Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)RestaurantsCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Frozen FoodsConsumer Product SafetyNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.United StatesNutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Food Contamination, RadioactiveDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Menu PlanningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Schools: Educational institutions.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Peanut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nunavut: A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.JapanRats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Cooking and Eating UtensilsAdministration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.

*  Health Canada's proposed discretionary fortification policy is misaligned with the nutritional needs of Canadians.

... has proposed new fortification policies that will allow manufacturers to add vitamins and minerals to a wide variety of foods ... Food, Fortified*. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. National Health Programs / legislation & jurisprudence ... To approximate a "mature market" scenario, consumption patterns of fortified foods in the United States were estimated and ... Although increased food fortification may reduce the apparent prevalence of inadequate intakes for some nutrients, there is no ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Health-Canadas-Proposed-Discretionary-Fortification/19692529.html

*  Foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols | eHow UK

Foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols. Foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols. Written by linda mitchell , 13/05 ... Commonplace foods are fortified with plant sterols. (bread image by Maria Brzostowska from Fotolia.com) Plant sterols are ... Manufacturers fortify foods such as margarine, spreads and salad dressings as a way to get more beneficial sterols into high- ... scientists can remove plant components from vegetable oils and change the make-up to fortify these foods. For example, ...
ehow.co.uk/list_7375270_foods-fortified-plant-sterols-stanols.html

*  IRIN | The fortified food conundrum in Afghanistan

Both salt iodination and so-called sprinkles, a micronutrient powder that allows people to fortify their own foods at home, " ... "Are Afghans prepared to eat this food? How are you going to convince people that something added to their food is good for them ... Are Afghans prepared to eat this food? How are you going to convince people that something added to their food is good for them ... with fortified foods. The strategy is to add vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc, folic acid, Vitamin B-12 and Vitamin A ...
irinnews.org/analysis/2012/10/04/fortified-food-conundrum-afghanistan

*  Calcium Fortified Food Information | LIVESTRONG.COM

... or to balance the nutrient content of food. The FDA also regulates calcium and other fortified food information on product ... For instance, calcium-fortified food can help a person with a vegan diet who avoids all meat and dairy products to meet calcium ... Calcium fortified food information provides a service to consumers who read labels to learn about the nutrient content of a ... Foods commonly fortified with calcium include orange juice, other fruit and vegetable juices, soy milk, rice milk, tofu and ...
https://livestrong.com/article/134585-calcium-fortified-food-information/

*  Healthy Foods: Nutritional Value of Fortified Foods | Shape Magazine

Fortified Foods and Nutrient Overload. A question that often comes up with fortification is the difference between synthetic ... Q: Is it true that your body can't appropriately use the nutrients added to enriched and fortified foods? ... You would not run into this situation with fortified foods but could with supplementation. ... and people conclude that synthetic vitamins either in supplement form or when fortified in foods are dangerous. I believe that ...
shape.com/healthy-eating/diet-tips/ask-diet-doctor-fortified-foods

*  7 foods to fortify your body for winter

Any food with a good dose of omega-3 fatty acids will help soothe stressed strands. Look for fish, olive oil and nuts in your ... Eat foods that are also high in protein like lean meats and low-fat dairy products to prevent weakness. ... Breads and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin, the institute says, but you can also get it from eggs, milk and green ... Dark, leafy greens like spinach and mollusks like oysters, clams and scallops are iron-rich foods that will help bring back ...
cnn.com/2012/11/29/health/gallery/foods-fortify-winter/index.html?hpt=he_bn7

*  Fortified foods for kids

If they don't eat calcium-rich foods, for example, calcium-fortified juice is a great choice." Boosting foods with nutrients is ... "If your child eats calcium-fortified cereal and calcium-fortified juice for breakfast, with calcium-fortified snack bars, plus ... Omega-3-fortified juice. You've likely seen these labels and more popping up on kids foods throughout the grocery store. It's ... If you do buy fortified foods, stay away from gussied-up junk fare, like diet soda with added vitamins and minerals or sugary ...
deliciousliving.com/print/conditions/fortified-foods-kids

*  Analytical Methods to Assess the Bioavailability of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Food-Exemplified by Folate - Fortified Foods with...

