Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)RestaurantsCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Frozen FoodsConsumer Product SafetyNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.United StatesNutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Food Contamination, RadioactiveDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Menu PlanningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Schools: Educational institutions.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Peanut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nunavut: A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.JapanRats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Cooking and Eating UtensilsAdministration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.

*  Genetically Modified Organisms - SourceWatch

The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) original policy on GE (or GM, for genetically modified) plants, developed in 1992, ... "Consumers willing to pay premium for healthier genetically modified foods: ISU study," September 14, 2011. ... Genetically Engineered Crops. Types of Genetically Engineered Crops. The USDA has deregulated (legalized) over 100 genetically ... Andrew Rowell, Don't Worry (It's Safe to Eat): The True Story of GM Food, BSE and Foot and Mouth, Routledge, June 1, 2003. ...
https://sourcewatch.org/index.php/Genetically_engineered_crops

*  We Don?t Need Genetically Modified Foods | Feature Article 2005-08-31

First, I was full of praises when I heard about the ban on GM foods and a few days later he comes round to support GM foods.. ... In the US if you go to the supermarket, organically grown food cost more than the GM foods. Organically grown foods are mostly ... There have been a few articles written on this site about genetically modified foods. The minister of Agriculture has been flip ... If they were genetically modified, nobody in the western world would touch it. Organic farming is the way to go. The government ...
https://ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=89167

*  France Launches Major Investigation Into GMOs Following Tumor Study | Natural Society

Lamb Genetically Modified with Jellyfish DNA Sold as Meat in France Court in France Confirms Farmer Was Poisoned by Monsanto ... "the most thorough research ever published into the health effects of GM food crops and the herbicide Roundup on rats." Finding ... The duo went on to highlight how the decision could go as far as generating an emergency suspension of Monsanto's modified corn ...
naturalsociety.com/france-launches-investigation-gmos-following-tumor-study/

*  Gaining perspective on the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified food crops.

Abstract Genetically modified plants are created by the insertion of foreign genes into plant cells followed by the generation ... Abstract Genetically modified plants are created by the insertion of foreign genes into plant cells followed by the generation ... agencies require a premarket evaluation of the genetically modified crop to reduce the potential for increased risks of food ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/gaining-perspective-on-the-allergenicity-assessment-of-genetically-modified-food-crops-517763.html

*  California battle over GM labels | The Glory of...

Voters in California will decide on a proposal next month that would require the labelling of most foods made with genetically modified ... There have been attempts in 18 states to change labelling laws on genetically modified foods via legislation. None have been ... Proposition 37 is supported by the organic industry but many major food suppliers oppose it saying it will drive up prices.
GM foods.
...
scoop.it/t/the-glory-of-the-garden/p/2882382692/2012/10/05/california-battle-over-gm-labels

*  Compositional analysis in the safety assessment of biotechnology derived maize by Nixta 2013 - issuu

a genetically similar conventional maize hybrid.. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2013) 61, 1991-1998 ... and modified by human activities throughout history Peanut ... were all found not to be compositionally meaningful from a food ... The OECD emphasizes: - The analysis of differences between the biotech product and a genetically similar conventional control ... The compositional analysis can determine the compositional equivalence between a biotech product and a genetically similar ...
https://issuu.com/nixta2013/docs/compositional_analysis_in_the_safet

*  Obama Breaks Promise To Label GMO Foods - AnabolicMinds.com

In his words he said the 'American people deserve to know what's in their food'. ... I have spoken about President Obama's campaign promise to label GMO foods. ... "Genetically modified crops hold out the promise of benefits like increased production and reduced reliance on pesticides. At ... In 2007, Senator Obama, campaigning for the presidency in the Democratic primary, promised to label genetically engineered food ...
anabolicminds.com/forum/content/obama-breaks-promise-1816/?p=3576159

*  Study linking GM crops and cancer questioned - ...

Food and Chemical Toxicology, DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.005). Are the findings reliable? There is little to suggest they are ... at the University of Caen in France announced evidence for a raft of health problems in rats fed maize that has been modified ... The GM- or pesticide-fed rats also died earlier. This kind of GM maize accounts for more than half the US crop, yet the French ... The rodents experienced hormone imbalances and more and bigger breast tumours, earlier in life, than rats fed a non-GM diet, ...
scoop.it/t/plant-cell-genetics/p/2745311843/2012/09/20/study-linking-gm-crops-and-cancer-questioned-new-scientist-2012

*  MON863 x MON810 | global gm crop database regulatory approvals cera agbios

... genetically modified crops and plants, transgenic crops and plants, regulation, GM crop database ... environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops and plants, ... European Food Safety Authority * Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference ... for the placing on the market of insect-protected genetically modified maize MON 863 x MON 810, for food and feed use, under ...
cera-gmc.org/GmCropDatabaseEvent/MON863 x MON810

*  Journal of Animal Science - Invited Review Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock...

