Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chamomile: Common name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.PicratesEpimedium: A plant genus of the family BERBERIDACEAE which is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL. Members contain flavonol glycosides including epimedins, icariin and noricariin.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Scutellaria baicalensis: A plant species of the genus SCUTELLARIA, family LAMIACEAE, that contains skullcapflavone and is used in CHINESE HERBAL DRUGS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.ChalconeGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Primulaceae: A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The flowers have both stamens and pistil, and the fruits are capsules.Biphenyl CompoundsChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Eriocaulaceae: A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Rutaceae: A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.Hydroxyethylrutoside: Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Bidens: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain bidensyneosides (polyacetylene glucosides).Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Ginger: Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Hippophae: A plant genus of the family ELAEAGNACEAE. Linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acids (18:3n-3) comprised about 70% of seed oil fatty acids. This is unrelated to 'artificial sea buckthorn oil'. This genus does not belong to the buckthorn family (RHAMNACEAE).Morus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Bauhinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.Rhamnaceae: The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.Scopolia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE after which the compound SCOPOLAMINE HYDROBROMIDE got its name.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Millettia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.Andrographis: A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)GlucosidesMethanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Thymelaeaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.Dalbergia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members of this genus can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Artemisia annua: A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Tephrosia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains tephrorin, tephrosone, and C-prenylflavonoids.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Diosmin: A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.Combretum: A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Triterpenes and combretastatin have been identified in members of this genus.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Melissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Chromolaena: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Cynara scolymus: A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Rhus: A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Ilex: A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Agrimonia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that has been used in folk treatment of diabetes. Members contain agrimoniin (TANNINS).Malpighiaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Loranthaceae: The showy mistletoe plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. This includes parasitic tropical plants with haustoria connecting to the hosts. The leaves are opposite and thick. The flowers (4-7) have both calyx and corolla. The fruit is a berry with one seed.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Viscum: A plant genus in the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Species of this genus contain cytotoxic LECTINS. The common name of MISTLETOE is used for many species of this and the LORANTHACEAE families.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Vernonia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Butea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains butrin and isobutrin.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Caesalpinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.Polypodiaceae: The fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta.

*  Anti-tumour activity of flavone acetic acid (NSC 347512) in mice--influence of immune status - University of Huddersfield...

Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a synthetic flavonoid with dramatic pre-clinical anti-tumour activity involving a vascular ...
eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/24530/

*  Cross-talk between amino acid residues and flavonoid derivatives: insights into their chemical recognition.

... there is a general consensus that flavonoids exert their antioxidant activity through their ability to interact with a broad ... Particularly, the amino acids Phe, Leu, Ile and Trp seem to play a crucial role in the dynamics of flavonoid ligands in the ... It is therefore crucial to gain a deeper insight into the amino acid residue-flavonoid interaction. Here we show extensive ... By correlating (a) the binding energies of flavonoids-amino acid residues, (b) the hydrophobicity of amino acids, and (c) the ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Cross-talk-between-amino-acid/23086511.html

*  Foods with flavonoids may help some men ditch the Viagra - TODAY.com

Men may be able to reduce their risk of erectile dysfunction by consuming certain foods rich in flavonoids, a new study ... Have a daily flavonoid shake. So, even though this is just an observational study, which means there is no proof that ... The biggest effect was seen in men who consumed the highest amount of flavonoids and were physically active. Among those men, ... The researchers found that men who consumed the most foods containing flavonoids had a 10 percent reduced risk of ED compared ...
https://today.com/health/foods-flavonoids-may-help-some-men-ditch-viagra-t66996

*  Flavonoids, Inflammation and Cancer eBook by Hollie Swanson - 9789814651950 | Rakuten Kobo

This book provides an insightful analysis of the chemopreventive actions of flavonoids. Flavonoids are naturally occurri... ... Read Flavonoids, Inflammation and Cancer by Hollie Swanson with Rakuten Kobo. ... Flavonoids, Inflammation and Cancer presents an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms by which flavonoids are thought to prevent ... This book provides an insightful analysis of the chemopreventive actions of flavonoids. Flavonoids are naturally occurring ...
https://kobo.com/us/en/ebook/flavonoids-inflammation-and-cancer

*  Abstract: Flavonoid-membrane interactions: a protective role of flavonoids at the membrane surface?

Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although ... Abstract: Flavonoid-membrane interactions: a protective role of flavonoids at the membrane surface?. * ... poteiza@ucdavis.edu Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the ... The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest ...
prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=11131

*  Are flavonoids the new superfood? - NZ Herald

Flavonoids are all over the news at the moment, boasting how you can slim down by only eating a few grapes and how
flavonoids provide the colour in many foods, to get the best dose you should seek out those fruit and vegetables with ...
nzherald.co.nz/lifestyle/news/article.cfm?c_id=6&objectid=11582301

*  Science Stacks Up for Flavonoids for Heart Health ( A diet rich in flavonoids compounds in...)

According to Business Insights the market potential for flavonoid...,Science,Stacks,Up,for,Flavonoids,for,Heart,Health,medicine ... Flavonoids have been receiving interest with a mounting body of sc... ... A diet rich in flavonoids compounds in fruit vegetables coffee tea...The prospective cohort study of 34489 postmenopausal women ... Science Stacks Up for Flavonoids for Heart Health. A diet rich in flavonoids compounds in fruit vegetables coffee tea...The ...
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/Science-Stacks-Up-for-Flavonoids-for-Heart-Health-19051-1/

*  Pomegranate and Hemodialysis Pilot Trial - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Dietary flavonoids are highly bioavailable, and have been shown to confer antioxidant protection, inhibit platelet activation, ... In addition to vitamins C and E, the most common and active antioxidant compounds that occur naturally in foods are flavonoids ... In animal model studies, dietary flavonoids have been shown to reduce the development of atherosclerosis. Polyphenols also have ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01562340

*  What are some foods that are rich in flavonoids? | Reference.com

There are five distinct subcategories of flavonoids. There are several fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains in each... ... Some of the most common flavonoid-rich foods are berries and green or black tea. ... Boiling flavonoid-rich foods may result in a decrease in flavonoid content. Because flavonoids contribute to a plant's color, ... Most of the flavonoid plant peels and skins are safe for consumption. Don't pre-peel, cut or slice the plant before storing. ...
https://reference.com/health/foods-rich-flavonoids-26ac6e1698cb5941

*  Wiley: The Handbook of Natural Flavonoids , 2 Volume Set - Jeffrey B. Harborne, Herbert Baxter

Flavonoids are a large and important group of natural products derived from 'flavone'. Some flavonoids are intensely coloured, ... Leaf flavonoids provide protection from the potential damage of UVB radiation. Certain flavanones are formed as antifungal ... The Handbook of Natural Flavonoids , 2 Volume Set (US $2,705.00). -and- Student Companion to Accompany Fundamentals of ... Other flavonoids are essentially colourless, producing the 'whiteness' of white flowers. Besides their contribution to plant ...
wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-047195893X.html

*  Role of Flavanols In Cardiovascular Function in Healthy Aging - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of dietary flavonoids. As previously mentioned Flavonoids are a group of natural compounds found in vegetables, fruits ... Flavanols are a subfamily of flavonoids, and are quantitatively the most important compound in flavonoid family in western ... Diets rich in flavonoids are associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events (i.e. ... Specifically flavonoids scavenge superoxide anions which are free radicals that react with nitric oxide (NO) to produce ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01395277?recr=Open&cond="Aging"&rank=19

*  flavonoids - Download - 4shared

flavonoids - download at 4shared. flavonoids is hosted at free file sharing service 4shared.. ...
https://4shared.com/rar/4QWsysMmba/flavonoids.html

*  Flavonoid - WoW

Summons a totem at the target location that gathers electrical energy from the surrounding air and then explodes after 2 sec to stun all enemies within 8 yards for 5 sec ...
https://worldofwarcraft.com/en-us/character/zuljin/flavonoid