Fortified Foods with Vitamins: Analytical Concepts to Assure Better and Safer Products , ... Fortified Foods with Vitamins: Analytical Concepts to Assure Better and Safer Products. ... Technische Universität München, Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, Center of Life and Food Sciences, Weihenstephan, ... in Fortified Foods with Vitamins: Analytical Concepts to Assure Better and Safer Products (ed M. Rychlik), Wiley-VCH Verlag ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9783527634156.ch2/references

*  Health economic modelling: Burden of micronutrient deficiencies and impact of fortified foods

... Speakers: S. Wieser ... Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to reduce anemia of children up to three ... Effectiveness of food fortification in controlled trials is examined by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of ... economic study on the burden of MNDs in 6-59 months old children and of interventions promoting pre-fortified packaged foods. ...
nestlenutrition-institute.org/resources/videos/details/health-economic-modelling-burden-of-micronutrient-deficiencies-and-impact-of-fortified-foods-

*  Food Scientists Fortify Goat Cheese With Fish Oil To Deliver Healthy Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Redorbit

Food Scientists Fortify Goat Cheese With Fish Oil To Deliver Healthy Omega-3 Fatty Acids. by editor ... A new study in the February issue of the Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists, shows that ... A new study in the February issue of the Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists, shows that ... Unfortunately, fish oil oxidizes more quickly making food fortification a challenge.. Dairy has been shown to be a good matrix ...
redorbit.com/news/science/1112476731/food-scientists-fortify-goat-cheese-with-fish-oil-to-deliver-healthy-omega-3-fatty-acids/

*  Food<...

Here at Biology Fortified, we've got a lot of projects going on. From databases of research, to infographics, blog posts, ... by Anastasia Bodnar , posted in: Food , 13 I received this question from a student: If someone wants to stop eating GMO food, ... by Frank N. Foode™ , posted in: Food , 3 Enjoy your food tonight, thank some farmers and scientists. Forget about the politics ... The Future of Food. by Anastasia Bodnar , posted in: Food, Talks & Interviews , 0 ...
https://biofortified.org/category/food/

*  Fortified foods: junk food with a face-lift - Personal development program | Personal development blog: well-being, happiness

Same applies often to what is marketed as enriched and fortified foods. Heavily processed foods are "fortified" with the ... junk food with a face-lift - Personal development program Fortified foods: junk food with a face-lift - Personal development ... Junk food is a term used to cover a wide range of food, usually mass-produced, and genetically modified. Is junk food a threat ... The real threat is junk food sold under the false promise of being healthy. Adding some green salad to junk food does not make ...
amareway.org/holisticlivingtag/fortified-foods-junk-food-with-a-face-lift-personal-development-program/

*  calcium-fortified foods « C M Health Foundation

Posts Tagged 'calcium-fortified foods'. Osteoporosis management remains a challenge for endocrinologists. Posted by: admin on: ... Tags: bisphosphonates, calcium intake, calcium-fortified foods, FRAX tool, hip fracture, Osteoporosis, postmenopausal ...
cmhealthfoundation.org/tag/calcium-fortified-foods/

*  Fortified/Functional Packaged Food in Thailand | Food Industry Research | just-food

Table 10 NBO Company Shares of Fortified/Functional Packaged Food: % Value 2012-2016. Table 11 LBN Brand Shares of Fortified/ ... Table 1 Sales of Fortified/Functional Packaged Food by Category: Value 2011-2016. Table 2 Sales of Fortified/Functional ... Table 13 Distribution of Fortified/Functional Packaged Food by Format: % Value 2011-2016. Table 14 Forecast Sales of Fortified/ ... Functional Packaged Food by Category: Value 2016-2021. Table 15 Forecast Sales of Fortified/Functional Packaged Food by ...
https://just-food.com/market-research/fortifiedfunctional-packaged-food-in-thailand_id277052.aspx

*  Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Parakeets

Buy the Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Parakeets for your pet plus read product reviews, see photos and ... Home » Bird Supplies » Food » Parakeet (Budgie) » Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Parakeets (5 lbs.) ... Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Parakeets (5 lbs.) Information Product Manuals & Documentation ... This is a Product Review for: Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Parakeets ...
petstore.com/Kaytee_Supreme_Fortified_Daily_Blend_Bird_Food_for_Parakeets_

*  food crisis

Biofuels, Biotech, Canadian Wheat Board, Corn, food crisis, Food Ethics, Genetic Engineering, GMO, GreenPeace, Middle East, ... by Steve Savage , posted in: Commentary, Food, Science , 572 From what I read on various blogs and comment streams, there is ... by Steve Savage , posted in: Food, Science , 28 The graph above shows the relative production of these major US row crops ... Bananas, biotechnology, Brand Protectionism, crops, food crisis, Genetic Engineering, GMO, GreenPeace, Potatoes, Sweet Corn, ...
https://biofortified.org/tag/food-crisis/

*  Calories and Nutriants in Baby food, fortified cereal bar, fruit filling

Discover how many calories and nutriants are in Baby food, fortified cereal bar, fruit filling ...
caloriesinformation.com/baby-foods/baby-food-fortified-cereal-bar-fruit-filling

*  Fortified complementary foods with or without alpha-amylase treatment increase hemoglobin but do not reduce breast milk intake...

