Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Cyclamates: Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Consumer Product SafetyCalcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Food Additives - Android app on AppBrainToday's food is full of additives. Are they dangerous? Our app helps you find the answer. Try it, it's free! This... ... additives adverse allergic allows alternative asthma can code dangerous description food groups harmless hyperactive ... Today's food is full of additives. Are they dangerous?. Our app helps you find the answer. Try it, it's free!. This app is the ... Today's food is full of additives. Are they dangerous?. Our app helps you find the answer. Try it, it's free!. This app is the ...
Food additives that will make you squirmThe Doctors talk show discusses harmful additives and chemicals found in foods like hamburgers, chicken, and vanilla ice cream ... and get the full scoop on what's really in your food, including a list of additives often found on food labels. Read on for ... Food additives that will make you squirm. Feb 27, 2012. by Karen Miner ... Harmful additives and questionable preparation processes have long been a hot topic of discussion in the food world, but how ...
food additives - Organic AuthorityThe 5 Worst Food Additives Ever. Food Additives. Say that ten times fast and the absurdity becomes even more obvious. If ... Organic Advocacy Group Urges FDA to Remove Controversial Additive from Food Supply. In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration ... 6 Dangerous Food Additives Poisoning Your Fare. They lie in wait, more than happy to do a number on your insides when you least ... Subtract Food Additives from your Diet with This Mobile Phone App. While concerned consumers may still be the minority when it ...
658. Arsenic (WHO Food Additives Series 24)Food Additives and Contaminants, 4, No.1, pp. 89-102. Fowler, B.A. (editor) (1983). Biological and environmental effects of ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Arsenic (EHC 18, 1981) Arsenic (ICSC) Arsenic (WHO Food Additives Series 18) ARSENIC ( ... Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1982). Survey of arsenic in food, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London. ... seventh reports of The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (Annex 1, references 13 and 62). It was concluded at ...
Federal Register :: Indirect Food Additives: Adjuvants, Production Aids, and Sanitizers... is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of tetradecanoic acid, lithium salt as a stabilizer for ... polypropylene and certain polypropylene copolymers intended for use in contact with food. This action is in response to a ...
795. Beta-Cyclodextrin (WHO Food Additives Series 32)... food colours and some vitamins. Intake of -cyclodextrin from use as a food additive has been estimated at 1-1.4 g/day. Other ... Cyclodextrin has not been reviewed previously by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. 2. BIOLOGICAL DATA 2.1 ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations beta-Cyclodextrin (WHO Food Additives Series 35) beta-CYCLODEXTRIN (JECFA Evaluation) ... Food consumption was reduced in all treated male groups between weeks 18 and 24, body weight gain was reduced in males of the ...
555. Acesulfame potassium (WHO Food Additives Series 18)WHO Food Additives Series 16) Acesulfame potassium (WHO Food Additives Series 28) ACESULFAME POTASSIUM (JECFA Evaluation) ... ACESULFAME POTASSIUM* Explanation Acesulfame K was evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1981 ( ... REFERENCES Clauss (1981) Model experiments aimed at detecting possible reactions of Acesulfame K with constituents of food. ... model food constituents, ethanol, sorbitol, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine or n-butylamine, in acetate buffer ...
244. Propylene glycol alginate (WHO Food Additives Series 1)WHO Food Additives Series 5) Propylene glycol alginate (WHO Food Additives Series 32) PROPYLENE GLYCOL ALGINATE (JECFA ... WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WHO Food Additives Series 1972, No. 1 TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME ENZYMES, MODIFIED STARCHES AND ... Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met in Rome, 16-24 June 19711 World Health Organization Geneva 1972 1 ... Fifteenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1972, No. 488; FAO ...
21 CFR Part 177 - INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute379e - Listing and certification of color additives for foods, drugs, devices, and cosmetics ... Subpart B - Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces (§§ 177.1010 - 177.2000) ...
342. Food-grade mineral oil (WHO Food Additives Series 5)med. Bull., 14, 132 Council on White Mineral Oil (1961) Food Additive Petition 302 to US Food and Drug Administration dated 21 ... Food Additives, Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1974, No. 539; FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. 53. FOOD-GRADE ... additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents WHO FOOD ADDITIVES ... particularly in food of plant origin, the use of food-grade mineral oil in food technology and the medicinal use of this ...
