Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Cyclamates: Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Consumer Product SafetyCalcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.

*  Food additive chemical Manufacturers & Suppliers, China food additive chemical Manufacturers & Factories
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*  Common food additive promotes colon cancer in mice | EurekAlert! Science News
... which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter intestinal bacteria in a manner that ... Common food additive promotes colon cancer in mice. Georgia State University. Journal. Cancer Research. Funder. National ... The addition of emulsifiers to food seems to fit the time frame and had been shown to promote bacterial translocation across ... ATLANTA--Emulsifiers, which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter intestinal ...
*  Food Additives (GLOBAL) - Industry Report
Industry Report Plimsoll Publishing's Food Additives (GLOBAL) Analysis provides a detailed overview of the Food Additives ( ... Food & Beverage»Food»Additives & Supplements Food Additives (GLOBAL) - Industry Report. Lowest Prices Guaranteed. Length. ... Plimsoll Publishing's Food Additives (GLOBAL) Analysis provides a detailed overview of the Food Additives (GLOBAL) market and ... Plimsoll's Food Additives (GLOBAL) analysis is the most definitive and accurate study of the Food Additives (GLOBAL) sector in ...
*  2017 Forecast - Food Additives Global Market, Industry Size, Share, Analysis and Opportunities to 2023. | Business
There are two main types of food additives available in the market, direct and indirect food additives. ... to produce the nature based food additives in the global food additives market. Factors restraining the market growth are ... Direct additives are added to change the particular property of the food such as taste, whereas the indirect additives are ... Latest industry research report on Food additives are substances that are added to food in order to improve its particular ...
*  Controlling food additives level in a process tank case study on Environmental XPRT
SmartScan50 provides real time level measurement results of food additives during production for a major chemical supplier. The ... Article Controlling food additives level in a process tank case study. ... No comments were found for Controlling food additives level in a process tank case study. Be the first to comment! ... SmartScan50 provides real time level measurement results of food additives during production for a major chemical supplier. ...
*  Food Additives Amendment of 1958 - Wikipedia
... food additive tolerance requirements.[1] The concept of food additives being "generally recognized as safe" was first described ... Food Additives Amendment of 1958. Long title. An Act to protect the public health by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and ... The Food Additives Amendment of 1958 is a 1958 amendment to the United States' Food, Drugs, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. It was a ... "the Secretary of the Food and Drug Administration shall not approve for use in food any chemical additive found to induce ...
*  GreenSpace: Who's monitoring food additives?
... food to make it taste better or look better, to thicken it, preserve it, or otherwise improve it. - Sandy Bauers, Philadelphia ... In short, a manufacturer can come up with a food additive, determine on its own that the additive qualifies as GRAS, begin ... GreenSpace: Who's monitoring food additives? Updated: August 18, 2013 - 3:01 AM EDT * ... "This state of affairs might not matter if all food additives were safe at current levels of intake. But some are not," she ...
*  Food Additives 2
Home / For Your Practice / For Your Patients / Patient Mobile Apps / Food Additives 2 ... Offers a self-contained database (no wireless connection needed) in which users can look up food additives found in products. ... The one disadvantage is that the free version only has 50 additives. Users must purchase the full version for the 450+ additive ... Very easy to use and offers a lot of information on the additives searched. ...
*  Food Additives | European Food Safety Authority
EFSA has three main tasks in relation to food additives:. *Evaluating the safety of new food additives or proposed new uses of ... The ANS Panel assesses the safety of new food additives and new uses of permitted food additives. Since 2009 the Panel has also ... In the European Union all food additives are identified by an E number. Food additives are always included in the ingredient ... EFSA's expert Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS) carries out its safety evaluations of food ...
*  More on unsafe food additives - Terra Sigillata
More on unsafe food additives. Posted by Abel Pharmboy on May 9, 2007 ... Between melamine and diethylene glycol, most of my attention this past week has been on unsafe food and drug additives in ... While the most egregious examples generally involve food for local consumption, dangerous additives occasionally end up in ... Across Asia, small-scale food manufacturers and street vendors often boost profits by using cheap but toxic chemicals as ...
*  Sometimes, Food Additives Are Pretty Innocuous : NPR
Most packaged foods contain at least one item you wouldn't recognize. But many food experts caution that just because you don't ... in some ground beef refocused attention on what's in the food we eat. ... CONAN: And I understand you teach a class called Food Choices and Issues. So why do we put additives in our food? ... Sometimes, Food Additives Are Pretty Innocuous The uproar over what critics call "pink slime" in some ground beef refocused ...
*  Most Dangerous Food Additives | HubPages
Food additive is a substance added to foods to improve its certain characteristics such as color, aroma, consistency, taste, ... Additives are not generally considered nutritional even if they have some... ... Food additive. Food additive is a substance added to foods to improve its certain characteristics such as color, aroma, ... 6. Monosodium glutamate (MSG): MSG is a food additive and used as a flavor enhancer in many packaged foods, including soups, ...
*  Introduction (JECFA Food Additives Series 49)
WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES: 49. Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Prepared by the fifty- ... regarding the safety of food additives, residues of veterinary drugs, naturally occurring toxicants, and contaminants in food. ... Annex 1 Reports and other documents resulting from previous meetings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. ... Annex 3 Participants in the fifty-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. ...
*  Food additive - New World Encyclopedia
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. Some additives have been ... Food chemistry. Carbohydrates • Colors • Enzymes • Fatty acids * Flavors • Food additives • Lipids • Minerals • Proteins • ... Food Intolerance Network Retrieved April 15, 2007.. References. *U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Everything Added to Food in ... Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value.. Food ...
*  Food Additive Wholesale, Addit Suppliers - Alibaba
About 28% of these are food additives, 10% are sweeteners, and 9% are stabilizers. A wide variety of food additive options are ... additives food chemical all additives meat additive candy additives organic additive food additive etc nutrient additive ... Related Searches for food additive: bread additives coffee additives food ingredients bakery additives baking additives ice ... Tags: Food Additives In Milk , Sodium Citrate Food Additives , Food Protein Additives , View larger image ...
*  Green Food Additives
Browse to find green food additives sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories. ... green food additives. You May Also Be Interested In: bht food additives food preservatives green food tea polyphenols Tea ... Besides, Theine has the function of protecting the acridine alkaloid and vitamin in the food, and keep the original lustre and ... Tea polyphenols can be used for food preservatives anticorrosive, non-toxic side effects, safe to eat. Collaborative advantages ...
*  New Guide Warns of 'Dirty Dozen' Food Additives | EWG
Environmental Working Group today published a new Dirty Dozen Guide to Food Additives designed to help people figure out which ... "Lobbyists for the food industry have long sought a permissive approach to the use of food additives. As long as their views ... The Dirty Dozen Guide to Food Additives is based on scientific studies of hundreds of additives and data gathered from EWG's ... Additives designated as GRAS do not need government review or approval before they go on the market. Instead, a food ...
*  synthetic food additives
Archives for synthetic food additives. List of Sequestrants. The definition of a sequestrant is a food additive or preservative ... which serve as catalysts in the oxidation of the fats in the food. Calcium acetate Calcium chloride Calcium citrate Calcium … [ ... whose role is to improve the quality and stability of the food products. Sequestrants form chelate complexes with polyvalent ...
*  One Woman's Laments Over Food Additives | HubPages
Perhaps they'll be answered on Jeopardy or Are You Smarter than a 5th Grader? The category is food... ... Food Additives. Toxins in Vitamins and Medicine: Artificial Food Dye Dangers in Essential Vitamins and Minerals. by Melis Ann. ... Perhaps they'll be answered on Jeopardy or Are You Smarter than a 5th Grader? The category is food additives. Now, here is the ... Hidden food additives that cause anxiety and panic attacks. by AnxiousAthena LM. 25 ...
*  561. Ethylmethylphenylglycidate (WHO Food Additives Series 18)
1967) Food flavourings and compounds of related structure. II - Subacute and chronic toxicity, Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 5, 141- ... 1964) Food flavourings and compounds of related structure. I - Acute oral toxicity, Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 2, 327-343 Mason, P ... acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1967 and 1974 (see Annex I, Refs. 14 and 34 ... 1981) Long-term toxicity study on ethyl methylphenyl glycidate (strawberry aldehyde) in rat, Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 19, 691-699 ...
*  FDA: Food additives not risky - tribunedigital-baltimoresun
You don't have much reason to worry about food additives, one of the great scares of the last few years.If you remember the ... Here's some good news: You don't have much reason to worry about food additives, one of the great scares of the last few years. ... In order to increase your risk of cancer or other disease resulting from food additives, you would have to eat many pounds of ... The agricultural chemicals are considered to be villains as the result of a 1958 law that banned all food additives and ...
*  PRINT Food additives linked to hyperactivity in children
June 3, 2004, as reported by New research connects food additives such as colorings and preservatives to ... During the first week, their diet contained no additives. During the next three weeks, food coloring and sodium benzoate were ... Parents said additive-consuming children were calmer than usual the first week and the opposite for the following three weeks. ... According to a new study conducted by British scientists, children who consumed a daily dose of 20 milligrams of food coloring ...
*  430. Adipic acid (WHO Food Additives Series 12)
SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGICAL DATA OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES NO. 12 The data contained in this document ... Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives* Geneva, 18-27 April 1977 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ... Food consumption was normal in all groups except in the 5% group, where there was a consistent reduction in food intake. ... the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (see Annex I, Ref. Nos. 11 and 13) in 1965. The previous monograph has ...
*  469. Castor Oil (WHO Food Additives Series 14)
... food additive use of castor oil should be kept well below levels where absorption would be inhibited. At doses of 4 g in adults ...
*  Food Additives to Avoid During Pregnancy | LIVESTRONG.COM
Read the ingredient list on food labels to determine whether the foods you are eating have added food dyes. Limit these ... Food Additives to Avoid During Pregnancy by STACEY PHILLIPS Last Updated: Oct 03, 2017. ... Avoid certain food additives for a healthy pregnancy. Photo Credit: Jupiterimages/ Images ... Monitor Food Dye Intake. Blue 1, blue 2, green 3, red 3, yellow 6 and yellow tartrazine are food colorings used in soda, juice ...