The objective of the study was to assess the effects of fortified complementary blends of different energy densitie ... Malnutrition in late infancy in developing countries may result from poor-quality complementary foods that displace breast milk ... Food, Fortified*. Hemoglobins / metabolism*. Humans. Infant. Infant Food / standards*. Infant Nutritional Physiological ... Fortified complementary foods with or without alpha-amylase treatment increase hemoglobin but do not reduce breast milk intake ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Fortified-complementary-foods-with-without/17921388.html

*  A feminist mother and science advocate's response to Vani Hari, the 'Food Babe' - Biology Fortified, Inc.

Vani Hari, better known as "Food Babe," is a self-proclaimed investigator of food and consumer advocate. Yet, some of her so- ... Indeed, I wholeheartedly agree that one doesn't need a PhD to discourse about food and food-related science. Nevertheless, I ... an open social media critic of Food Babe. While Chow Babe is a parody of Food Babe, she has gained a following of nearly ten ... A feminist mother and science advocate's response to Vani Hari, the "Food Babe". by Kavin Senapathy , posted in: Commentary , ...
https://biofortified.org/2014/12/a-feminist-mother-and-science-advocates-response-to-vani-hari-the-food-babe/

*  Global Vitamin Fortified and Mineral Enriched Foods and Beverages Sales Market Report 2020 : ReportsnReports

This report studies sales (consumption) of Vitamin Fortified and Mineral... ... 126 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Vitamin Fortified and Mineral Enriched Foods and Beverages Sales Market Report ... 1.3 Applications of Vitamin Fortified and Mineral Enriched Foods and Beverages 1.4 Vitamin Fortified and Mineral Enriched Foods ... 4.3 China Vitamin Fortified and Mineral Enriched Foods and Beverages Sales and Market Share by Type 4.4 China Vitamin Fortified ...
reportsnreports.com/reports/708734-global-vitamin-fortified-and-mineral-enriched-foods-and-beverages-sales-market-report-2020.html

*  Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract - Food & Function (RSC Publishing)

... was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and ... antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) ... a Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Ankara, Turkey b Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science, University of ... A. Altunkaya, R. V. Hedegaard, J. Harholt, L. Brimer, V. Gökmen and L. H. Skibsted, Food Funct., 2013, 4, 1468 DOI: 10.1039/ ...
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/fo/c3fo60150a

*  Finch Food: Canary and Finch Seed Blends and Fortified Pellet Diets

Foster & Smith include seed blends and pelleted food for a complete canary and finch diet ... They have informed me that typically, there is not a large enough demand to carry the 25# lb bag of food for smaller birds and ... We offer a variety of finch/canary food so you can provide the best nutrition your companion bird deserves. Choose from our ... We offer a variety of finch/canary food so you can provide the best nutrition your companion bird deserves. Choose from our ...
drsfostersmith.com/bird-supplies/food-formulas-diets/finch-canary-food-diets/ps/c/5059/5911/5912?s=hl&r=20&count=23&start=1

*  Zilla Fortified Aquatirc Turtle Food

... provides precisely the amount of mineral supplements needed for your turtle's health. ... Zilla Aquatic Turtle Food is nourishment for brighter shells, healthy activity.. Zilla Fortified Aquatirc Turtle Food Features: ... Zilla Fortified Aquatirc Turtle Food. Blended with precisely the amount of mineral supplements needed for your turtle's healthy ... which is why Zilla packs over 40 separate ingredients into the enticing nuggets of Aquatic Turtle Food. Some are healthy, ...
pet-discount-supply.com/reptiles/zilla_fortified_food_for_aquatirc_turtles-en69501.htm

*  Testing the Growth Promoting Effect of Long-Term Complementary Feeding of Infants with a High-Energy, Micronutrient Fortified...

The Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) is a 5-year cooperative agreement between the U.S. Agency for ... Testing the Growth Promoting Effect of Long-Term Complementary Feeding of Infants with a High-Energy, Micronutrient Fortified ... food security and livelihood strengthening, agriculture and nutrition linkages, and emergency assistance in nutrition crises. ...
https://fantaproject.org/research/complementary-feeding-infants

*  Foods Containing Calcium Carbonate | LIVESTRONG.COM

... added to foods such as soy milk, or as a dietary supplement as... ... is an essential mineral that can be found naturally in foods ... Foods Fortified With Calcium Carbonate. Calcium carbonate is added to many foods such as ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and ... Selecting foods fortified with calcium carbonate can help you reach your daily requirements for calcium. ... Calcium is an essential mineral that can be found naturally in foods such as dairy products, added to foods such as soy milk, ...
livestrong.com/article/186708-foods-containing-calcium-carbonate/

Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.SAFE FOODSHealth food storeHungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Criticism of fast foodCompensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActBeneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.IontocaineMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Functional food: A functional food is a food given an additional [(often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.[http://www4.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Yellow soybean paste: Yellow soybean paste is a fermented paste] made from yellow [[soybeans, salt, and water; wheat flour, though not formerly used, is often used as an additional ingredient in the modern day, and potassium sorbate may also be used as a preservative. Yellow soybean paste is produced in China and is used primarily in Beijing cuisine and other cuisines of northern China.Caramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Master StrokeTimeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Smoothie King: Smoothie King (A hangover you don't deserve)}}Direct Benefit Transfer: Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to change the mechanism of transferring subsidies launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013. This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.Preservative: A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationOrganic food: Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming. While the standards differ worldwide, organic farming in general features cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Vegetable juiceGlucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Kitchen: A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, counters and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design.List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideAustralian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsSensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Gentle frying: Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods.fissler.God's Providence House, Chester: God's Providence House is at 9 Watergate Street and 11–11A Watergate Row, Chester, Cheshire, England. The house incorporates part of the Chester Rows, is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building,} and is included in the English Heritage Archive.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Animal fatCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Bologna sausageList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Foundation Course for Agricultural Research ServicePowdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.List of nuclides: This table of nuclides shows the 896 observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Snack: A snack is a small portion of food eaten between meals. The food might be snack food—items like potato chips—but could also simply be a small amount of any food.Menu FoodsFirst pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcement

(1/1401) Candidate noninfectious disease conditions.

Important micronutrient deficiencies in at-risk populations can be addressed simultaneously with programmatically cost-effective results. Because of the interaction between many micronutrients, this would also be biologically effective. With adequate investment and political support, the chances of eliminating iodine deficiency as a problem in women of reproductive age and young children and of eliminating vitamin A deficiency as a problem in young children in the future are high. To eliminate iron deficiency and folic-acid-dependent neural tube defects (FADNTDs) in low-income populations, a new set of approaches will have to be developed. These same approaches, if successful, could be used to tackle other important micronutrient deficiencies.  (+info)

(2/1401) Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

(3/1401) Enteral nutritional supplementation with key nutrients in patients with critical illness and cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials comparing enteral nutritional support supplemented with key nutrients versus standard enteral nutritional support to determine effects on morbidity and mortality rates and hospital stay. BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have shown that malnutrition occurs in up to 30% of patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, resulting in an increased risk of postoperative complications and death. With the realization that key nutrients can modulate inflammatory, metabolic, and immune processes, enteral nutritional regimens (supplemented with large amounts of key nutrients) have been developed for clinical use. METHODS: Eleven prospective, randomized controlled trials evaluating 1009 patients treated with combinations of key nutrients (Impact, Immun-Aid) were evaluated. Outcome measures examined were the incidences of pneumonia, infectious complications, and death, and length of hospital stay. Meta-analyses were undertaken to obtain the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for incidences of infectious complications, pneumonia, and death, and the weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval for length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The provision of nutritional support supplemented with key nutrients to patients with critical illness resulted in a decrease in infectious complications when compared with patients receiving standard nutritional support and a significant reduction in overall hospital stay. Similar results were documented in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. However, there were no differences between patient groups for either pneumonia or death. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis has demonstrated that nutritional support supplemented with key nutrients results in a significant reduction in the risk of developing infectious complications and reduces the overall hospital stay in patients with critical illness and in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. However, there is no effect on death. These data have important implications for the management of such patients.  (+info)

(4/1401) The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations.