800. Annex 1 (WHO Food Additives Series 32)ANNEX 1 Reports and other documents resulting from previous meetings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 1. General principles governing the use of food additives (First report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 15, 1958; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 129, 1957 (out of print). 2. Procedures for the testing of intentional food additives to establish their safety for use (Second report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 17, 1958; WHO Technical Report Series, No. 144, 1958 (out of print). 3. Specifications for identity and purity of food additives (antimicrobial preservatives and antioxidants) (Third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on ...
378. Patent blue V (WHO Food Additives Series 6)INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME FOOD COLOURS, ENZYMES, FLAVOUR ENHANCERS, THICKENING AGENTS, AND CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES 6 The evaluations contained in this publication were prepared by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met in Rome, 4-13 June 19741 World Health Organization Geneva 1975 1 Eighteenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1974, No. 557. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. 54. PATENT BLUE V Explanation This compound has been evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (see Annex 1, Refs Nos 10 and 20) in 1964 and 1969. Since the previous evaluation additional data have become ...
951. Sulfites (WHO Food Additives Series 42)INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION SAFETY EVALUATION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES: 42 Prepared by the Fifty-first meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) World Health Organization, Geneva, 1999 IPCS - International Programme on Chemical Safety EVALUATION OF NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF INTAKE OF SULFITES First draft prepared by Dr Michael DiNovi Division of Product Manufacture and Use, Office of Premarket Approval (HFS-246), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition United States Food and Drug Administration Washington DC, United States 1. INTRODUCTION The Committee assessed the intake of sulfur dioxide and related compounds, including calcium, potassium, and sodium hydrogen sulfite, calcium, potassium, and sodium metabisulfite, calcium, potassium, and sodium sulfite, and sodium ...
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Looking Back to Look Forward: A Review of FDA's Food Additives Safety Assessment and Recommendations for Modernizing its...In an effort to understand the origin of the current controversies and criticisms about the safety evaluation of chemical additives to food, we looked at the only available structured analysis of the science and decision making used in food additives safety: the 1982 SCOGS final report.. We found that, although FDA acted on some of SCOGS' suggestions, a significant portion remains unresolved.. The analysis presented here and the research we conducted during the last few years led us to conclude that FDA's food additives program has, in several respects, not kept pace with the scientific developments of the last 20 y. Although it is difficult to pinpoint the origin of the situation, we believe the key point was in 1997, when the agency proposed the voluntary GRAS notification program (FDA 1997).. Under the GRAS notification program, FDA's role fundamentally changed: it shifted from one of a "judge" making ...
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Sometimes, Food Additives Are Pretty Innocuous | KUERTranscript NEAL CONAN, HOST: This is TALK OF THE NATION, from NPR News. I'm Neal Conan. Remember the months-long controversy over pink slime? By now,
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Food Additives | Healthynewage.comNeotame is a chemical substance created by chemists from Monsanto-now produced by NutraSweet-as an artificial food and drink sweetener or flavor enhancer. Neotame is created using aspartame-a known neurotoxin-and adding 3-dimethylbutyl, a compound classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as hazardous. As with aspartame, neotame metabolizes formaldehyde and other nerve …. Read More » ...
9 Food Additives That May Affect ADHD - HealthHere's a list of additives that may aggravate ADHD symptoms, although none (with the exception of Yellow 5) has been studied alone in humans.
The 9 Scariest Food Additives You're Eating Right Now | Men's FitnessSome of the so-called healthy snack foods and packaged goods you're tossing into your grocery cart each week may be filled with 'extras' that can, in the long term, put your health at risk.
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food additives - SundanceTVHOUSTON, Texas, July 23, 2008 (ENS) - Chemical engineers at Rice University have developed techniques for converting the waste materials of biodiesel production into chemicals that can be sold at a profit. "Biodiesel producers used to sell their leftover glycerin, but the rapid increase in biodiesel production has left them paying to get rid of…. ...
