Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)RestaurantsCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Frozen FoodsMinor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.United StatesNutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Food Contamination, RadioactiveDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Menu PlanningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Mercury PoisoningFasting: Abstaining from all food.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Schools: Educational institutions.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Peanut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nunavut: A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Phenylketonuria, Maternal: A condition occurring in untreated or partially treated females with PHENYLKETONURIA when they become pregnant. This may result in damages to the FETUS, including MICROCEPHALY; MENTAL RETARDATION; congenital heart disease; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; and CRANIOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES. (From Am J Med Genet 1997 Mar 3;69(1):89-95)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.JapanRats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Metastasectomy: Surgery to remove one or more NEOPLASM METASTASES.Cooking and Eating UtensilsAdministration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
PLOS ONE: Visual-Gustatory Interaction: Orbitofrontal and Insular Cortices Mediate the Effect of High-Calorie Visual Food Cues...So far, the impact of visual food cues varying in energy content on subsequent taste integration remains unexplored. Using ... When viewing high-calorie food images, participants reported the subsequent taste to be more pleasant than when low-calorie ... Our findings reveal previously unknown mechanisms of cross-modal, visual-gustatory, sensory interactions underlying food ... food images preceded the identical taste. Moreover, the taste-evoked neural activity was stronger in the bilateral insula and ...
Food PoisoningFind out what to do if you get food poisoning - and how to prevent it. ... The germs that get into food and cause food poisoning are tiny, but can have a powerful effect on the body. ... If so, it sounds like you're familiar with food poisoning.. What Is Food Poisoning?. Food poisoning is caused by bacteria and, ... Even water can cause food poisoning.. Foods and liquids can be contaminated at lots of different points in the food preparation ...
Exposure makes the heart grow less fond!: the effects of exposure to palatable foods on the subsequent attention processing of...In this study, the effects of exposure to food temptations on attention processing were investi ... Prior research has provided conflicting evidence on the question of whether exposure to food temptations directs attention ... This effect was found after exposure to pictures of food as well as real food temptations. These findings suggest that food ... The results show that exposure to food temptations led participants to direct their attention away from food cues. ...
Food Poisoning: Diagnosis, Treatment & PreventionYou might suspect food poisoning if several people who have eaten the same thing develop similar symptoms. ... Food can make us sick if it contains dangerous organisms or toxins. ... How can food poisoning be prevented?. Food poisoning is best prevented by taking care when selecting foods, preparing foods, ... What is food poisoning?. Food can make us sick if it contains either dangerous organisms or toxins. Often the toxic food looks ...
STOP! Don't Feed Your Dog These Foods | Leashes and LoversSugary foods: Can lead to obesity, dental problems, and diabetes. *Yeast dough: Can expand and produce gas in the digestive ... STOP! Don't Feed Your Dog These Foods. by Sheryl Matthys , Nov 29, 2010 , Canine Care, Health, & Behavior: For You and Your Dog ... Human foods smell and taste so good to our dogs - especially over the holidays. Unfortunately, some items can be hazardous for ... While in most cases, these foods may only lead to stomach upset and diarrhea, some items can cause severe illness, and even ...
Isolation of Genomic DNA from Food and FeedWe have optimized the lysis buffer and purification process to extract DNA from a variety of food products. ... The NucleoSpin Food Kit allows you to quickly isolate genomic DNA from many types of processed food or animal feed of plant or ... Isolation of Genomic DNA from Food & Feed-NucleoSpin Food. The NucleoSpin Food Kit allows you to quickly isolate genomic DNA ... The NucleoSpin Food protocol guarantees good recovery rates for small genomic DNA fragments from food. We have optimized the ...
Going Green with Noah: Foods to Avoid Feeding your DogWhich foods could be dangerous for my dog?. A.. Some foods which are edible for humans, and even other species of animals, can ... Cat food. Generally too high in protein and fats.. Chocolate, coffee, tea, and other caffeine. Contain caffeine, theobromine, ... Moldy or spoiled food, garbage. Can contain multiple toxins causing vomiting and diarrhea and can also affect other organs. ... The following common food items should not be fed (intentionally or unintentionally) to dogs. This list is, of course, ...
Preserved Eggs | POPSUGAR FoodOn POPSUGAR Food you will find everything you need on food, recipes and Preserved Eggs. ... The latest tips and news on Preserved Eggs are on POPSUGAR Food. ...