*  tag/flavonoid/

Search flavonoid at Google. Search flavonoid at Yahoo. Search flavonoid at Bing. ... We're sorry, that page (http://www.bio-medicine.org/tag/Flavonoid/) was not found.. ...
bio-medicine.org/tag/Flavonoid/

*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Flavonoids and Asthma

Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of ... Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several ... Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, ... Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these ...
mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/6/2128

*  VIDEO: Fat Burning Via Flavonoids

Flavonoid phytonutrients - found concentrated in grapes, green tea, cocoa, berries, citrus, red onions and nuts - may boost ...
prohealth.com/fibromyalgia/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=17252

*  Flavonoids and Antioxidants - Natural Health - MOTHER EARTH NEWS

New research is revealing additional sources of flavonoid antioxidants in food... and they're turning up in things you might ... Flavonoids and Antioxidants New research is revealing additional sources of flavonoid antioxidants in food... and they're ... Flavonoids are also turning up in some guilty pleasures. According to findings published in the August issue of The Journal of ... "We were surprised that the flavonoids in hops were as active as they are," says Buhler. If you want the most from your hops, ...
https://motherearthnews.com/natural-health/flavonoid-antioxidants

*  Flavonoids<...

Flavonoids Page 1 Diamond Organics
diamondorganics.com/Vitamins/Flavonoids/

*  Flavonoids sources, health benefits and uses

Flavonoids are water-soluble polyphenolic molecules that have 15 carbon atoms. They appear as two benzene rings that are ... The word "flavonoid" takes its name after the Latin term flavus, which means yellow. Saying so, flavonoids provide the color ... Flavonoids are also responsible for the color of many fruits.. Flavonoids help out plants in some other ways. Sometimes, they ... Flavonoids are good for the excretory system. The flavonoid silymarin from milk thistle has been proven effective in protecting ...
https://naturalpedia.com/flavonoids-sources-health-benefits-and-uses.html

*  Properties of flavonoid rutin

In the form of supplements it is also sold in capsules, either alone or with other flavonoids. It should be taken according to ... Rutin is a flavonoid that provides many health properties.. Among all its properties we should include its ability to combat ...
botanical-online.com/english/rutin_properties.htm

*  flavonoids | Drink Healthy Drinks

... flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids (such as quercetin and rutin) have potent antioxidant effects. Laboratory and animal ... Flavonoids and antioxidants that are found in cocoa beans may be good sources of medicine in this situation. ... However, the problem lies in the fact that cocoa powder which is delivered to the shops is poor with flavonoids. They are ... studies have shown that flavonoids protect the nerves, heart muscle, blood vessels, and retina from damage. Terpenoids (such as ...
drinkhealthydrinks.com/tag/flavonoids/

*  Flavonoids from Gutierrezia Repens (Asteraceae)

ALARCON, S. R. et al. Flavonoids from Gutierrezia Repens (Asteraceae). J. Argent. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2007, vol.95, n.1-2, pp ...
scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1852-14282007000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

*  Can Flavonoids Fight Weight Gain?

A diet rich in flavonoids, a class of plant pigments found in fruits and vegetables, may help slow the expansion of waistlines ... Our results suggest that choosing high-flavonoid fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, berries, and peppers, may help ... But every standard deviation increase in flavonoid consumption shaved up to a quarter-pound off that weight gain. ... Good dietary sources of flavonoids include blueberries, strawberries, apples, pears, tea, onions, and peppers, the ...
chirotexas.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2095:can-flavonoids-fight-weight-gain-&catid=42:clinical-research&Itemid=220

*  CHEMOTAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF FLAVONOIDS IN THE SOLANUM NIGRUM COMPLEX

Flavonoids from different species of Solanum have been reported and reviewed10. Quercetin and its derivative glycosides make up ... Flavonoids were extracted for colorimetric analysis as described by Chang et al22. About 1 g (accurately weighed to 0.0001 g) ... Flavonoids are useful secondary metabolites in assessing the relationship among closely related species or in studies of ... T. J. Mabry, K. R. Markham, M. B. Thomas, The Systematic Identifcation of Flavonoids. Springer-Verlag. New York, U.S.A. 1970. ...
scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-97072009000400037&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