E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,Caramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Preservative: A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.Sunkist (soft drink): Sunkist is a brand of primarily orange flavored soft drinks launched in 1979.AspartameArchips seditiosa: Archips seditiosa is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found in western Malaysia and Java.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Butylated hydroxyanisoleAssugrinPublic Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActFood contact materials: Food contact materials are materials that are intended to be in contact with food. These can be things that are quite obvious like a glass, a can for soft drinks, but also machinery in a food factory or a coffee machine.Aldrin (disambiguation): Aldrin is a pesticide.Perfume: Perfume ( ; ) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent."SAFE FOODSDrugwipe test: The DrugWipe is a test used to wipe surfaces for traces of drug residue. It may also be used for sweat or saliva tests of individuals.IontocaineSweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Monosodium phosphateCorn PopsTrifluoroacetic anhydrideFood desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.AnisoleConsumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Mineral trioxide aggregate: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed for use as a dental root repair material by Dr. Mahmoud Torabinejad, DMD, MSD, PhD Professor and Director of Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry and was formulated from commercial Portland cement combined with bismuth oxide powder for radiopacity.Drug allergy
(1/393) A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation.
The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains. (+info)
(2/393) Effects of ionic compositions of the medium on monosodium glutamate binding to taste epithelial cells.
Monosodium glutamate and nucleotides are umami taste substances in animals and have a synergistic effect on each other. We studied the ligand-binding properties of the glutamate receptors in taste epithelial cells isolated from bovine tongue. Specific glutamate binding was observed in an enriched suspension of taste receptor cells in Hanks' balanced salt solution, while no specific glutamate binding was apparent in the absence of divalent ions or when the cells had been depolarized by a high content of potassium in Hanks' balanced salt solution. There was no significant difference between the release of glutamate under depolarized or divalent ion-free conditions and under normal conditions. However, glutamate was easily released from the depolarized cells in the absence of divalent ions. These data suggest that the binding of glutamate to receptors depends on divalent ions, which also have an effect on maintaining binding between glutamate and receptors. (+info)
(3/393) Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health.
There has been increasing concern about the impact of environmental compounds with hormone-like action on human development and reproductive health over the past decades. An alternative but neglected source of hormone action that may be considered in this connection is hormone residues in meat from husbandry animals treated with sex steroid hormones for growth promotion. Treatment of cattle with naturally occurring or synthetic sex hormones may enhance lean muscle growth and improve feed efficiency and is therefore a very cost effective procedure for cattle producers who have used it for decades in some Western countries, including the USA and Canada. The Joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) expert committee on food additives (JECFA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered, in 1988, that the residues found in meat from treated animals were safe for the consumers. We have re-evaluated the JECFA conclusions regarding the safety of estradiol residues in meat in the light of recent scientific data, with special emphasis on estradiol levels in prepubertal children. These levels are needed for estimates of the normal daily production rates of estradiol in children, who may be particularly sensitive to low levels of estradiol. In our opinion, the conclusions by JECFA concerning the safety of hormone residues in meat seem to be based on uncertain assumptions and inadequate scientific data. Our concerns can be summarized as follows. 1) The data on residue levels in meat were based on studies performed in the 1970's and 1980's using radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods available at the time. The sensitivity of the methods was generally inadequate to measure precisely the low levels found in animal tissues, and considerable variation between different RIA methods for measuring steroids exists. Therefore the reported residue levels may be subject to considerable uncertainty. 2) Only limited information on the levels of the various metabolites of the steroids was given despite the fact that metabolites also may have biological activity. 3) Reliable data on daily production rates of steroid hormones were and are still lacking in healthy prepubertal children. This lack is crucial as previous guidelines regarding acceptable levels of steroid residues in edible animal tissues have been based on very questionable estimates of production rates in children. Thus, even today the US FDA bases its guidelines on the presumably highly overestimated production rates in prepubertal children given in the JECFA 1988 report. 4) The possible biological significance of very low levels of estradiol is neglected. In conclusion, based on our current knowledge possible adverse effects on human health by consumption of meat from hormone-treated animals cannot be excluded. (+info)
(4/393) Inulin and oligofructose: what are they?
Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) =10. Inulin and oligofructose are not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract; therefore, they have a reduced caloric value. They stimulate the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria. They do not lead to a rise in serum glucose or stimulate insulin secretion. Several commercial grades of inulin are available that have a neutral, clean flavor and are used to improve the mouthfeel, stability and acceptability of low fat foods. Oligofructose has a sweet, pleasant flavor and is highly soluble. It can be used to fortify foods with fiber without contributing any deleterious organoleptic effects, to improve the flavor and sweetness of low calorie foods and to improve the texture of fat-reduced foods. Inulin and oligofructose possess several functional and nutritional properties, which may be used to formulate innovative healthy foods for today's consumer. (+info)
(5/393) Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status.
Inulin and oligofructose are a significant part of the daily diet of most of the world's population. Daily intakes for the U.S. and Europe have been estimated at up to 10 g, specifically 1-4 g for the 97th percentile in the U.S. Because both inulin and oligofructose are macroingredients, it is difficult to apply classical toxicology tests. Although some high dose animal tests have been performed, none have revealed any toxic effects. The safety of inulin and oligofructose for use in foods was evaluated by many legal authorities worldwide. As a result, both inulin and oligofructose are accepted in most countries as food ingredients that can be used without restrictions in food formulations. In the U.S., a panel of experts performed a generally accepted as safe (GRAS) Self-Affirmation Evaluation in 1992 and concluded similarly. At high doses, increased flatulence and osmotic pressure can cause intestinal discomfort. These doses vary widely from person to person and also depend on the type of food in which inulin or oligofructose is incorporated. With regard to labeling, both inulin and oligofructose are gradually being accepted as "dietary fibers" in most countries around the world. The mention of their "bifidogenic effect" on food labels has also been legally accepted in several countries. (+info)
(6/393) Inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans.
BACKGROUND: Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a well-known inhibitor of iron absorption, whereas the effects of the less-phosphorylated derivatives of IP(6) are less known. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates (IP(3), IP(4), and IP(5), respectively) on iron absorption in humans. DESIGN: Iron absorption was measured in 5 experiments from single meals by extrinsic labeling with (55)Fe and (59)Fe and determination of whole-body retention and the erythrocyte uptake of isotopes. In experiments 1-3 the meals contained white-wheat rolls to which 10 mg P as IP(5), IP(4), or IP(3), respectively, was added. Inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate [Ins(1,2, 6)P(3)] and a mixture of isomers of IP(4) and IP(5) were studied. White-wheat rolls contained 10 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 2 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 4 and 20 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 3 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 5; inositol phosphates were obtained via fermentation of sodium phytate. Each experiment had 8-11 subjects. RESULTS: In experiment 1, iron absorption was reduced by 39%, whereas there was no significant effect on iron absorption in experiments 2 and 3. In experiments 4 and 5, iron absorption was reduced by 54% and 64%, respectively, suggesting that IP(3) and IP(4) contributed to the inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS: IP(5) has an inhibitory effect on iron absorption, whereas IP(3) and IP(4) in isolated form have no such effect. IP(3) and IP(4) in processed food contribute to the negative effect on iron absorption, presumably by binding iron between different inositol phosphates. To improve iron absorption from cereals and legumes, degradation of inositol phosphates needs to be to less-phosphorylated inositol phosphates than IP(3). (+info)
(7/393) Changes in thyroid function during development of thyroid hyperplasia induced by kojic acid in F344 rats.
To clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis by kojic acid (KA), dose and time dependence of iodine uptake in the thyroid gland and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels were investigated in F344 rats fed a diet containing 2% KA. After 4 weeks, thyroid hyperplasia was apparent in males, associated with a decrease in (125)I uptake into the thyroid gland to only 3% of that in controls. The serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) levels dropped to 0.36 ng/ml, 1.7 micrograms/dl from the initial values of 0.61 ng/ml, 4.0 micrograms/dl and TSH increased seven times to 15 ng/ml. In females, the effects on thyroid weight and (125)I uptake were less prominent, although the changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels were similar to those in males. Time-dependent changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels correlated with the inhibition of iodine uptake in the thyroid. Inhibition of organic iodine formation was only observed after 3 weeks treatment. On return to the control diet, normal serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels became evident within 48 h in both sexes. These data suggest that KA interrupts thyroid function, primarily by inhibiting iodine intake, consequently causing a decrease in serum T(3) and T(4). Increased TSH from the pituitary gland in turn stimulates thyroid hyperplasia, which is reversible on withdrawal of KA. (+info)
(8/393) Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger.