E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,Caramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Preservative: A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.Sunkist (soft drink): Sunkist is a brand of primarily orange flavored soft drinks launched in 1979.AspartameArchips seditiosa: Archips seditiosa is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found in western Malaysia and Java.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Butylated hydroxyanisoleAssugrinPublic Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActFood contact materials: Food contact materials are materials that are intended to be in contact with food. These can be things that are quite obvious like a glass, a can for soft drinks, but also machinery in a food factory or a coffee machine.Aldrin (disambiguation): Aldrin is a pesticide.Perfume: Perfume ( ; ) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent."SAFE FOODSDrugwipe test: The DrugWipe is a test used to wipe surfaces for traces of drug residue. It may also be used for sweat or saliva tests of individuals.IontocaineSweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Monosodium phosphateCorn PopsTrifluoroacetic anhydrideFood desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.AnisoleConsumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Mineral trioxide aggregate: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed for use as a dental root repair material by Dr. Mahmoud Torabinejad, DMD, MSD, PhD Professor and Director of Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry and was formulated from commercial Portland cement combined with bismuth oxide powder for radiopacity.Drug allergy

(1/393) A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation.

The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains.  (+info)

(2/393) Effects of ionic compositions of the medium on monosodium glutamate binding to taste epithelial cells.