Physicochemical Aspects of Food Engineering and ProcessingPart II focuses on multiphase food systems made of proteins, seafoods, red meats, and pet foods, and the physicochemical ... Combining important information on processing and food quality, Physicochemical Aspects of Food Engineering and Processing ... Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and St (BOK) Sakamon Devahastin Slippes 01/10 ... Physicochemical Aspects of Food Engineering and Processing covers the engineering, processing, and quality angles equally. It ...
Free Health Clinic: June 2009What can you do to prevent food poisoning? Keep hot food hot and cold food cold. And keep everything - especially your hands - ... Food poisoning symptoms include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, which can start just hours after eating the food. Most often, ... Food poisoning, also referred to as food-borne illness, is a gastrointestinal disorder that results from eating contaminated ... Whether you become sick after eating contaminated food depends on the organism in the food, the amount of exposure you've had ...
What Is Correct Food Combining?Food combining is about the Quality of the foods/drinks combined or taken into the body. ... What is Correct food combining and harm of incorrect food combining? ... This food combination of heavy proteins & concentrated fat foods with refined sugar foods/drinks is the most difficult for most ... Food Combining Summary This food combining summary will focus on three main points, Quantity of food eat... ...
The Real Health Benefits of Fermented Foods - Real Food - MOTHER EARTH NEWSLearning how to ferment food can provide a more nutritious and digestible diet, but be wary of health claims that seem too good ... The art of fermentation produces food filled with active, live cultures. ... Fermented foods, as a group, are highly nutritious and digestible. Fermentation pre-digests foods, making nutrients more ... The Real Health Benefits of Fermented Foods The art of fermentation produces food filled with active, live cultures. Learning ...
New research to investigate brain responsiveness to food and the link with type 2 diabetes - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comHome Brain and Nerves New research to investigate brain responsiveness to food and the link with type 2 diabetes ... Brain activity will be monitored during an MRI scan whilst exposed to images of foods and then completion of a survey about the ... "We are investigating how the brains of young people react to food images and how these brain responses change depending on what ... We hope that our research will help improve understanding of why some young people struggle with overeating and make poor food ...
19-1012.00 - Food Scientists and TechnologistsSample of reported job titles: Food Science Professor, Food Scientist, Food Technologist, Product Development Manager, Product ... discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science ... Food Production - Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and ... Study the structure and composition of food or the changes foods undergo in storage and processing. ...
Food prices, supply task force set to meet: official - Taipei TimesA task force on stabilizing imported food prices and supplies of locally produced food will meet next week at the earliest, a ... A task force on stabilizing imported food prices and supplies of locally produced food will meet next week at the earliest, a ... Chen's deputy, Yu Sheng-feng (游勝鋒), said the goal of the task force is to stabilize both the volume and price of imported food. ... Chen Wen-teh (陳文德), director-general of the Agriculture and Food Agency, said the task force would discuss "local production ...
Infant feeding: When is your baby ready for solid foodWill her health be affected if she doesn't start eating them soon? What are the best foods to start with for a picky eater? - ... Sometimes, a child seems to "know" they are allergic to certain foods and will refuse to eat them until they can be tolerated. ... Independent-minded babies may refuse to be spoon-fed, but will gladly scoop up foods and feed themselves. ... Infant feeding: When is your baby ready for solid food. Sep 28, 2007. Print ...
Food! - Atheist NexusMaking food. Eating food. Where food comes from. What you like What you don't like. Recipes. How and why of food. Bon appetit! ... Making food.. Eating food.. Where food comes from.. What you like. What you don't like.. Recipes.. How and why of food.. Bon ... Food Fraud Started by Ruth Anthony-Gardner. Last reply by The Flying Atheist Aug 8. 3 Replies 1 Like ... and food. Families cooked on small charcoal stoves outside the Quonsets. The visiting families and friends sat on benches ...
News - Mr Intolerable'sMany commonly consumed foods are high in FODMAPs.. It is generally recommended to completely eliminate all high-FODMAP foods ... If you find that a certain type of food really wreaks havoc on your digestion, then you may want to permanently avoid that food ... If you're wondering about a specific food, try looking for "[food name] fodmaps" on Google, such as "garlic fodmaps" (without ... These foods are okay to eat on a low-FODMAP diet:. All meats, fish and eggs, except if if they have added high-FODMAP ...