OBJECTIVE: Phytase is a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger that enhances phosphate bioavailability in the gut, and therefore has been increasingly used as an animal feed additive since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to assess whether work related respiratory symptoms among workers in a so called premix factory producing animal feed additives, could be due to type I (mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) allergic sensitisation to phytase. METHODS: Preparations of specific IgE against phytase as used in the factory were assessed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in serum samples of 11 exposed workers who regularly handled the enzyme, in 11 office and laboratory workers of the same plant (non-exposed internal controls), and in 19 laboratory animal workers as external controls. The factory workers also completed a questionnaire on common and work related respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Depending on the cut off level in the EIA for IgE, and the preparation used as coated allergen, antiphytase sensitisation was found in one to four of the 19 external controls, in one to five of the 11 internal controls, and in four to 10 of the 11 exposed workers. Strongest IgE reactions were found in four exposed workers who reported work related respiratory symptoms, particularly wheezing, and in one internal control who possibly had become sensitised because the structure of the factory building did not preclude airborne exposure in the offices and corridors of the plant. Experiments with inhibition EIA for IgE showed that (a) phytase of another commercial source was only partially cross reactive with phytase as used in the premix factory, and (b) phytase used as an animal feed additive did not cross react with common mould extracts, except for extracts from the species of origin, Aspergillus niger. The amount of IgE binding phytase in Aspergillus niger was estimated to be between 0.1% and 1% of the extractable mould proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Phytase is a potentially important new occupational allergen causing specific IgE immune responses among exposed workers. Such IgE sensitisation could probably be the cause of work related asthmatic and other respiratory symptoms if no effective measures are taken to prevent airborne occupational exposure at sites where phytase is handled, particularly during addition of enzyme preparations to animal feed. (+info)
- So here they are: preservatives and sweeteners, food colorings or taste enhancers, unveiled! (appbrain.com)
- Evidence found, showed that natural food dyes were used by ancient Romans and Egyptians. (hubpages.com)
- A comprehensive list of dyes in food products can be found at the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy . (health.com)
- Color additives are categorized as either dyes or lakes. (precisionnutrition.com)
- All of these, by the way, are legal "natural" food dyes. (precisionnutrition.com)
- With the advent of industrial processing, many food dyes were originally synthesized from coal tar, a carcinogen. (precisionnutrition.com)
- Each year, about 15 million pounds of synthetic dyes go into the U.S. food supply (well, the "processed" U.S. food supply). (precisionnutrition.com)
- Thus, various food dyes in a single processed food could lead to more potent carcinogenicity. (precisionnutrition.com)
- There are still nine food dyes permitted by the FDA. (precisionnutrition.com)
- 1. Food color - Artificial food colors, also known as food dyes, are found in soda, salad dressings and some fruit juices. (updatedtrends.com)
- Although there is no specific evidence of danger (Studies performed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have been limited and inconclusive, see Precision Nutrition blog "All About Food Color Additives" by Ryan Andrews), they could prove to be quite harmful. (hubpages.com)
- FOOD-GRADE MINERAL OIL Explanation This substance has been evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (see Annex 1, Ref. No. 23) in 1970. (inchem.org)
- Any substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of food, whether or not it has nutritive value. (precisionnutrition.com)
- Some of the ingredients in the foods we eat everyday may surprise you. (sheknows.com)
- To avoid foods with additives and chemicals, The Doctors program suggests buying products with fewer ingredients that don't contain words you can't pronounce. (sheknows.com)
- Unlike other conferences within the industry, this event allows those involved in either the food packaging or food ingredients supply chain to come together to discuss and hear about all the pressing different issues facing both sides of the food industry. (flexpack.org)
- Most studies of a possible link analyzed blends of additives, not single ingredients, making it difficult to find a culprit. (health.com)
- Harmful additives and questionable preparation processes have long been a hot topic of discussion in the food world, but how many of us really know the details? (sheknows.com)