Monosodium glutamate and nucleotides are umami taste substances in animals and have a synergistic effect on each other. We studied the ligand-binding properties of the glutamate receptors in taste epithelial cells isolated from bovine tongue. Specific glutamate binding was observed in an enriched suspension of taste receptor cells in Hanks' balanced salt solution, while no specific glutamate binding was apparent in the absence of divalent ions or when the cells had been depolarized by a high content of potassium in Hanks' balanced salt solution. There was no significant difference between the release of glutamate under depolarized or divalent ion-free conditions and under normal conditions. However, glutamate was easily released from the depolarized cells in the absence of divalent ions. These data suggest that the binding of glutamate to receptors depends on divalent ions, which also have an effect on maintaining binding between glutamate and receptors.  (+info)

(3/393) Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health.

There has been increasing concern about the impact of environmental compounds with hormone-like action on human development and reproductive health over the past decades. An alternative but neglected source of hormone action that may be considered in this connection is hormone residues in meat from husbandry animals treated with sex steroid hormones for growth promotion. Treatment of cattle with naturally occurring or synthetic sex hormones may enhance lean muscle growth and improve feed efficiency and is therefore a very cost effective procedure for cattle producers who have used it for decades in some Western countries, including the USA and Canada. The Joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) expert committee on food additives (JECFA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered, in 1988, that the residues found in meat from treated animals were safe for the consumers. We have re-evaluated the JECFA conclusions regarding the safety of estradiol residues in meat in the light of recent scientific data, with special emphasis on estradiol levels in prepubertal children. These levels are needed for estimates of the normal daily production rates of estradiol in children, who may be particularly sensitive to low levels of estradiol. In our opinion, the conclusions by JECFA concerning the safety of hormone residues in meat seem to be based on uncertain assumptions and inadequate scientific data. Our concerns can be summarized as follows. 1) The data on residue levels in meat were based on studies performed in the 1970's and 1980's using radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods available at the time. The sensitivity of the methods was generally inadequate to measure precisely the low levels found in animal tissues, and considerable variation between different RIA methods for measuring steroids exists. Therefore the reported residue levels may be subject to considerable uncertainty. 2) Only limited information on the levels of the various metabolites of the steroids was given despite the fact that metabolites also may have biological activity. 3) Reliable data on daily production rates of steroid hormones were and are still lacking in healthy prepubertal children. This lack is crucial as previous guidelines regarding acceptable levels of steroid residues in edible animal tissues have been based on very questionable estimates of production rates in children. Thus, even today the US FDA bases its guidelines on the presumably highly overestimated production rates in prepubertal children given in the JECFA 1988 report. 4) The possible biological significance of very low levels of estradiol is neglected. In conclusion, based on our current knowledge possible adverse effects on human health by consumption of meat from hormone-treated animals cannot be excluded.  (+info)

(4/393) Inulin and oligofructose: what are they?

Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) +info)

(5/393) Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status.

Inulin and oligofructose are a significant part of the daily diet of most of the world's population. Daily intakes for the U.S. and Europe have been estimated at up to 10 g, specifically 1-4 g for the 97th percentile in the U.S. Because both inulin and oligofructose are macroingredients, it is difficult to apply classical toxicology tests. Although some high dose animal tests have been performed, none have revealed any toxic effects. The safety of inulin and oligofructose for use in foods was evaluated by many legal authorities worldwide. As a result, both inulin and oligofructose are accepted in most countries as food ingredients that can be used without restrictions in food formulations. In the U.S., a panel of experts performed a generally accepted as safe (GRAS) Self-Affirmation Evaluation in 1992 and concluded similarly. At high doses, increased flatulence and osmotic pressure can cause intestinal discomfort. These doses vary widely from person to person and also depend on the type of food in which inulin or oligofructose is incorporated. With regard to labeling, both inulin and oligofructose are gradually being accepted as "dietary fibers" in most countries around the world. The mention of their "bifidogenic effect" on food labels has also been legally accepted in several countries.  (+info)

(6/393) Inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans.