The aim of this investigation is to test for the different types of biological molecules found in different types of food - A...We will use nine (9) different types of food samples to test for all the above molecules in each food. When testing for ... By adding some Biuret solution to a food sample; the presence of proteins would turn the food sample purple. Prediction I can ... Testing foods for proteins, lipids, sugars and starch. Aim: To test a variety of ... Potassium Hydroxide 5. Ethanol 6. Sudan ( ... If we used the ingredients contained in each food the results would be the same but it would help to explain and understand how ...
Anemia: How Food and Vitamins Can Help | Portsmouth Regional HospitalHow Food and Vitamins Can Help at Portsmouth Regional Hospital If you are feeling exhausted despite lots of sleep, have ... Vitamin C -Include plenty of foods rich in vitamin C when you eat foods that contain iron. The vitamin C will help absorb more ... Variety -Choose a healthy variety of foods, especially those rich in iron and folic acid, such as lean red meat, foods ... A decreased intake of folic acid from food can result in anemia. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and periods of rapid growth, which ...
Whole Foods Sees Traffic Jump After Price Cuts... 10/11/2017 7:00AM Competitors may especially worry about losing higher-income ... Whole Foods Sees Traffic Jump After Price Cuts. 10/11/2017 7:00AM 1:14 ...
Israel-FoodThis is a list to discuss food in Israel - recipes, menus, ingredients, shopping, restaraunts, etc. The orientation is towards ...
Food... it is imperative that we develop ways to improve food yields, cut food waste and ensure people have access to a plentiful ... As global demand for food rises, much of our land has become severely degraded due to increased farming. However, as well as ... Watch Professor Tim Benton, the Champion for the UK's Global Food Security programme, explore the challenges of sustainably and ... Food. Supporting the chemical science community to help feed a growing global population ...
Food... works to assure that the food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and honestly labeled. ... The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) ... Which foods should I stay away from during pregnancy?. *. What ... Does FDA have any other food safety materials?. *. Does FDA approve the color additives used in food? If so, how does FDA ... The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) works to assure that the food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and ...
Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.SAFE FOODSHealth food storeHungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Criticism of fast foodCompensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActBeneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.E350 (food additive): E350 is an EU recognised food additive. It comes in two forms,Chao Yao-dong: Chao Yao-dong (died August 20, 2008) was a Taiwanese politician, economist and former Minister of Economic Affairs (1981–84).IontocaineMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Functional food: A functional food is a food given an additional [(often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.[http://www4.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Yellow soybean paste: Yellow soybean paste is a fermented paste] made from yellow [[soybeans, salt, and water; wheat flour, though not formerly used, is often used as an additional ingredient in the modern day, and potassium sorbate may also be used as a preservative. Yellow soybean paste is produced in China and is used primarily in Beijing cuisine and other cuisines of northern China.Caramel: Caramel ( or ) is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard.Master StrokeTimeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==Smoothie King: Smoothie King (A hangover you don't deserve)}}Direct Benefit Transfer: Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to change the mechanism of transferring subsidies launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013. This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.Preservative: A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationOrganic food: Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming. While the standards differ worldwide, organic farming in general features cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Vegetable juiceGlucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Kitchen: A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, counters and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design.List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Tropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideAustralian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsSensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Gentle frying: Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods.fissler.God's Providence House, Chester: God's Providence House is at 9 Watergate Street and 11–11A Watergate Row, Chester, Cheshire, England. The house incorporates part of the Chester Rows, is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building,} and is included in the English Heritage Archive.Minor histocompatibility antigen: Minor histocompatibility antigen (a.k.Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Animal fatCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Bologna sausageList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Foundation Course for Agricultural Research ServicePowdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.List of nuclides: This table of nuclides shows the 896 observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Snack: A snack is a small portion of food eaten between meals. The food might be snack food—items like potato chips—but could also simply be a small amount of any food.Menu FoodsFirst pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcement
(1/3041) Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.
A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (+info)
(2/3041) Post-ingestive feedbacks and associative learning regulate the intake of unsuitable sterols in a generalist grasshopper.