- They contain aspartame, which is reportedly carcinogenic and can be more harmful than other foods and food additives. (updatedtrends.com)
- The monographs contained in the present volume are also issued by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, as FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 50A (c) FAO and WHO 1972 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ALGINATE Biological data Biochemical aspects In vitro hydrolysis by simulated gastric and intestinal juices shows practically no effect of gastric juice, while intestinal juice hydrolyses 25 per cent. (inchem.org)
- Every nutrition fad comes with its share of diet foods. (medindia.net)
- Intake of -cyclodextrin from use as a food additive has been estimated at 1-1.4 g/day. (inchem.org)
- No adverse effects on weight gain, food intake, were seen and histopathology of various organs demonstrated no significant lesions (Nilson & Wagner, 1951). (inchem.org)
- The small amounts formed are consistent with the calculated intake from food use (47.5 per head per year in the United States of America). (inchem.org)
- Synthetic food colors replaced the naturals in the 19th century because they were less expensive to make and manufacturers were able to exercise greater control over the intensity of flavor and texture. (hubpages.com)
- This is in sharp contrast compared to the beginning of the 19th century, when food options were based on localization and processing techniques were limited to Salting, Curing, Curdling, etc. (thepureway.com)
- A food coloring and the most widely used food dye in the U.S., trumping both Yellow No. 5 and Yellow No. 6. (health.com)
- The third most widely used food dye in the U.S. (health.com)
- Many people have experienced various negative reactions to food additives. (appbrain.com)
- Special studies on the possible reactions of Acesulfame K with food constituents Acesulfame K (1% aqueous solutions) was heated at 100 C with the model food constituents, ethanol, sorbitol, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine or n-butylamine, in acetate buffer at pH 5. (inchem.org)
- REFERENCES Clauss (1981) Model experiments aimed at detecting possible reactions of Acesulfame K with constituents of food. (inchem.org)
- Where do food colors come from? (precisionnutrition.com)
- When concerns arose about safety, however, conscientious manufacturers returned to the use of natural foods pigments. (hubpages.com)
- The history list retains the last additives that you searched. (appbrain.com)
- On Monday, February 27th, tune in to The Doctors talk show (check your local listings ) and get the full scoop on what's really in your food, including a list of additives often found on food labels. (sheknows.com)
- Below is a list of the benefits and side effects of some of our frequently used natural food color additives. (hubpages.com)
- Here's a list of additives that may aggravate attention problems, although none (with the exception of Yellow No. 5) has been studied alone in humans. (health.com)
- For a full list of food additives see the FDA site or Health Canada , which has a handy Food Additive Pocket Dictionary - great for when you can't remember the difference between isopropyl alcohol and isobutane. (precisionnutrition.com)
- We humans have a long history of using color additives to make our foods look and taste delicious. (hubpages.com)
- The long-term health effects of eating genetically engineered foods have never been studied in humans. (thepureway.com)
- This food color is made from the red seeds of the Bixa orellana or achiote tree which is native to South America and the Caribbean. (hubpages.com)
- What are food color additives? (precisionnutrition.com)
- In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration divides food color additives into two groups: certified, and exempt from certification. (precisionnutrition.com)
- Why do manufacturers use food color additives? (precisionnutrition.com)
- Manufacturers use color additives to cover up an absence of natural color (e.g. in margarine), offset color loss due to light/air/temperature exposure, and give the product "added value. (precisionnutrition.com)
- See the food color additives on the ingredient panel of Froot Loops? (precisionnutrition.com)
- Since 1955 our consumption of food color additives has increased by five times. (precisionnutrition.com)
- What are the problems with food color additives? (precisionnutrition.com)
- White has long been the symbolic color of clean," explains food industry insider Bruce Bradley, who shares the tricks, traps, and ploys of big food manufacturers on his blog, BruceBradley.com. (thepureway.com)
- Translation: the U.S. eats a lot of processed foods. (precisionnutrition.com)
- The food industry adds it to hundreds of products to make dingy, overly processed items appear white. (thepureway.com)
- This article will highlight the top diet foods that make you fat. (medindia.net)
- Speaking in Nottingham, he singled out the manufacturers of junk foods for criticism. (medindia.net)
- You can search for food additives by E-number, by name or by alternative name(s). (appbrain.com)