BACKGROUND: Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a well-known inhibitor of iron absorption, whereas the effects of the less-phosphorylated derivatives of IP(6) are less known. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates (IP(3), IP(4), and IP(5), respectively) on iron absorption in humans. DESIGN: Iron absorption was measured in 5 experiments from single meals by extrinsic labeling with (55)Fe and (59)Fe and determination of whole-body retention and the erythrocyte uptake of isotopes. In experiments 1-3 the meals contained white-wheat rolls to which 10 mg P as IP(5), IP(4), or IP(3), respectively, was added. Inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate [Ins(1,2, 6)P(3)] and a mixture of isomers of IP(4) and IP(5) were studied. White-wheat rolls contained 10 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 2 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 4 and 20 mg P as IP(3) + IP(4) and 3 mg P as IP(5) + IP(6) in experiment 5; inositol phosphates were obtained via fermentation of sodium phytate. Each experiment had 8-11 subjects. RESULTS: In experiment 1, iron absorption was reduced by 39%, whereas there was no significant effect on iron absorption in experiments 2 and 3. In experiments 4 and 5, iron absorption was reduced by 54% and 64%, respectively, suggesting that IP(3) and IP(4) contributed to the inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS: IP(5) has an inhibitory effect on iron absorption, whereas IP(3) and IP(4) in isolated form have no such effect. IP(3) and IP(4) in processed food contribute to the negative effect on iron absorption, presumably by binding iron between different inositol phosphates. To improve iron absorption from cereals and legumes, degradation of inositol phosphates needs to be to less-phosphorylated inositol phosphates than IP(3).  (+info)

(7/393) Changes in thyroid function during development of thyroid hyperplasia induced by kojic acid in F344 rats.

To clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis by kojic acid (KA), dose and time dependence of iodine uptake in the thyroid gland and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels were investigated in F344 rats fed a diet containing 2% KA. After 4 weeks, thyroid hyperplasia was apparent in males, associated with a decrease in (125)I uptake into the thyroid gland to only 3% of that in controls. The serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) levels dropped to 0.36 ng/ml, 1.7 micrograms/dl from the initial values of 0.61 ng/ml, 4.0 micrograms/dl and TSH increased seven times to 15 ng/ml. In females, the effects on thyroid weight and (125)I uptake were less prominent, although the changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels were similar to those in males. Time-dependent changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels correlated with the inhibition of iodine uptake in the thyroid. Inhibition of organic iodine formation was only observed after 3 weeks treatment. On return to the control diet, normal serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels became evident within 48 h in both sexes. These data suggest that KA interrupts thyroid function, primarily by inhibiting iodine intake, consequently causing a decrease in serum T(3) and T(4). Increased TSH from the pituitary gland in turn stimulates thyroid hyperplasia, which is reversible on withdrawal of KA.  (+info)

(8/393) Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger.

OBJECTIVE: Phytase is a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger that enhances phosphate bioavailability in the gut, and therefore has been increasingly used as an animal feed additive since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to assess whether work related respiratory symptoms among workers in a so called premix factory producing animal feed additives, could be due to type I (mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) allergic sensitisation to phytase. METHODS: Preparations of specific IgE against phytase as used in the factory were assessed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in serum samples of 11 exposed workers who regularly handled the enzyme, in 11 office and laboratory workers of the same plant (non-exposed internal controls), and in 19 laboratory animal workers as external controls. The factory workers also completed a questionnaire on common and work related respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Depending on the cut off level in the EIA for IgE, and the preparation used as coated allergen, antiphytase sensitisation was found in one to four of the 19 external controls, in one to five of the 11 internal controls, and in four to 10 of the 11 exposed workers. Strongest IgE reactions were found in four exposed workers who reported work related respiratory symptoms, particularly wheezing, and in one internal control who possibly had become sensitised because the structure of the factory building did not preclude airborne exposure in the offices and corridors of the plant. Experiments with inhibition EIA for IgE showed that (a) phytase of another commercial source was only partially cross reactive with phytase as used in the premix factory, and (b) phytase used as an animal feed additive did not cross react with common mould extracts, except for extracts from the species of origin, Aspergillus niger. The amount of IgE binding phytase in Aspergillus niger was estimated to be between 0.1% and 1% of the extractable mould proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Phytase is a potentially important new occupational allergen causing specific IgE immune responses among exposed workers. Such IgE sensitisation could probably be the cause of work related asthmatic and other respiratory symptoms if no effective measures are taken to prevent airborne occupational exposure at sites where phytase is handled, particularly during addition of enzyme preparations to animal feed.  (+info)