Behavioural studies of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana were undertaken to identify the mechanisms that regulate the intake of dietary sterols. In the first experiment, grasshoppers were allowed to feed on spinach, a plant containing only unsuitable sterols; immediately after this first meal, a suitable or unsuitable sterol was injected into the haemolymph. Grasshoppers injected with unsuitable sterols had second meals on spinach that were significantly shorter than those of grasshoppers injected with suitable sterols, indicating that unsuitable dietary sterols are detected post-ingestively. In the second experiment, grasshoppers were fed food containing only unsuitable sterols and were then presented with glass-fibre discs containing different concentrations of a suitable sterol or sucrose only (the control). The results suggest that grasshoppers do not use a direct feedback operating on mouthpart chemoreceptors to regulate their intake of suitable sterols. In the third experiment, grasshoppers were presented with artificial diets containing different sterols and flavours, and feeding was observed over a sequence of meals. The results from both the first and last experiments suggest a role for associative learning in regulating the intake of unsuitable sterols. (+info)
(3/3041) Muscarinic blockade inhibits gastric emptying of mixed-nutrient meal: effects of weight and gender.
We compared the vagal contribution to gastric emptying in lean and obese subjects by monitoring gastric emptying of a meal during muscarinic blockade. Lean (n = 6) and obese subjects (n = 6) underwent two treatments: 1) saline infusion and 2) atropine infusion [0.4 mg/m2 bolus, 0.4 mg. (m2)-1. h-1] for 2 h, initiated 30 min before ingestion of a 600-kcal breakfast (64% carbohydrate, 23% fat, 13% protein) composed of orange juice (labeled with Indium-111), egg sandwich (labeled with Technetium-99m), cereal, milk, and banana. Anterior and posterior images were taken every 90 s for 90 min using a dual-headed camera. Atropine significantly delayed emptying of both solid (P < 0.007) and liquid (P < 0.002). Obese subjects exhibited a greater delay in liquid emptying during muscarinic blockade compared with lean subjects (P < 0.02). Female subjects exhibited a slower rate of gastric emptying and were less sensitive to atropine. These data suggest that obese subjects exhibit altered gastric cholinergic activity compared with lean subjects and that gender differences in gastric emptying rate may be due to differences in autonomic tone. (+info)
(4/3041) Needs assessment following hurricane Georges--Dominican Republic, 1998.
Hurricane Georges struck the Carribean Islands in September 1998, causing numerous deaths and extensive damage throughout the region. The Dominican Republic was hardest hit, with approximately 300 deaths; extensive infrastructure damage; and severe agricultural losses, including staple crops of rice, plantain, and cassava. Two months after the hurricane, the American Red Cross (ARC) was asked to provide food to an estimated 170,000 families affected by the storm throughout the country. To assist in directing relief efforts, CDC performed a needs assessment to estimate the food and water availability, sanitation, and medical needs of the hurricane-affected population. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicate that, 2 months after the disaster, 40% of selected families had insufficient food > or =5 days per and 28% of families reported someone in need of medical attention. (+info)
(5/3041) Abbreviated measures of food sufficiency validly estimate the food security level of poor households: measuring household food security.
This study was designed to develop an abbreviated method that captures both the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of household food security (HFS). Women in poor and very poor households (n = 238) in a peri-urban barrio in Caracas, Venezuela, provided data on food availability and their perception of food resource constraints and hunger experiences within the home. Socioeconomic data and food-related behavior that may predict HFS levels were gathered. On average, the top 12 food contributors of energy provided 81% and predicted more than 90% of the variation in households' total energy availability using stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, a 4-point 12-item scale was shown to have face, content and construct validity with reiterative testing, factor analysis and a Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92. Assessing predictors of energy availability together with a self-perceived HFS scale may provide a valid and reliable method for identifying and monitoring food security levels among poor urban households. (+info)
(6/3041) Food safety training for nutritionists.
A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. (+info)
(7/3041) Dietary determinants of colorectal proliferation in the normal mucosa of subjects with previous colon adenomas.