BACKGROUND: In 1996, the Food and Drug Administration issued a regulation requiring all enriched grain products to be fortified with folic acid to reduce the risk of neural-tube defects in newborns. Fortification (140 microg per 100 g) began in 1996, and the process was essentially complete by mid-1997. METHODS: To assess the effect of folic acid fortification on folate status, we measured plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations (a sensitive marker of folate status) using blood samples from the fifth examination (January 1991 to December 1994) of the Framingham Offspring Study cohort for baseline values and the sixth examination (January 1995 to August 1998) for follow-up values. We divided the cohort into two groups on the basis of the date of their follow-up examination: the study group consisted of 350 subjects who were seen after fortification (September 1997 to March 1998), and the control group consisted of 756 subjects who were seen before fortification (January 1995 to September 1996). RESULTS: Among the subjects in the study group who did not use vitamin supplements, the mean folate concentrations increased from 4.6 to 10.0 ng per milliliter (11 to 23 nmol per liter) (P<0.001) from the baseline visit to the follow-up visit, and the prevalence of low folate concentrations (<3 ng per milliliter [7 nmol per liter]) decreased from 22.0 to 1.7 percent (P< 0.001). The mean total homocysteine concentration decreased from 10.1 to 9.4 micromol per liter during this period (P<0.001), and the prevalence of high homocysteine concentrations (>13 micromol per liter) decreased from 18.7 to 9.8 percent (P<0.001). In the control group, there were no statistically significant changes in concentrations of folate or homocysteine. CONCLUSIONS: The fortification of enriched grain products with folic acid was associated with a substantial improvement in folate status in a population of middle-aged and older adults.  (+info)

(5/1401) Estimated folate intakes: data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use.

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to estimate dietary folate intakes for nutrition monitoring and food safety evaluations, but available intake data are seriously limited by several factors. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to update 2 national food consumption surveys to reflect folate intakes as a result of the recently initiated food fortification program and to correct folate intakes for the apparently higher bioavailability of synthetic folic acid (SFA; ie, folate added to foods or from dietary supplements) than of naturally occurring folate so as to express intakes as dietary folate equivalents. DESIGN: It was not possible to chemically analyze foods, so adjustments were made to food-composition data by using information about food ingredients and characteristics. Total folate intakes were estimated for several sex and age groups by using the modified data coupled with dietary supplement use. RESULTS: Within the limitations of the data, our findings suggested that 67-95% of the population met or surpassed the new estimated average requirement, depending on the sex and age group and survey. Nonetheless, some subgroups had estimated intakes below these standards. Estimated SFA intakes suggested that approximately 15-25% of children aged 1-8 y, depending on the survey, had intakes above the newly established tolerable upper intake level. We estimated that 68-87% of females of childbearing age had SFA intakes below the recommended intake of 400 microgram/d, depending on the age group and survey. CONCLUSION: There is a need to explore ways to improve folate intakes in targeted subgroups, including females of childbearing age, while not putting other population groups at risk of excessive intakes.  (+info)

(6/1401) Fortification with low amounts of folic acid makes a significant difference in folate status in young women: implications for the prevention of neural tube defects.

BACKGROUND: Mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid was introduced recently in the United States, a policy expected to result in a mean additional intake of 100 microgram/d. One way of predicting the effectiveness of this measure is to determine the effect of removing a similar amount of folic acid as fortified food from the diets of young women who had been electively exposed to chronic fortification. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect on folate status of foods fortified with low amounts of folic acid. DESIGN: We investigated the changes in dietary intakes and in red blood cell and serum concentrations of folate in response to removing folic acid-fortified foods for 12 wk from the diets of women who reportedly consumed such foods at least once weekly (consumers). RESULTS: Consumers (n = 21) had higher total folate intakes (P = 0.002) and red blood cell folate concentrations (P = 0.023) than nonconsumers (women who consumed folic acid-fortified foods less than once weekly; n = 30). Of greater interest, a 12-wk intervention involving the exclusion of these foods resulted in a decrease in folate intake of 78 +/- 56 microgram/d (P < 0.001), which was reflected in a significant reduction in red blood cell folate concentrations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cessation of eating folic acid-fortified foods resulted in removing 78 microgram folic acid/d from the diet. Over 12 wk this resulted in a lowering of red blood cell folate concentrations by 111 nmol/L (49 microgram/L). This magnitude of change in folate status in women can be anticipated as a result of the new US fortification legislation and is predicted to have a significant, although not optimal, effect in preventing neural tube defects.  (+info)

(7/1401) Effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk.