  • GRAS
  • Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. (
  • In short, a manufacturer can come up with a food additive, determine on its own that the additive qualifies as GRAS, begin using it, and never notify the FDA - as has happened in about 1,000 cases, the researchers estimate. (
  • A few additives once assumed to be safe, such as cyclamate salts and sulfites, are now banned or no longer considered GRAS. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) listed these items as "Generally recognized as safe" or GRAS, and these are listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services number and FDA regulation listed under the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. (
  • Additives designated as GRAS do not need government review or approval before they go on the market. (
  • In one case, as Natural Resources Defense Council found, FDA food safety scientists questioned a company voluntarily seeking GRAS approval of theobromine. (
  • Caffeine and other GRAS (generally recognized as safe) additives such as sugar and salt are not required to go through the regulation process. (
  • As a food additive, dipotassium phosphate is categorized in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (
  • Caffeine is classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). (
  • 2001
  • It replaced guidance from 2001 by the European Commission's former Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and later endorsed by EFSA's Panels for use in their risk assessments. (
  • chemicals
  • As analytical chemistry became more powerful and able to detect smaller quantities of chemicals, and as chemicals became more widely used, regulatory agencies had an increasingly difficult time administering the Delaney Clause as it "recognizes no distinctions based on carcinogenic potency and, at least in theory, it applies equally to additives used in large amounts and to those present at barely detectable levels. (
  • About 10,000 chemicals are added to Americans' food to make it taste better or look better, to thicken it, preserve it, or otherwise improve it. (
  • That's an awful lot of chemicals for the federal Food and Drug Administration to monitor. (
  • According to the authors of a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine this month, the agency doesn't even know what all the food additive chemicals are. (
  • Across Asia, small-scale food manufacturers and street vendors often boost profits by using cheap but toxic chemicals as sweeteners, dyes and preservatives. (
  • Human ignorance as well as greed knows no bounds," says Gerald Moy, manager of the World Health Organization's office that monitors chemicals in the global food supply. (
  • The Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was established in 1995 by UNEP, ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, WHO, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Partici-pating Organizations), following recommendations made by the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. (
  • Industrial Chemicals And Additives 14. (
  • unsafe
  • Neltner suspects that companies don't blatantly declare an unsafe additive safe, that it's more likely a matter of "a thumb on the scale," a consultant being less than rigorous, or ignoring a twinge of doubt. (
  • Between melamine and diethylene glycol , most of my attention this past week has been on unsafe food and drug additives in products imported into the US and other countries. (
  • Toxins
  • Indeed, naturally occurring toxins and carcinogens in food pose a far greater danger but even that is so tiny as to be almost inconsiderable, say researchers at the FDA, the University of Texas, Stanford University and elsewhere. (
  • Powder
  • A dipotassium phosphate solution is formed by the stoichiometric reaction of phosphoric acid with two equivalents of potassium hydroxide: H3PO4 + 2 KOH → K2HPO4 + 2 H2O As a food additive, dipotassium phosphate is used in imitation dairy creamers, dry powder beverages, mineral supplements, and starter cultures. (
  • Modern technologies include beating over sheets of black special treated paper or polyester sheets coated with food grade calcium powder (nicknamed "german plastic") are used instead of ox-guts or cow hide. (
  • consumption
  • While the most egregious examples generally involve food for local consumption, dangerous additives occasionally end up in foods exported to the U.S. and other Western countries, highlighting the scope of the problems regulators face. (
  • In the meantime, EWG recommends consumers limit their consumption of foods with these additives, particularly if they are in unhealthy and highly processed products, until more information is available. (