AstragalinQuercetinPinocembrinFlavonols: Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (IUPAC name : 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one). Their diversity stems from the different positions the phenolic -OH groups.AcacetinIsovitexinNaringin dihydrochalconePhytomedicineChamomile: Chamomile or camomile ( or ) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae that are commonly used to make herb infusions to serve various medicinal purposes. Popular uses of chamomile preparations include treating hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasm, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, gastrointestinal disorder, and hemorrhoids.AlkylphenolPotassium picrateEpimedium wushanense: Epimedium wushanense, the Wushan fairy wings, is a flowering plant species in the genus Epimedium.Epigallocatechin gallateAnthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase: Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that forms anthocyanin 3,5-O-diglucoside from anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside.TroloxSophoraflavanone GMedicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Citrus productionOroxylin AShatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols: Because of the large structural diversity and extensive metabolism of dietary polyphenols, it is difficult to determine their fate in vivo and assert specific health effects. Although many are speculated to be part of the health-promoting effects of consuming fruits and vegetables, no evidence exists to date that dietary polyphenols actually provide health benefits.White chocolate: White chocolate is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Cinnamtannin B1Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Carl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.Methyl hydroxychalconeGlycoside: In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms.DibenzoylmethaneTanninKhekadaengoside: Khekadaengoside is any one of several chemical compounds isolated from certain plants, notably Trichosanthes tricuspidata. They can be seen as derivatives of the triterpene hydrocarbon cucurbitane (), more specifically from cucurbitacins H and L.College of Practitioners of PhytotherapyCrataegus × mordenensis: Crataegus × mordenensis, Morden Hawthorn, is a hybrid that arose between two species in the genus Crataegus (Hawthorn), Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus succulenta. This hybrid was first raised at the Agriculture Canada Plant Breeding Station in Morden, Manitoba, in 1935.Isoflavones: Isoflavones are a type of often naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals. Some are termed antioxidants because of their ability to trap singlet oxygen.Dodecatheon: Dodecatheon is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Primulaceae. The species have basal clumps of leaves and nodding flowers that are produced at the top of tall stems rising from where the leaves join the crown.IrbesartanHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Protocarnivorous plant: A protocarnivorous plant (sometimes also paracarnivorous, subcarnivorous, or borderline carnivore), according to some definitions, traps and kills insects or other animals but lacks the ability to either directly digest or absorb nutrients from its prey like a carnivorous plant. The morphological adaptations such as sticky trichomes or pitfall traps of protocarnivorous plants parallel the trap structures of confirmed carnivorous plants.GenistinChlorogenic acidEsenbeckia runyoniiHydroxyethylrutoside: Hydroxyethylrutosides (oxerutins, O-beta-hydroxyethyl-rutosides, HR or HER) are hydroxyethyl acetylations of rutoside. It may refer to :Baccharis malibuensis: Baccharis malibuensis is a rare California species of shrubs in the aster family known by the common name Malibu baccharis.Calflora taxon report, University of California, Baccharis malibuensis Beauchamp & Henrickson Malibu baccharisAmmonium sulfamateKoelreuteria bipinnata: Koelreuteria bipinnata, also known as (Chinese flame tree, Chinese golden rain tree, Bougainvillea golden-rain tree") is a species of Koelreuteria native to Asia, particularly to China. It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree growing between 10–20 meters tall.Biflavonoid: Biflavonoids are a type of flavonoids with the general formula scheme (C6-C3-C6)2.Tithonia