AIM: To evaluate the effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk. METHODS: The osmolality of 47 samples of human milk was determined at baseline, just after, and 24 hours after supplementation with five different human milk fortifiers (HMF) at 4 degrees C. RESULTS: Ten minutes after HMF supplementation the osmolality of human milk was significantly higher than the sum of the respective values of HMF dissolved in water and human milk, measured separately at baseline (p<0.0001), with the exception of the HMF containing only proteins. After 24 hours a further increase in osmolality was observed. Linear regression analysis showed that total dextrin content (r=0.84) was the main determinant of the increase. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk and HMF interact to induce a rapid increase in osmolality higher than would be expected from composition alone. This rise could be explained by the amylase activity of human milk, inducing hydrolysis of the dextrin content of HMF, leading to small osmotically active molecules of oligosaccharides. The high osmolality of fortified human milk should be considered in the nutritional management of preterm infants.  (+info)

(8/1401) Iron fortified follow on formula from 9 to 18 months improves iron status but not development or growth: a randomised trial.

AIMS: Iron deficiency anaemia is associated, in observational studies, with developmental disadvantage. This study tested the hypothesis that feeding iron supplemented formula from 9 to 18 months of age would improve developmental performance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 493 healthy children aged 9 months being fed pasteurised cows' milk were recruited from three UK centres. They were randomised to: cows' milk as before, formula containing 0.9 mg/litre iron, or formula containing 1.2 mg/litre iron, until 18 months of age. Bayley mental and psychomotor developmental indices were measured at 18 months, as were growth and haematological indices. RESULTS: Children fed iron fortified formula had higher plasma ferritin concentrations, but there were no significant intergroup differences in development or growth. CONCLUSIONS: There are no developmental or growth advantages in children given iron supplemented formula, but a benefit for a minority who were anaemic, or the possibility that a benefit may emerge at a later age, cannot be excluded.  (+info)



Biology Fortified


calcium-fortified foods


  • Kids who don't like dairy products, are lactose intolerant or allergic to dairy, who don't eat leafy greens, or who follow a vegan diet may benefit from calcium-fortified foods. (deliciousliving.com)

nutrients


  • The FDA supports adding specific nutrients such as calcium to food when a nutritional deficiency exists in the population, to restore nutrient losses due to processing, to improve the quality of a replacement food, or to balance the nutrient content of food. (livestrong.com)
  • Is it true that your body can't appropriately use the nutrients added to enriched and fortified foods? (shape.com)
  • Your body is pretty adept at extracting and absorbing nutrients whether they are of fortified or native origin. (shape.com)
  • And while oftentimes nature creates an optimal delivery vehicle and supplements or enriched foods don't provide the same level of absorption, as a general rule your body can use the nutrients you give it. (shape.com)
  • Which nutrients are worth looking for in kids foods, and how much does your child need? (deliciousliving.com)

milk


  • Drinks such as rice and soy milk, as well as orange juice, are also now fortified with plant sterols/stanols and are available in the US. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Foods commonly fortified with calcium include orange juice, other fruit and vegetable juices, soy milk, rice milk, tofu and some grains. (livestrong.com)
  • Turning to packaged foods, milk alternatives such as soy and almond milk are not the same as milk. (shape.com)
  • And while they will never match cow milk's prowess for protein, most companies do fortify their non-dairy milks with calcium, and research shows that calcium absorption from these milks is the same as from dairy milk. (shape.com)
  • Breads and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin, the institute says , but you can also get it from eggs, milk and green leafy vegetables. (cnn.com)
  • Fiber-fortified soy milk. (deliciousliving.com)
  • If your child eats calcium-fortified cereal and calcium-fortified juice for breakfast, with calcium-fortified snack bars, plus milk and cheese, he or she may be getting too much," says Krieger. (deliciousliving.com)
  • Fortified complementary foods with or without alpha-amylase treatment increase hemoglobin but do not reduce breast milk intake of 9-mo-old Zambian infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in late infancy in developing countries may result from poor-quality complementary foods that displace breast milk. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effects of fortified complementary blends of different energy densities on growth, hemoglobin concentrations, and breast milk intake of 9-mo-old Zambian infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study foods improved hemoglobin concentrations without reducing breast milk intake and may be used to improve the nutritional status of infants in developing countries. (biomedsearch.com)