The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2012. GM Crops Food 5:65-75. ... Key global environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2012. GM Crops Food 5:149-160. ... Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 49:164-175.[View Article] [Web of Science] ... Genetically modified crops: the truth unveiled Agriculture & Food Security. 2015 4:1 * Planting seeds for the future of food ...
https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jas/articles/92/10/4255?highlight&search-result=1&hc_location=ufi

*  AllAboutFeed - GM maize and beet applications debated

... representing the EU's 25 national governments will discuss and possibly vote on the applications to authorize two modified ... EU biotech experts will discuss three applications to approve new genetically modified (GMO) plants. Experts ... Monsanto's application relates to food and animal feed produced from the modified plants or containing ingredients derived from ... New report: GM crops still not performing. GM crop production climbs by 180%. Monsanto seeks approval for new GM soybean. ...
allaboutfeed.net/Nutrition/Feed-Additives/2007/4/GM-maize-and-beet-applications-debated-AAF000628W/

*  FOOD SAFETY

What are Genetically Modified Foods?. Genetically modified (GM) foods are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO) ... What Are Genetically-Modified Foods?. The term GM foods or GMOs (Genetically-Modified Organisms) is most commonly used to refer ... Types of GM Foods. Genetically modified foods include medicines and vaccines, foods and food ingredients as well as feeds and ... Overview on Genetically Modified Foods This article found online gives an overview on the subject of "Geneticaly Modified Foods ...
brennaghfoodsafety.blogspot.com

*  African Journal of Agricultural Research - microbiological attributes in a latosol in glyphosate application under water...

... quality and safety of genetically modified soybean. Cienc. Rural 40(1):213-221.. ... Food Chem. 52(16):5139-5143.. Crossref. Santos JB, Ferreira EA, Reis MR, Silva AA, Fialho CMT, Freitas MAM (2007). Effects of ... Kron AP, Souza GM, Ribeiro RV (2008). Water deficiency at different developmental stages of Glycine max can improve drought ... Tótola MR, Chaer GM (2002). Micro-organisms and microbiological processes as indicators of soil quality. Tópicos em ciência do ...
academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/BF11B6C46489

*  Scientists Warn EPA Over Monsanto's GMO Crop Failures | Natural Society

Corn is critical not only as a food staple, but is heavily used in ethanol production, animal feed, and much more. As GM corn ... The group of 22 academic corn experts are drawing attention to the immense failure of Monsanto's genetically modified corn, ... GM Bacteria 'Suffocates' Soil, Says Retired EPA Scientist 2 Recent Developments Bring Fresh Concerns Over GM Crops EPA Used ... for the EPA and other agencies to address the serious threats to nature and human health presented by Monsanto's genetically modified ...
naturalsociety.com/scientists-warn-epa-over-monsantos-gmo-crop-failures-dangers/

*  British Scientists Condemn Using Children in GM Food Trials as Unacceptable | Common Dreams

Youngsters aged 6-10 were fed so-called Golden Rice, which has been modified to contain enhanced levels of beta carotene or ... This appears odd as all GM foods, which are designed to be eaten by humans, are required to go through animal testing by food ... They claim it is indicative of moves by the biotech lobby, led by the USA and biotech firms, to force GM food into the mouths ... The scientists argue there is a large body of evidence showing GM food production can trigger gene mutations which 'can result ...
https://commondreams.org/news/2009/02/17/british-scientists-condemn-using-children-gm-food-trials-unacceptable

*  Genetically Modified Foods - AskMen

What are GMO foods?. GMO foods are made from genetically modified organisms, usually plants. The plants have altered genes and ... Preservatives and food colorings are suspect and the latest, greatest morsels science has to offer - genetically modified ... Many Europeans simply refused to accept foods made from GM crops or animals. Today the modified crops are rare in Europe and ... GM crops are modified by direct manipulation of the plants DNA. Old-fashioned crops are modified the old-fashioned way, by ...
https://askmen.com/sports/foodcourt_150/179_eating_well.html