diversifoliaPhytochemical: Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek). Some are responsible for color and other organoleptic properties, such as the deep purple of blueberries and the smell of garlic.GingerGreen tea extractFrankia: Frankia is a genus of nitrogen fixing, filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, similar to the Rhizobia bacteria that are found in the root nodules of legumes in the Fabaceae family. Bacteria of this genus also form root nodules.Morus albaGlycyrrhiza lepidota: Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice) is a species of Glycyrrhiza (a genus in the pea/bean family, Fabaceae) native to most of North America, from central Canada south through the United States to California, Texas and Virginia, but absent from the southeastern states. It is also sometimes known in the United States as "wild licorice", to distinguish it from the related European liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) which is occasionally cultivated.Mingmu Dihuang Wan: Mingmu Dihuang Pills () is a blackish-brown pill used in Traditional Chinese medicine to "nourish yin of the liver and the kidney, and to improve eyesight". State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the PRC (2005).Ethyl groupAureusidin synthase: Aureusidin synthase (, AmAS1) is an enzyme with system name 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside:oxygen oxidoreductase.RhizomeEndodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Essential oil: An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Phenolic acid: Phenolic acids or phenolcarboxylic acids are types of aromatic acid compound. Included in that class are substances containing a phenolic ring and an organic carboxylic acid function (C6-C1 skeleton).Myrmecia forficata: The inchman (Myrmecia forficataForficata, "provided with shears" (forfex, "shears").) is a species of bull ant that is native to Australia.Trevoa trinervis: Trevoa trinervis is a species of actinorhizal plant within the family Rhamnaceae; this dicotyledon flora is a shrub or small tree. The genus was first proposed by Miers in 1825, but was not fully described until 1830 by Sir William Jackson Hooker.Scopolia: Scopolia is a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to Europe and Asia. The genus is named after Giovanni Scopoli (1723-88), a Tyrolean naturalist.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Trihydroxybenzoic acid: Trihydroxybenzoic acid may refer to the following phenolic acids :Rice wineMillettia nitidaAndrographis paniculataLotaustralinMethoxide: Methoxides are organic salts and the simplest alkoxides. Sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide have widespread use, though other metal-cation variants such as lithium methoxide, rubidium methoxide, caesium methoxide, and francium methoxide exist as well.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.GenkwaninKingwood (wood)HydroxylBenzothiazoleArtemisia annua: Artemisia annua, also known as sweet wormwood, sweet annie, sweet sagewort, annual mugwort or annual wormwood (), is a common type of wormwood native to temperate Asia, but naturalized in many countries including scattered parts of North America.Flora of China Vol.Hypericum hirsutum: Hypericum hirsutum is a flowering plant in the genus Hypericum commonly known as hairy St John's-wort. It is found in Western Europe.Astragalus brachycalyx: Astragalus brachycalyx (manna, Persian manna, syn. Astracantha adscendens, Astragalus adscendens) is a species of legume commonly found on rocky mountain slopes in western Asia, from western Iran and northern Iraq to Turkey, and is commonly used as a source of gum tragacanth.Sodium ferulateTrifolium pratense: Trifolium pratense (red clover) is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions.Carlon ColkerVegetable juiceTephrosia: Ectropis}}Viticulture: Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard.Daflon: Daflon is a micronized purified flavonoid fraction containing 90% diosmin and 10% other flavonoids expressed as hesperidin.Combretum paniculatum: Combretum paniculatum, the burning bush or forest flame-creeper, is a plant species in the genus Combretum found in Africa. The fruit is a samara, i.Chrysanthemum morifolium: Chrysanthemum morifolium (also known as Florist's daisy and Hardy garden mum) is a species of perennial plant from Asteraceae family. The plant is high and wide.Callistemon