cereals


  • However, some breads and cereals are also fortified with sterols/stanols to further add to diets that require lower cholesterol levels. (ehow.co.uk)

micronutrient


  • Both salt iodination and so-called sprinkles, a micronutrient powder that allows people to fortify their own foods at home, "were incredibly accepted", he told IRIN. (irinnews.org)
  • Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) have severe health consequences and are particularly harmful during early childhood due to their impact on the physical and cognitive development of children.We carry out a health economic study on the burden of MNDs in 6-59 months old children and of interventions promoting pre-fortified packaged foods. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)

fortification


  • While large-scale food fortification has succeeded in curbing malnutrition in places like South Africa and Egypt, can it work in Afghanistan? (irinnews.org)
  • Food fortification is not new in Afghanistan, but has only been done on a small-scale). (irinnews.org)
  • According to Purnima Menon, a senior research fellow at International Policy Food Research Institute (IFPRI) in New Delhi, fortification can be quite sustainable, but a demand for fortified commodities is essential. (irinnews.org)
  • The U.S. government has regulated food fortification for more than five decades. (livestrong.com)
  • Effectiveness of food fortification in controlled trials is examined by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of fortification trials.Main results: Iron, vitamin A and zinc deficiencies lead to substantial costs in terms of direct medical costs (29 million dollars), production losses (of 462 million dollars) and disability adjusted life years (116,656 DALYs) in 6-59 months old children the Philippines. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
  • Unfortunately, fish oil oxidizes more quickly making food fortification a challenge. (redorbit.com)
  • Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance ( ESR ) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. (rsc.org)

bread


  • When fortified bread was introduced in Egypt, the project targeted state bakeries that make subsidized bread for the poor. (irinnews.org)

vitamins


  • The strategy is to add vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc, folic acid, Vitamin B-12 and Vitamin A to wheat flour, vegetable oil and ghee, and also fortify salt with iodine. (irinnews.org)
  • The findings of these studies are often misinterpreted, and people conclude that synthetic vitamins either in supplement form or when fortified in foods are dangerous. (shape.com)
  • If you do buy fortified foods, stay away from gussied-up junk fare, like diet soda with added vitamins and minerals or sugary granola bars with extra fiber. (deliciousliving.com)
  • Witthöft, C. M. (2011) Analytical Methods to Assess the Bioavailability of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Food-Exemplified by Folate, in Fortified Foods with Vitamins: Analytical Concepts to Assure Better and Safer Products (ed M. Rychlik), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. (wiley.com)
  • Heavily processed foods are "fortified" with the vitamins they would have if the food would have not been processed so much, and then the connection between the vitamin and related health benefits is then extended to the food itself. (amareway.org)

vegan diet


  • For instance, calcium-fortified food can help a person with a vegan diet who avoids all meat and dairy products to meet calcium recommendations within her dietary constraints. (livestrong.com)

Cereal


  • Silk Soymilk Plus Fiber, Bob's Red Mill Organic High Fiber Hot Cereal, Gnu Foods Flavor & Fiber Bar. (deliciousliving.com)

omega-3 fat


  • Any food with a good dose of omega-3 fatty acids will help soothe stressed strands. (cnn.com)
  • A new study in the February issue of the Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists, shows that fish oil can be added to goat cheese to deliver high levels of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids without compromising taste or shelf-life. (redorbit.com)

orange juice


  • Calcium-fortified orange juice helps meet both vitamin and calcium needs. (livestrong.com)

Blend


  • Home » Bird Supplies » Food » Parakeet (Budgie) » Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Parakeets (5 lbs. (petstore.com)
  • Supreme Cockatiel Fortified Daily Blend Kaytee Supreme offers high quality ingredients they love and nutrition they require. (petstore.com)

snack


  • Further research is ongoing by the University of Maine food scientists who conducted this study to assess the stability and consumer acceptance of fish oil fortified baked snack products, as well as to explore uses for naturally flavored fish oil from fishery by-products. (redorbit.com)