*  Beware of Genetically-Modified "Healthy" Foods

... may be genetically modified (GMO) crops from Monsanto that may pose dangers to your health, says Jeffrey Smith. ... The Health Dangers of GM Soy and Corn Genetically modified soy and corn are two of the most prevalent GM foods in the US food ... Mercola There are two types of research regarding GM (genetically modified) food -- independent science and corporate science. ... you have no way of knowing whether the soy you're eating is genetically modified or not, because GM foods do not have to be ...
https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/10/04/healthy-foods-you-should-never-ever-eat.aspx?e_cid=20111004_DNL_art_1

*  East/West: The Nature Of Genetically Modified Foods

Genetically modified foods -- known as GMs-- are increasingly a part of life both in the United States and in Central and ... It is believed that about 60 percent of all food produced in the United States now contain GM elements.. What are GM foods? For ... Genetically modified foods -- known as GMs-- are increasingly a part of life both in the United States and in Central and ... The Flavr-Savr was the first global commercial launch of what we now call genetically modified -- or bio-engineered -- foods or ...
https://rferl.org/a/1094498.html

*  How to Avoid Genetically Modified Foods: 11 Steps (with Pictures)

Foods are often genetically modified to make them more resistant to disease, improve their nutritional value, or increase their ... organic if that food has been genetically modified or been fed genetically modified feed.[2] You may find that organic food is ... wikiHow to Avoid Genetically Modified Foods. Two Methods:Shopping for FoodIdentifying Foods Most Likely to Contain GMOs ... Grow your own food. If you grow your own food, you buy seeds that have not been genetically modified. This way, you know ...
https://wikihow.com/Avoid-Genetically-Modified-Foods

*  petition: Stopping the Approval and Production of Genetically Modified Foods

Genetically modifiying our foods can have unpredictable consequences on our health and enviornment. (422 signatures on petition ... We also ask that you mandate the labeling of all foods that have been genetically modified. These genetically modified foods ... Recently an article about genetically modified food has come to the public's attention. Genetically modified animals or crops ... Recently an article about genetically modified food has come to the public's attention. Genetically modified animals or crops ...
https://thepetitionsite.com/4/stopping-the-approval-and-production-of-genetically-modified-foods/?z00m=19877617

*  FSHN02-2/FS084: Genetically Modified Food

What are GM foods?. A genetically modified (GM) food or genetically modified organism (GMO) results from the use of recombinant ... Types of GM Foods. A genetically modified organism (GMO) is one that has had its genetic material altered through one of ... How could GM foods help consumers?. Industry has argued that we need GM foods because they will reduce production costs by ... Are there health concerns about GM foods?. One issue that is brought up from time to time is the potential for GM foods to ...
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs084

*  Measure would require labels for genetically modified food | HeraldNet.com

Any food sold in Washington state and made with genetically engineered crops would have to be labeled under a ballot initiative ... About 50 countries require genetically modified foods to be labeled, but the U.S. isn't one of them. Only Alaska has enacted ... Measure would require labels for genetically modified food. *By Shannon Dininny Associated Press ... YAKIMA - Any food sold in Washington state and made with genetically engineered crops would have to be labeled under a ballot ...
heraldnet.com/news/measure-would-require-labels-for-genetically-modified-food/

*  Genetically Modified Food | Love for Life

Genetically Modified Food. Wed, 11/21/2007 - 18:47 - Arthur Cristian Genetically Modified Food ... Video: Contaminated - Genetically Modified Food - Contaminated Food - 7 Minutes 'Excellent'. *Video: Monsanto: End of Life - 5 ... Video: Contaminated - Genetically Modified Food - Contaminated Food - 7 Minutes 'Excellent'. *Video: Monsanto: End of Life - 5 ... Norways Svalbard Global Seed Vault - Ministry Of Agriculture And Food. *The Hidden Truth About Genetically Modified Foods by ...
loveforlife.com.au/content/07/11/21/genetically-modified-food

*  Companies push voluntary labels on genetically modified foods | WPBN

A federal standard for voluntary labels would get food manufacturers off the hook if any states pass laws requiring mandatory ... Vermont's 17 food cooperatives are supporting a bill that would require the labeling of genetically modified foods. ... that would have allowed states to require labeling of genetically modified foods.. Sanders' amendment to a wide-ranging farm ... Large food companies are trying to head off state efforts to enact mandatory labeling of genetically modified ingredients by ...
upnorthlive.com/news/local/companies-push-voluntary-labels-on-genetically-modified-foods-08-13-2015-134731249?id=1003899