  • 1967). A well-defined sample of EMPG was fed to groups of 15 male and 15 female rats at dietary levels of 0 (control), 0.02, 0.1 and 0.5% for 15 weeks and was found to have no effect on growth rate, food or water consumption of the animals. (
  • Fatty
  • Aluminium - color (silver) Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant Amaranth oil - high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids - used in food and cosmetic industries. (
  • list
  • Not all additives are cause for concern, but EWG's Dirty Dozen list is a good place to start to identify which ones to avoid or minimize in your diet. (
  • See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names. (
  • Notable examples include: Countless other plants not commonly used as food are also poisonous, and care should be taken to avoid accidentally contacting or ingesting them: Death portal Medicine portal Biopesticide List of plants poisonous to equines List of poisonous fungi Mushroom poisoning Poison Psychedelic plants Secondary metabolite Toxin Weed Keddy, P.A. 2007. (
  • establish
  • An Act to protect the public health by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to prohibit the use in food of additives which have not been adequately tested to establish their safety. (
  • Committee
  • The monographs contained in this volume were prepared at the fifty-eighth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), which met at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, 21 27 February 2002. (
  • This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Committee to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved for use. (
  • INS numbers are assigned by the committee to identify each food additive. (
  • The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, WHO Technical Report Series 922. (
  • sweeteners
  • The most common additives to appear on food labels are antioxidants (to prevent deterioration caused by oxidation), colours, emulsifiers, stabilisers, gelling agents and thickeners, preservatives and sweeteners. (
  • Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. (
  • Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay. (
  • antioxidants
  • Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and are generally beneficial to health. (
  • Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C are preservatives by inhibiting the degradation of food by oxygen. (
  • safety
  • It was a response to concerns about the safety of new food additives. (
  • Based on these data, the Panel draws conclusions on the safety of the intended uses of the food additive for the consumers. (
  • The ANS Panel assesses the safety of new food additives and new uses of permitted food additives. (
  • 2009 In line with Regulation EC 1331/2008, the ANS Panel specified the type of data that industry should provide for the safety assessment of food additives. (
  • Companies are resorting to their own experts and paid consultants for safety approval of food additives, and not the government. (
  • New policy gives priority to food safety Federal change may. (
  • The fourth part deals with safety aspects related to glycyrrhizinic acid, and its monoammonium salt as a natural constituent of liquorice and its use as a flavoring substance in various food products. (
  • Care in package design and use is needed for proper food safety. (
  • Due to the safety and ethical reasons, the government of India issued food safety and product standards guidelines for the manufacturers of the silver foil. (
  • Concerns have been raised about the ethical acceptability and food safety of Vark, as not all of it is pure silver (sometimes aluminium is used, which is toxic), nor hygienically prepared, and the foil nowadays commonly is beaten between layers of ox-gut because it is easier to separate the silver leaf from animal tissue than to separate it from paper. (
  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India has issued guidelines for the silver leaf manufactures to adhere to regarding thickness, weight, purity, labelling and hygiene of the silver leaf. (
  • Dyes
  • Some studies also suggest behavioral problems and a decrease in IQ in children if you consume too many products with food dyes. (
  • artificial
  • Artificial coloring is another food additive found in baked goods, candies, salmon farms, some vitamins and beverages. (
  • Read the food labels and avoid artificial food colors including blue 1, blue 2, red 40, red 3, wellow 5, yellow 6 and green 3. (
  • Saccharin is an artificial sweetener and is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, diet foods and toothpaste. (
  • With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. (