Pomegranate


  • Some dessert products such as VitaMuffin VitaTops Pomegranate and VitaBrownie Dark Chocolate are fortified with about 0.4 grams of sterols/stanols per serving. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). (rsc.org)
  • The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. (rsc.org)

vegetable


  • By employing new and unique processes, scientists can remove plant components from vegetable oils and change the make-up to fortify these foods. (ehow.co.uk)

protein


  • Eat foods that are also high in protein like lean meats and low-fat dairy products to prevent weakness. (cnn.com)

supplements


  • However, according to MedTV's website, most people in western countries eat less than 500 mg per day, so some manufacturers have started to fortify various foods with plant sterol/stanol supplements. (ehow.co.uk)
  • However non-heme iron from plants does not have as good of an absorption profile, and that's the case whether it's naturally occurring as in spinach or is in supplements or enriched foods. (shape.com)
  • A more accurate assessment would be that with supplements you can take in much larger amounts of a particular nutrient in a short amount of time than you could with regular food. (shape.com)

example


  • If they don't eat calcium-rich foods, for example, calcium-fortified juice is a great choice. (deliciousliving.com)
  • For example, you once asked your readers whether eating the "best foods on the planet" and avoiding environmental toxins would prevent cancer in an individual with a BRCA 1 or 2 mutation. (biofortified.org)

help


  • One strategy is to convince men that to have smart, healthy, athletic children, they should give their families fortified flour, which will also help prevent birth defects. (irinnews.org)
  • Knowing about alternate products fortified with calcium can help these people meet their nutritional needs. (livestrong.com)
  • Dark, leafy greens like spinach and mollusks like oysters, clams and scallops are iron-rich foods that will help bring back your pinch-able cheeks. (cnn.com)

junk


  • Junk food is a term used to cover a wide range of food, usually mass-produced, and genetically modified. (amareway.org)
  • Is junk food a threat? (amareway.org)
  • and, anyway, if we have regular healthy eating habits, the craving for junk food is minimized. (amareway.org)
  • The real threat is junk food sold under the false promise of being healthy. (amareway.org)
  • Adding some green salad to junk food does not make it any better. (amareway.org)

scientists


  • Enjoy your food tonight, thank some farmers and scientists. (biofortified.org)
  • Maria Godoy of NPR's "The Salt" took notice and contacted me and a few scientists to discuss scientific backlash against Food Babe. (biofortified.org)

Yogurt


  • Kombucha and yogurt with active live cultures are excellent food sources. (deliciousliving.com)

Nutrition


  • But a new four-year US$6.4 million project run by the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) aims to reach nearly half the country's population - 15 million Afghans - with fortified foods. (irinnews.org)

often


  • However, it's often difficult to ingest a healthy dose of plant sterols from some of the foods that we normally eat. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Same applies often to what is marketed as enriched and fortified foods. (amareway.org)

healthy


  • Soft goat cheese has lower fat than other cheeses making it appealing for those looking for healthy flavorful food choices. (redorbit.com)
  • Euromonitor International's Fortified/Functional Packaged Food in Thailand report tracks the developments of health-associated product types and the healthy-option positioning of competing brands across different food sectors. (just-food.com)

people


  • How are you going to convince people that something added to their food is good for them? (irinnews.org)
  • While Chow Babe is a parody of Food Babe, she has gained a following of nearly ten thousand people sharing one common notion - that Vani Hari is a charlatan without evidence for her propaganda. (biofortified.org)

Value


  • According to the FDA, a "calcium-fortified" food must have at least 10 percent of the daily value of calcium added. (livestrong.com)

product


  • The FDA also regulates calcium and other fortified food information on product packages. (livestrong.com)
  • To "fortify" a product means to add a missing nutrient or supplement a nutrient present in an insignificant amount. (livestrong.com)

provides


  • Calcium fortified food information provides a service to consumers who read labels to learn about the nutrient content of a food or to compare similar foods. (livestrong.com)

energy


  • One of the reasons for this is the fact that the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand introduced new Daily Amount Guidelines in June 2016 which allow consumers to see sugar, sodium, fat and energy contents more clearly. (just-food.com)

consumer


  • Vani Hari, better known as "Food Babe," is a self-proclaimed investigator of food and consumer advocate. (biofortified.org)
  • You state in your response that one doesn't need a PhD to be a consumer advocate or food investigator, and that "just because you have a degree, doesn't make you right. (biofortified.org)

High


  • Manufacturers fortify foods such as margarine, spreads and salad dressings as a way to get more beneficial sterols into high-cholesterol diets. (ehow.co.uk)

Science


  • I had the amazing opportunity this past weekend to moderate a panel on the Future of Food at the Escape Velocity conference hosted by the Museum of Science Fiction in Washington, DC. (biofortified.org)

labels


  • You've likely seen these labels and more popping up on kids foods throughout the grocery store. (deliciousliving.com)