*  Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods

... This review gives a valuable insight into the ... Although broad international consensus exists about the principles of the safety of GM-derived foods, the regulatory frameworks ... thought processes behind many of the regulatory frameworks in place regarding the safety of foods containing GM ingredients. ... These are summarised, along with useful data about foods already developed and results of laboratory feeding studies. The ...
scidev.net/global/key-document/assessment-of-the-food-safety-issues-related-to-ge.html

Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.SAFE FOODSHealth food storeHungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Criticism of fast foodCompensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActBeneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.IontocaineMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Functional food: A functional food is a food given an additional [(often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.[http://www4.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Yellow soybean paste: Yellow soybean paste is a fermented paste] made from yellow [[soybeans, salt, and water; wheat flour, though not formerly used, is often used as an additional ingredient in the modern day, and potassium sorbate may also be used as a preservative. Yellow soybean paste is produced in China and is used primarily in Beijing cuisine and other cuisines of northern China.Caramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Master StrokeTimeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Smoothie King: Smoothie King (A hangover you don't deserve)}}Direct Benefit Transfer: Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to change the mechanism of transferring subsidies launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013. This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.Preservative: A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationOrganic food: Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming. While the standards differ worldwide, organic farming in general features cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Vegetable juiceGlucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Kitchen: A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, counters and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design.List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideAustralian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsSensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Gentle frying: Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods.fissler.God's Providence House, Chester: God's Providence House is at 9 Watergate Street and 11–11A Watergate Row, Chester, Cheshire, England. The house incorporates part of the Chester Rows, is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building,} and is included in the English Heritage Archive.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Animal fatCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Bologna sausageList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Foundation Course for Agricultural Research ServicePowdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.List of nuclides: This table of nuclides shows the 896 observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Snack: A snack is a small portion of food eaten between meals. The food might be snack food—items like potato chips—but could also simply be a small amount of any food.Menu FoodsFirst pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcement

(1/120) Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

BACKGROUND: Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM) parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase) in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. RESULTS: GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i) improved fruit productivity (at least 30-35%) under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii) production of good quality (marketable) fruits during different types of cultivation; iii) seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.  (+info)

(2/120) Sensitive dependencies and separation distances for genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

The amount of land available for the coexistent growing of both organic and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops depends on the separation distance between the two types of crop. The form of the decline in the proportion of land available for growing one of these crop types due to increasing separation distance is linear on a suitable scale, but with a slope and intercept that are sensitively dependent on the proportion of the other crop already present. Spatially explicit simulations from realistic scenarios indicate that a major increase in separation distances, currently under review by the UK government, may have serious implications for the future coexistence of organic and GMHT crops in the UK.  (+info)

(3/120) Ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses of hepatocyte nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean.

No direct evidence that genetically modified (GM) food may represent a possible danger for health has been reported so far; however, the scientific literature in this field is still quite poor. Therefore, we carried out an ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical study on hepatocytes from mice fed on GM soybean, in order to investigate eventual modifications of nuclear components of these cells involved in multiple metabolic pathways related to food processing. Our observations demonstrate significant modifications of some nuclear features in GM-fed mice. In particular, GM fed-mice show irregularly shaped nuclei, which generally represents an index of high metabolic rate, and a higher number of nuclear pores, suggestive of intense molecular trafficking. Moreover, the roundish nucleoli of control animals change in more irregular nucleoli with numerous small fibrillar centres and abundant dense fibrillar component in GM-fed mice, modifications typical of increased metabolic rate. Accordingly, nucleoplasmic (snRNPs and SC-35) and nucleolar (fibrillarin) splicing factors are more abundant in hepatocyte nuclei of GM-fed than in control mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that GM soybean intake can influence hepatocyte nuclear features in young and adult mice; however, the mechanisms responsible for such alterations remain unknown.  (+info)

(4/120) Push and pull in Europe.

Expansion of the EU now looks set to take place but the major efforts to develop common policies continue to be stymied by national differences, no more so than in on the issue of genetically modified (GM) crops, as Nigel Williams reports. But other moves are aiming to draw together Europeans in an effort to exploit closer collaboration as Michael Gross reports below.  (+info)

(5/120) Ultrastructural analysis of pancreatic acinar cells from mice fed on genetically modified soybean.

No direct evidence that genetically modified (GM) food may represent a possible danger for health has been reported so far; however, the scientific literature in this field is quite poor. Therefore, we investigated the possible effects of a diet containing GM soybean on mouse exocrine pancreas by means of ultrastructural, morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses. Our observations demonstrate that, although no structural modification occurs in pancreatic acinar cells of mice fed on GM soybean, quantitative changes of some cellular constituents take place in comparison to control animals. In particular, a diet containing significant amount of GM food seems to influence the zymogen synthesis and processing.  (+info)

(6/120) Animal models to detect allergenicity to foods and genetically modified products: workshop summary.