Dietary determinants of colorectal mucosa proliferation were studied in 69 subjects previously operated for at least two sporadic colon adenomas. Information on recent dietary habits was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation in colorectal biopsies by determining the labeling index (LI) and the percentage of LI in the upper part of the crypt, two parameters that are increased in subjects at high risk of colon cancer. The LI was significantly higher in women as compared with men (P = 0.01). Diet showed several associations with colorectal mucosa proliferation: (a) subjects in the highest tertile of fish consumption had a significantly lower LI (P = 0.0013) compared with those in the lower tertiles [5.20 +/- 1.87 versus 6.80 +/- 2.18 (mean +/- SD)]; (b) subjects with a low red meat consumption had lower proliferation in the upper part of the crypt [2.38 +/- 2.10, 5.30 +/- 4.62, and 5.89 +/- 4.82 in the low, middle, and high tertile of consumption, respectively (mean +/- SD); P = 0.0093]; (c) according to estimated nutrient intakes, the LI was lower in subjects reporting a high intake of starch (P = 0.006) and higher in subjects with a low intake of beta-carotene (P = 0.002). The results show that subjects reporting a diet rich in fish, starch, and beta-carotene and low in red meat had lower colorectal mucosa proliferation and a normal pattern of proliferation along the crypt. Given the correlation between colorectal proliferative activity and colon cancer risk, such a dietary pattern might be beneficial for subjects at high risk of colon cancer. (+info)
(8/3041) Food groups and colorectal cancer risk.
Most studies of diet and colorectal cancer have considered nutrients and micronutrients, but the role of foods or food groups remains open to debate. To elucidate the issue, we examined data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in the Swiss canton of Vaud. Cases were 223 patients (142 men, 81 women) with incident, histologically confirmed colon (n= 119) or rectal (n= 104) cancer (median age 63 years), linked with the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud, and controls were 491 subjects (211 men, 280 women, median age 58 years) admitted to the same university hospital for a wide spectrum of acute non-neoplastic conditions unrelated to long-term modifications of diet. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity and total energy intake. Significant associations were observed for refined grain (OR = 1.32 for an increase of one serving per day), and red meat (OR = 1.54), pork and processed meat (OR = 1.27), alcohol (OR = 1.28), and significant protections for whole grain (OR = 0.85), raw (OR = 0.85) and cooked vegetables (OR = 0.69), citrus (OR = 0.86) and other fruits (OR = 0.85), and for coffee (OR = 0.73). Garlic was also protective (OR = 0.32 for the highest tertile of intake). These findings in a central European population support the hypothesis that a diet rich in refined grains and red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer; they, therefore, support the recommendation to substitute whole grains for refined grain, to limit meat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. (+info)
- A cytologic assay for diagnosis of food hypersensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. (wordpress.com)
- BACKGROUND & AIMS: A percentage of patients with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from food hypersensitivity (FH) and improve on a food-elimination diet. (wordpress.com)
- We observed that food hypersensitivity also reflects different genetic factors and variations in cultural and dietary habits of each individual. (duhnnae.com)
- Background: Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition which often remains medically unexplained. (uib.no)
- Aim: The objective of the present thesis was to assess the potential beneficial effects of seal oil on symptoms, and to develop a novel sample protocol to investigate the putative role of enteroendocrine secretorial compounds in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. (uib.no)
- In study II, patients with subjective food hypersensitivity received a 10-day open treatment with duodenal administered seal oil. (uib.no)
- Serum levels of CgA were significantly lower in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity as compared to healthy controls. (uib.no)
- No significant differences in gut lavage 5- HT levels were detected between patients with subjective food hypersensitivity, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and healthy controls. (uib.no)
- Conclusion: The present thesis suggests a beneficial effect of duodenal administered seal oil on both intestinal and extra-intestinal complaints in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. (uib.no)
- Decreased systemic CgA levels suggest a role for enteroendocrine alterations in the pathophysiology of subjective food hypersensitivity, such as impaired enterochromaffin (EC) cell function, and the potential of using granins as biomarkers for functional gastrointestinal disorders should be explored in future studies. (uib.no)
- Effects of seal oil on meal-induced symptoms and gastric accommodation in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity: a pilot study. (uib.no)
- Duodenal administered seal oil for patients with subjective food hypersensitivity: an explorative open pilot study. (uib.no)
- Food Science : An advanced level food microbiology course providing a perspective on advanced topics in food microbiology (microbial biofilms, antimicrobial resistance, bacterial endospores) and describing the fundamental principles of advanced techniques in food microbiology (microbiological, biochemical, immunological, genetics methods). (mcgill.ca)