- The Food and Drug Administration legally allows 19 maggots and 74 mites in a 3.5-ounce can of mushrooms. (thepureway.com)
- Today's food is full of additives. (appbrain.com)
- We must face the facts, this is what the Modern Day Food Industry has become… Unfortunately, no one can dispute that. (thepureway.com)
- For decades, the food industry has been adding it to certain sodas, juices, and sports drinks including Mountain Dew, Fanta Orange, Sunkist Pineapple, and some Gatorade and PowerAde Flavors. (thepureway.com)
- The food industry has been using food additives since years, as they help enhance the food's appearance and also increase its shelf life. (updatedtrends.com)
- A strong warning was issued by Britain's prime minister to the food industry to curtail the advertising of the products that were not-so- healthy to children or face the risk of a total ban on the promotional ads that target minors. (medindia.net)
- In a broad address on improving public health, Tony Blair warned that in case of the voluntary regulations failing, the food industry would be forced to eliminate unhealthy food advertising to children in 2007. (medindia.net)
- The executives of the advertising and food industry have proposed a package that would do away with cartoon characters and pop band trademarks targeting children below 11 years, and would restrict the advertisements to 30 seconds per hour on the television channels for children. (medindia.net)
- Although the higher price of organic food can deter shoppers, organic meat and poultry is a worthwhile place to put the extra money. (sheknows.com)
- no figure could be arrived at for organic arsenicals in food" (Annex 1, reference 62). (inchem.org)
- Funny, when you use real food, you don't need any of these crazy additives - I think I prefer the read deal. (thepureway.com)
- Read on to become a pro in label reading and don t get tricked by fancy promotions of food product manufacturing companies. (medindia.net)
- You'll find sodium benzoate in abundance in acidic foods. (health.com)
- Find 21865 meaning of food from meaning of food Super Wholesalers & meaning of food Wholesaler Supplier for your sourcing needs from China. (wfpuyang.com)
- When it comes to food additives, there are 4 that you should avoid. (updatedtrends.com)
- Here are few of the food additives which you can avoid, as they can cause severe consequences to health. (updatedtrends.com)
- 2. Trans fat in processed food - Processed food often has trans fat, which increases the shelf life of products, especially the ones which are deep fried. (updatedtrends.com)
- She is a freelance writer, recipe developer and is also the cook, author and photographer behind the food blog, Tasty Trials , a collection of original recipes and stories. (sheknows.com)
- Recently we came across an article on Rodale.com ( The 15 Grossest Things You're Eating ) which uncovered some of the most disgusting food additives currently used in a variety of America's favorite foods. (thepureway.com)
- Some of additives are harmless, many not quite healthy and several are dangerous. (appbrain.com)
- Will eliminating dye-containing foods from a child's diet help ADHD? (health.com)
- A diet food contains protein, fiber and good fats, which help in weight management. (medindia.net)
- Processed or convenience foods require less time and energy for food preparation. (medindia.net)
- Is everybody in denial of what is being added to our food supply? (thepureway.com)
- The conference brings together the realms of food contact and food additives, to provide delegates with critical updates in each of these fields within the US and wider international markets. (flexpack.org)
- The importance of eating food and the physiological, psychological and social functions of food. (medindia.net)
- It allows you to check whether an additive is suitable for vegans, vegetarians or for people from different religions. (appbrain.com)
- Diet foods if consumed regularly can aid in weight loss. (medindia.net)
- So basically, a food additive is something that doesn't normally occur in the food we eat - it has to be added… hence the name. (precisionnutrition.com)
- Sources of mineral oil are laxatives or oils used in food technology as release agents or for lubrication purposes (Boitnott & Margolis, 1966). (inchem.org)
- Well people… I'm a realist and the reality is that food is being MANUFACTURED now a days! (thepureway.com)
- National Research Council of Canada, 1978) With the exception of fish, most foods contain less than 0.25 g/g arsenic. (inchem.org)
- And of course, if you have the luxury of time, preparing your foods completely from scratch ensures that you know exactly what is going into your meal. (sheknows.com)
- Most of the processed foods are healthy with nutritional values. (medindia.net)
- While they seem healthy, many diet foods promote weight gain. (medindia.net)
- But Bradley notes that cost and the limited availability of calf stomachs have led to the development of several alternatives, including vegetable rennet, microbial rennet, and-the food industry's rennet of choice - a genetically modified version derived from a cloned calf gene. (thepureway.com)