both at possible advances in basic knowledge and at potential applications. The only thing that is certain about this view of the future is that much of it will surely turn out to be wrong, and many of the most interesting future developments will be quite unforeseen.  (+info)

(4/1057) The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts.

The activities of unicellular microbes dominate the ecology of the marine environment, but the chemical signals that determine behavioral interactions are poorly known. In particular, chemical signals between microbial predators and prey contribute to food selection or avoidance and to defense, factors that probably affect trophic structure and such large-scale features as algal blooms. Using defense as an example, I consider physical constraints on the transmission of chemical information, and strategies and mechanisms that microbes might use to send chemical signals. Chemical signals in a low Re, viscosity-dominated physical environment are transferred by molecular diffusion and laminar advection, and may be perceived at nanomolar levels or lower. Events that occur on small temporal and physical scales in the "near-field" of prey are likely to play a role in cell-cell interactions. On the basis of cost-benefit optimization and the need for rapid activation, I suggest that microbial defense system strategies might be highly dynamic. These strategies include compartmented and activated reactions, utilizing both pulsed release of dissolved signals and contact-activated signals at the cell surface. Bioluminescence and extrusome discharge are two visible manifestations of rapidly activated microbial defenses that may serve as models for other chemical reactions as yet undetected due to the technical problems of measuring transient chemical gradients around single cells. As an example, I detail an algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage reaction that appears to deter protozoan feeding and explore it as a possible model for a rapidly activated, short-range chemical defense system. Although the exploration of chemical interactions among planktonic microbes is in its infancy, ecological models from macroorganisms provide useful hints of the complexity likely to be found.  (+info)

(5/1057) Ecological basis of extinction risk in birds: habitat loss versus human persecution and introduced predators.

Understanding the ecological mechanisms that underlie extinction is fundamental to conservation. It is well established that not all taxa are equally vulnerable to extinction, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This may be, in part, because different taxa are threatened by different mechanisms. Theoretically, sources of extinction risk that perturb the balance between fecundity and longevity, such as human persecution and introduced predators, should be particularly hazardous for taxa that have slow rates of population growth. In contrast, sources of extinction risk that reduce niche availability, such as habitat loss, should represent a particular threat to taxa that are ecologically specialized. Here we test these predictions by using a phylogenetic comparative method and a database on 95 families of birds. As theory predicts, extinction risk incurred through persecution and introduced predators is associated with large body size and long generation time but is not associated with degree of specialization, whereas extinction risk incurred through habitat loss is associated with habitat specialization and small body size but not with generation time. These results demonstrate the importance of considering separately the multiple mechanisms that underlie contemporary patterns of extinction. They also reveal why it has previously proven so difficult to identify simple ecological correlates of overall extinction risk.  (+info)

(6/1057) Reciprocal subsidies: dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs.

Mutual trophic interactions between contiguous habitats have remained poorly understood despite their potential significance for community maintenance in ecological landscapes. In a deciduous forest and stream ecotone, aquatic insect emergence peaked around spring, when terrestrial invertebrate biomass was low. In contrast, terrestrial invertebrate input to the stream occurred primarily during summer, when aquatic invertebrate biomass was nearly at its lowest. Such reciprocal, across-habitat prey flux alternately subsidized both forest birds and stream fishes, accounting for 25.6% and 44.0% of the annual total energy budget of the bird and fish assemblages, respectively. Seasonal contrasts between allochthonous prey supply and in situ prey biomass determine the importance of reciprocal subsidies.  (+info)

(7/1057) Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration.

Food-web processes are important controls of oceanic biogenic carbon flux and ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. Two key controlling parameters are the growth efficiencies of the principal trophic components and the rate of carbon remineralization. We report that bacterial growth efficiency is an inverse function of temperature. This relationship permits bacterial respiration in the euphotic zone to be computed from temperature and bacterial production. Using the temperature-growth efficiency relationship, we show that bacterial respiration generally accounts for most community respiration. This implies that a larger fraction of assimilated carbon is respired at low than at high latitudes, so a greater proportion of production can be exported in polar than in tropical regions. Because bacterial production is also a function of temperature, it should be possible to compute euphotic zone heterotrophic respiration at large scales using remotely sensed information.  (+info)

(8/1057) Surprising findings following a Belgian food contamination with polychlorobiphenyls and dioxins.

We found that 12.1% of Belgian export meat samples from chicken or pork, unrelated to the PCB/dioxin crisis from 1999, contained more than 50 ng polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/g fat and that 6.5% of samples contain more than 20 ng/g fat for the sum of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites. Part of this background contamination stems from imported animal feed ingredients (fish flour and grains), sometimes contaminated by recent use of DDT, as can be deduced from the ratio between DDT and its main metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE). However, after comparing PCB concentrations in fish flour and grains with those found in meat, we suggest that the high concentrations stem from recycled fat. This is the first paper describing background concentrations of PCBs in animal meat from Belgium.  (+info)



carnivores


  • With higher metabolic rates in the warmer water, and therefore a greater demand for food, there is a mismatch with less food available for carnivores ─ the bigger fish that fisheries industries are based around," says Associate Professor Nagelkerken. (edu.au)
  • As with any complex food chain, the food chain of the African savanna (grassland) is composed of a hierarchy of carnivores that eat herbivores, which eat b. (reference.com)