- We analyzed in vitro activation of basophils by food allergens (based on levels of CD63 expression), as well as total and food-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in serum. (wordpress.com)
- food safety hygiene & sanitation, Food adulteration, inspection and regulations. (emagister.in)
- Learn about: Food Hygiene, Agricultural Sciences, Food Microbiology. (emagister.in)
- Learn about: India Agriculture, Food Hygiene, Food Microbiology. (emagister.in)
- BackgroundFood allergy may be defined as an immunoglobulin E-mediated immune response to food proteins. (duhnnae.com)
- Learn about: Organic Farming, Organic Agriculture, Food Microbiology. (emagister.in)
- METHODS: For 7 allergenic foods double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with a positive outcome for allergic reactions were selected from the clinical database of children routinely tested to diagnose food allergy at the University Medical Center Groningen. (biomedsearch.com)
- Results-ConclusionsOut of the 684 patients with a history of food allergy, most of them, that is, 338, are in the age group 16 to 40 years, 192 of them were in the age group 41 to 60 years, and 154 were in the age group 5 to 15 years. (duhnnae.com)
- Most of the patients with food allergy had asthma 65.05%, rhinitis and asthma 20.03%, and skin allergies 4.97%, such as itching, eczema, and urticaria. (duhnnae.com)
- Brazil's Agricultural Politics in Africa: More Food International and the Disputed Meanings of "Family Farming" ," World Development , Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 47-60. (repec.org)
- Learn about: Food and Nutrition, Food Production, Food Microbiology. (emagister.in)
- Learn about: Food Nutrition, Food Microbiology, Human Nutrition. (emagister.in)
- This article examines evaluation evidence on two of the most important recent initiatives in Brazil's policies for food and nutrition security (conditional cash transfers through Bolsa Família and support for family agriculture through the Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos). (repec.org)
- It also considers advances in older policies (such as the School Meals programme) and the work of the National Council for Food and Nutrition Security, which has culminated in national legislation establishing food and nutrition security as a right. (repec.org)
- McDonald's Corporation announced in October that it would begin printing nutrition facts information on food packages (see Associated Press ). (blogspot.com)
- The publishers of the Fast Food Facts weblog also link to nutrition information for McDonald's and other companies that make these facts public. (blogspot.com)
- Teaches and writes about U.S. Food Policy at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. (blogspot.com)
- BACKGROUND: For most allergenic foods, insufficient threshold dose information within the population restricts the advice on levels of unintended allergenic foods which should trigger precautionary labeling on prepackaged foods. (biomedsearch.com)
- OBJECTIVE: We wanted to derive threshold dose distributions for major allergenic foods and to elaborate the protein doses at which a proportion of the allergic population is likely to respond. (biomedsearch.com)
- The present study was therefore undertaken to record the sensitivity to commonly consumed foods in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. (duhnnae.com)
- Respiratory allergic patients in the age group of 5 to 60 years were evaluated using a standard questionnaire, and skin prick test was performed using common food and aeroallergens. (duhnnae.com)
- this level of sensitivity was significantly higher than that of serum total IgE or food-specific IgE assays. (wordpress.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: A cytometric assay that quantifies basophils after stimulation with food antigens based on cell-surface expression of CD63 had high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing FH. (wordpress.com)
- 2015 Global hunger index: Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger ," IFPRI books , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number 978-0-89629-964-1. (repec.org)
- Threshold dose distributions for 5 major allergenic foods in children. (biomedsearch.com)
- They claim it is indicative of moves by the biotech lobby, led by the USA and biotech firms, to force GM food into the mouths of the world without proper assessment. (commondreams.org)
- Effects of elimination diets and double-blind food challenges were used as standards for FH diagnosis. (wordpress.com)
- This programme is expected to meet the increasing human resource requirements for food safety and quality management professionals in the agriculture and food sectors. (emagister.in)
- Essential background reading for people inside and outside the agri-food system who want to understand U.S. food policy and economics better. (blogspot.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Threshold distribution curves and eliciting doses are a powerful tool to compare different allergenic foods and for informing policy on precautionary labeling. (biomedsearch.com)
- 2015 Indice de la faim dans le monde: Conflict armés et le défi de la faim ," IFPRI books , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number 978-0-89629-966-5. (repec.org)
- 2015 Indice globale della fame: I conflitti armati e la sfida della fame ," IFPRI books , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number 978-0-89629-967-2. (repec.org)
- Learn about: Food Technology, Food Preservation, Food Microbiology. (emagister.in)
- Facing a number of legal challenges, and long a focus of public interest group attention, the leading fast food company now does better than any of its major competitors in sharing detailed information about its products with consumers. (blogspot.com)