Respiratory allergy and allergy to foods continue to be important health issues. There is evidence to indicate that the incidence of food allergy around the world is on the rise. Current estimates indicate that approximately 5% of young children and 1-2% of adults suffer from true food allergy (Kagan 2003). Although a large number of in vivo and in vitro tests exist for the clinical diagnosis of allergy in humans, we lack validated animal models of allergenicity. This deficiency creates serious problems for regulatory agencies and industries that must define the potential allergenicity of foods before marketing. The emergence of several biotechnologically derived foods and industrial proteins, as well as their potential to sensitize genetically predisposed populations to develop allergy, has prompted health officials and regulatory agencies around the world to seek approaches and methodologies to screen novel proteins for allergenicity.  (+info)

(7/120) The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase of glyphosate-tolerant soybean expressed in Escherichia coli shows no severe allergenicity.

The recombinant gene was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of genetically-modified (GM) soybeans and identified as epsps encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) which renders glyphosate resistance. The epsps structural gene was introduced in the pET28(a) plasmid for its expression in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). It was confirmed that the maximal productivity of the EPSPS protein was achieved when cultivating the recombinant strain in a LB broth for 2 h after supplementing 1 mM isopropylbeta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in a 2 h-culture broth. Since the expressed EPSPS protein was found as an insoluble form in the inclusion body, it was extracted by 6 M urea after sonication, and then purified through immobilized nickel-affinity column chromatography to isolate EPSPS having a molecular mass of 57 kDa. When incubated in simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin at pH 1.5, the purified EPSPS protein was completely digested within 1 min. In addition, the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction of the purified EPSPS protein was not observed in the Sprague Dawley rat system that was administered either orally or subcutaneously. Furthermore, treatment of the EPSPS protein to the culture of the sensitized peritoneal mast cells, or unsensitized but antisera-labeled mast cells, showed neither a remarkable change in the histamine release nor a cytokine production, including interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Thus, it can be concluded that the EPSPS protein in the GM soybean showed no significant allergenicity in the Sprague Dawley rats.  (+info)

(8/120) Workshop overview: approaches to the assessment of the allergenic potential of food from genetically modified crops.

There is a need to assess the safety of foods deriving from genetically modified (GM) crops, including the allergenic potential of novel gene products. Presently, there is no single in vitro or in vivo model that has been validated for the identification or characterization of potential food allergens. Instead, the evaluation focuses on risk factors such as source of the gene (i.e., allergenic vs. nonallergenic sources), physicochemical and genetic comparisons to known allergens, and exposure assessments. The purpose of this workshop was to gather together researchers working on various strategies for assessing protein allergenicity: (1) to describe the current state of knowledge and progress that has been made in the development and evaluation of appropriate testing strategies and (2) to identify critical issues that must now be addressed. This overview begins with a consideration of the current issues involved in assessing the allergenicity of GM foods. The second section presents information on in vitro models of digestibility, bioinformatics, and risk assessment in the context of clinical prevention and management of food allergy. Data on rodent models are presented in the next two sections. Finally, nonrodent models for assessing protein allergenicity are discussed. Collectively, these studies indicate that significant progress has been made in developing testing strategies. However, further efforts are needed to evaluate and validate the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of many of these assays for determining the allergenicity potential of GM foods.  (+info)



group


  • A group of 22 scientists are condemning a controversial trial involving feeding GM rice to children in China and the US. (commondreams.org)
  • The decision to use the children has been condemned as 'completely unacceptable' by a group of 22 scientists - all GM critics - from Britain and around the world. (commondreams.org)
  • Facing a number of legal challenges, and long a focus of public interest group attention, the leading fast food company now does better than any of its major competitors in sharing detailed information about its products with consumers. (blogspot.com)

company


  • Among the leading bodies behind the GM Golden rice project are the biotech company Syngenta, the Rockefeller Foundation and the charitable foundation set up by Microsoft boss Bill Gates. (commondreams.org)

children


  • Children have been used as 'lab rats' in GM rice trials that were carried out in breach of ethics rules drawn up in response to the medical crimes of Nazi Germany, it is claimed. (commondreams.org)
  • Critics are furious that the GM rice was not put through animal feeding trials to ensure it was safe before being given to children. (commondreams.org)
  • Critics of the GM experiments says the Nuremburg code states that children under 10 are not considered legally capable of giving consent to participation in such experiments. (commondreams.org)