Fast


  • Fast food brands are fighting for every untapped corner of America. (businessinsider.com)
  • Fast food brands are fighting for every. (businessinsider.com)
  • Regional, small chains scored the highest marks in a fast-food excellence survey conducted by. (picsearch.com)
  • We've already seen projects such as Canada's Tiffin Project , which provides a small re-usable tin for takeaway customers to put their food in, but now a marketing campaign for Bob's fast food chain in Brazil has come up with another solution - by making its packaging edible. (springwise.com)
  • High school was rough for this fast food chain. (collegehumor.com)
  • As a result, Tashir Group company has acquired a license to form McDonald's fast food restaurants chain to be opened in Yerevan in the next few months. (panarmenian.net)
  • After high school science teacher John Cisna lost more than 30 pounds in three months eating exclusively at McDonalds, the fast food chain offered to promote his documentary and speaking tour to schools throughout the United States. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Now, parents are fighting back, arguing that the film is merely fast food propaganda and doesn't belong in the nation's schools. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Fox first became interested in the subject in 1993, when she read about a group of children on the west coast who had become seriously ill and, in several cases, had died, after eating hamburgers contaminated with E. coli bacteria at a local fast-food restaurant. (google.com)

meat


  • Romanian food safety officials say the country produced 6,300 tons of horse, mule and donkey meat last year, and that it was correctly labeled when it was exported to other European countries. (onlineathens.com)
  • Genevieve Cazes-Valette, a French anthropologist who studies food, said that throughout history, people around the world have had a special and intense relationship with meat. (onlineathens.com)
  • Europe's horsemeat scandal has exposed a food supply chain set up to fulfill that demand - one in which meat from a Romanian abattoir can end up in British lasagna by way of companies in Luxembourg and France. (onlineathens.com)
  • food, particularly meat, becomes contaminated with E. coli and other pathogens very easily because of the way the Americans mass-produce, process, and distribute food. (google.com)

Packaging


  • Designed by the Chiapa Design creative agency in Brazil, this conceptual smoked seafood packaging draws a correlation between the natural world and the packaged food within. (trendhunter.com)
  • Packaging is a necessary part of a lot of food distribution, and yet remains an environmental problem when it ends up contributing to landfills and litter. (springwise.com)
  • Now it is a tangled and messy chain of factory farming and processing, high-tech packaging, mass distribution, and importing and exporting - each, in its way, creating a niche for an opportunistic pathogen and an emerging foodborne disease. (google.com)

species


  • There will be a species collapse from the top of the food chain down. (edu.au)
  • Although the species involved vary greatly, most tropical rainforest food chains follow the same general pattern of producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and decomposers. (reference.com)
  • The signatories to the Treaty must rise to the occasion and fully reengage on the critical issues impacting the region -- especially as they relate to Antarctic krill, the keystone species of the Antarctic food chain. (pewtrusts.org)

complex


  • Critics say the widening horsemeat scandal in particular is a result of a food supply chain that has become too complex to be safe. (onlineathens.com)
  • Sometimes, food chains can be more complex and involve many more steps. (reference.com)
  • Pulling together the pieces of a complex chain of events for the reader, she tells in arresting detail what has happened to food and why. (google.com)

less food


  • In the austerity-hit countries of Europe, people are buying less food, and seeking cheaper food. (onlineathens.com)

small


  • Information on a desert food chain diagram includes the primary producers, the primary consumers, small predators and the larger predators for the desert b. (reference.com)

global


  • Recent revelations that such products have reached dinner tables, including horsemeat falsely labeled as beef in Europe, have cast an unappetizing light on the global food industry. (onlineathens.com)

supply


  • The dangerous truth is that in the last twenty-five years we have lost control of our food supply. (google.com)

local


  • United Nations health experts say they fear the toxic waste dumped in Ivory Coast's main city Abidjan may seep into the local food chain. (voanews.com)

becomes


  • Eventually, the snake or hawk dies, and becomes food for decomposers such as earthworms, who release the nutrients inside the dead snake back into the environment. (reference.com)
  • For example, if the rat in the above example is replaced by an insect, the food chain becomes much longer. (reference.com)

safety


  • What types of questions are on a food safety exam? (reference.com)

products


  • Horsemeat is not generally considered unsafe to eat, but the scandal has triggered disgust in places such as Britain where it traditionally is not eaten and anger over the mislabeling of food products. (onlineathens.com)
  • Three of the British firms whose products were found to contain horsemeat say they got the products from a French food processing firm, Comigel. (onlineathens.com)
  • Spanghero sent it on to Comigel's factory in Luxembourg, and it went into food products sent to stores across Europe. (onlineathens.com)
  • What food products have gluten? (reference.com)

back


  • When I think back, we ate massive amounts of food," Armstrong said. (vancouversun.com)

consumers


  • Called producers, these green plants serve as food for primary consumers, also known as herbivores. (reference.com)
  • Much has been written in journal articles about the increasing dangers faced by consumers when pathogenic microbes contaminate their food. (google.com)

process


  • These food chains all begin with green plants that manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • As Spoiled so eloquently asserts, what has happened to food is nothing less than a tragedy: By changing the way we produce, process, distribute, store, and prepare food, we have upset the subtle ecological balances of the food chain. (google.com)

marine


  • Antarctic krill are by far the most important food in the diet of many marine mammals and seabirds, from the blue whale to the albatross. (pewtrusts.org)

lost


  • British Conservative lawmaker Mark Spencer argued in the House of Commons this week that the horsemeat crisis arose partly because "we have lost context of how valuable food is. (onlineathens.com)

people


  • That unease stems partly from the fact that people in developed countries have become detached from the origins of the food they eat. (onlineathens.com)

primary


  • From a total food web point of view, primary production from the smallest plankton is expected to increase in the warmer waters but this often doesn't translate into secondary production (the zooplankton and smaller fish) which shows decreased productivity under ocean acidification. (edu.au)

Research


  • This 'simplification' of our oceans will have profound consequences for our current way of life, particularly for coastal populations and those that rely on oceans for food and trade," says Associate Professor Ivan Nagelkerken , Australian Research Council (ARC) Future Fellow with the University's Environment Institute . (edu.au)