  • EWG draws attention to artificial colors such as "FD&C colors" and "Caramel III and IV" because they are widely used in highly processed foods, and some could be contaminated with compounds that can cause cancer in animals. (
  • toxicity
  • They searched the FDA's database and found that, for about 80 percent of food additives, the agency lacked relevant information, including toxicity data, about the safe amount to eat. (
  • foodstuffs
  • Ironically, if this law applied to foods themselves, many all-natural foodstuffs would be taken off the store shelves never mind the fungi that would now be free to infect them. (
  • Australia and Ne
  • Additive 103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand . (
  • On packaging in the European Union (EU), approved food additives are written with a prefix of E. Australia and New Zealand do not use a prefix letter when listing additives in the ingredients. (
  • In the table below, food additives approved for the EU are listed with an 'E', and those approved for Australia and New Zealand with an 'A'. and for the US with a U, even though the US does not use the INS numbering system. (
  • products
  • Offers a self-contained database (no wireless connection needed) in which users can look up food additives found in products. (
  • This is an exposure assessment tool specifically developed by EFSA to support the calculation by applicants of estimates of exposure to the food additive and its by-products. (
  • But I think today in our conversation, hopefully we can provide some perspectives about these products that will shed some light on why they're there and the importance that they play, the function that they play in our foods and in our food supply. (
  • For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. (
  • As the New York Times put it, Food Scores is "one of the most comprehensive online databases of food products. (
  • The susceptor (which may be located on examination from its gray or blue-gray color, which is different from paper) is the reason products meant to be browned via susceptor-generated thermal radiation carry instructions to microwave the food while still inside its packaging. (
  • risk assessment
  • 2012 The ANS Panel adopted guidance for the submission of food additive applications, reflecting advances in science and the latest risk assessment principles. (
  • vitamin
  • Besides, Theine has the function of protecting the acridine alkaloid and vitamin in the food, and keep the original lustre and nutrition levels in good condition as well. (
  • Practice
  • The tradition of using silver and gold foils to decorate food originated from the ancient Ayurvedic practice of using precious metals and pieces of pearl and conch shell in bhasma (medicinal ash). (
  • pose
  • In some cases, food grown without pesticides may harbor organisms that pose a far greater risk to you than the pesticides would have. (
  • Agriculture Organization
  • It is defined by Codex Alimentarius, the international food standards organisation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN). (
  • found
  • the Secretary of the Food and Drug Administration shall not approve for use in food any chemical additive found to induce cancer in man, or, after tests, found to induce cancer in animals. (
  • It is found in beverages, low calorie foods and sugar free foods. (
  • Aspartame
  • While generally regarded as safe for pregnant women by the FDA, avoid aspartame containing foods if you have a history of phenylketonuria or PKU. (
  • consumers
  • We really want to make more foods readily available to consumers. (
  • listed as "potassium phosphate, dibasic") The compound is for food uses although it may be bad for consumers to eat vast amounts of it. (
  • safe
  • Tea polyphenols can be used for food preservatives anticorrosive, non-toxic side effects, safe to eat. (
  • Instead, a food manufacturer can decide whether a compound is safe without oversight from the FDA. (
  • It was approved for use in foods in 1968 and is accepted as a safe food additive in the USA, Canada, Europe, and many other countries, with E number E415. (
  • Most of these food plants are safe for the average adult to eat in modest quantities. (
  • sodium
  • During the next three weeks, food coloring and sodium benzoate were secretly added to the children's diets. (
  • based on scientific studies
  • The Dirty Dozen Guide to Food Additives is based on scientific studies of hundreds of additives and data gathered from EWG's newly released Food Scores: Rate Your Plate database and mobile app.The database houses information on more than 80,000 foods and 5,000 ingredients from about 1,500 brands. (