(1/5753) An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro.

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

(2/5753) The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes.

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

(3/5753) The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579.

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

(4/5753) Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates.

Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation.  (+info)

(5/5753) Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration.

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

(6/5753) Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 is a novel mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells.

A mitogen for growth-arrested cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells was purified to homogeneity from the supernatant of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by heparin affinity chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This mitogen was revealed to be tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), which is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. TFPI-2 was expressed in baby hamster kidney cells using a mammalian expression vector. Recombinant TFPI-2 (rTFPI-2) stimulated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (1-500 nM). rTFPI-2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and stimulated early proto-oncogene c-fos mRNA expression in smooth muscle cells. MAPK, c-fos expression and the mitogenic activity were inhibited by a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase, PD098059. Thus, the mitogenic function of rTFPI-2 is considered to be mediated through MAPK pathway. TFPI has been reported to exhibit antiproliferative action after vascular smooth muscle injury in addition to the ability to inhibit activation of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. However, structurally similar TFPI-2 was found to have a mitogenic activity for the smooth muscle cell.  (+info)

(7/5753) Influence of tangeretin on tamoxifen's therapeutic benefit in mammary cancer.

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen and the citrus flavonoid tangeretin exhibit similar inhibitory effects on the growth and invasive properties of human mammary cancer cells in vitro; furthermore, the two agents have displayed additive effects in vitro. In this study, we examined whether tangeretin would enhance tamoxifen's therapeutic benefit in vivo. METHODS: Female nude mice (n = 80) were inoculated subcutaneously with human MCF-7/6 mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Groups of 20 mice were treated orally by adding the following substances to their drinking water: tamoxifen (3 x 10(-5) M), tangeretin (1 x 10(-4) M), tamoxifen plus tangeretin (3 x 10(-5) M plus 1 x 10(-4) M), or solvent. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Oral treatment of mice with tamoxifen resulted in a statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with solvent treatment (two-sided P = .001). Treatment with tangeretin did not inhibit tumor growth, and addition of this compound to drinking water with tamoxifen completely neutralized tamoxifen's inhibitory effect. The median survival time of tumor-bearing mice treated with tamoxifen plus tangeretin was reduced in comparison with that of mice treated with tamoxifen alone (14 versus 56 weeks; two-sided P = .002). Tangeretin (1 x 10(-6) M or higher) inhibited the cytolytic effect of murine natural killer cells on MCF-7/6 cells in vitro, which may explain why tamoxifen-induced inhibition of tumor growth in mice is abolished when tangeretin is present in drinking water. IMPLICATIONS: We describe an in vivo model to study potential interference of dietary compounds, such as flavonoids, with tamoxifen, which could lead to reduced efficacy of adjuvant therapy. In our study, the tumor growth-inhibiting effect of oral tamoxifen was reversed upon addition of tangeretin to the diet. Our data argue against excessive consumption of tangeretin-added products and supplements by patients with mammary cancer during tamoxifen treatment.  (+info)

(8/5753) Thrombopoietin-induced conformational change in p53 lies downstream of the p44/p42 mitogen activated protein kinase cascade in the human growth factor-dependent cell line M07e.

Thrombopoietin is a cytokine with potent megakaryocytopoietic and thrombopoietic activities in vivo. Wild-type p53 is a conformationally flexible, anti-oncogenic transcription factor that plays a principal role in mediating growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells. We recently reported that Tpo induces a conformational change in and functional inactivation of p53, coincident with its anti-apoptotic effects, in the human factor-dependent cell line M07e. In an effort to identify potential signaling cascades through which Tpo illicits these effects on p53, we report here that treating M07e cells with MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 dramatically suppressed Tpo-induced conformational change in p53 as well as Tpo-enhanced viability in M07e cells in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active Raf1 in M07e cells induced conformational change in p53 independent of Tpo stimulation. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway revealed that JAK/STAT signaling plays an insignificant role in conformational modulation of p53 and apoptosis suppression. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase did not have a significant effect on p53 conformation but did have a weak but significant effect on Tpo-enhanced viability. Cytokine-induced activation of the MAPK pathway and the subsequent functional neutralization of p53, may be an event by which apoptosis is commonly suppressed in hematopoiesis.  (+info)



help


  • Flavonoids in chamomile help the anti-inflammatory effect. (wikispaces.net)
  • The doctors concluded that phytoestrogen flavonoids help prevent bone loss in late menopausal women. (nutritionexpress.com)