Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Electric Fish: Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Fishes, PoisonousOncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cypriniformes: An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ciguatera Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of SEAFOOD containing microgram levels of CIGUATOXINS. The poisoning is characterized by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Batrachoidiformes: An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Characiformes: An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Metacercariae: Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.RNA Virus InfectionsRhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Flavobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases: The European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish DiseasesCommunity Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases is located in Frederiksberg in Denmark at the National Veterinary Institute (a part of Technical University of Denmark).Polymeal: The Polymeal is a diet-based approach to combatting heart disease, proposed in December 2004 by Oscar Franco, a Colombian public health scientist at the University Medical Centre in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Franco and his colleagues suggest the "Polymeal" as a natural alternative to the "Polypill", a multi-drug-based strategy for reducing heart disease.Pink skunk clownfish: Amphiprion perideraion also known as the pink skunk clownfish or pink anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish from the skunk complex that is widespread from northern Australia through the Malay Archipelago and Melanesia. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone.Electrocommunication: Electrocommunication is the communication method used by weakly electric fishes. Weakly electric fishes are a group of animals that utilize a communicating channel that is "invisible" to most other animals: electric signaling.Little skate: The little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, is a species of skate in the family Rajidae, found from Nova Scotia to North Carolina on sand or gravel habitats. They are one of the dominant members of the demersal fish community in the northwestern Atlantic.SeaChoice: SeaChoice is a program of Sustainable Seafood Canada that uses the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch recommendations to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. It is best known for publishing consumer guides for responsible seafood purchasing.Synanceia: Synanceia is a genus of fish of the family Synanceiidae, the stonefishes, whose members are venomous, dangerous, and even fatal to humans. It is one of the most venomous fish currently known in the world.Southern California Steelhead DPS: The Southern California Steelhead Distinct Population Segment (DPS) occurs from the Santa Maria River to the Tijuana River at the United States and Mexican Border in seasonally accessible rivers and streams.*NOAA.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Notropis: Notropis is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae, the carps and minnows. They are known commonly as eastern shiners.Aquaculture of sea sponges: Sea sponge aquaculture is the process of farming sea sponges under controlled conditions. It has been conducted in the world's oceans for centuries using a number of aquaculture techniques.Chinese rice fishNeolamprologus leleupi: Neolamprologus leleupi, also known as Lemon Cichlid, is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it occurs throughout the lake. It is a recess-dweller, inhabiting cracks and crevices.Spring viraemia of carp: Spring viraemia of carp, also known as Swim Bladder Inflammation, is caused by a rhabdovirus called Rhabdovirus carpio. It is listed as a notifiable disease under the World Organisation for Animal Health.Fish gill: Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues which consist of cloth and fabric structures called filaments.Diseases and parasites in salmonWidemouth gambusia: The widemouth gambusia (Gambusia eurystoma) is a species of fish in the family Poeciliidae of the order Cyprinodontiformes. It is endemic to Mexico, specifically to the Baños del Azufre (Grijalva River basin) near Teapa, Tabasco.Thymallus yaluensis: Thymallus yaluensis is a putative species of freshwater fish, a grayling in the salmon family Salmonidae. It is endemic to the upper Yalu River in Korea, on the Chinese border.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Red seabream: Red sea bream is a name given to at least two species of fish of the family Sparidae, Pagrus major and Pagellus bogaraveo. Pagellus bogaraveo is also known as blackspot sea bream.Silurus biwaensis: The giant Lake Biwa catfish (Silurus biwaensis) or Biwako-o'namazu, ビワコオオナマズ (Japan) is the largest predatory catfish species endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan.Tetraodontidae: Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes. The family includes many familiar species, which are variously called pufferfish, puffers, balloonfish, blowfish, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab.Shadow bassMorphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Pardaxin: Pardaxin is a peptide produced by the Red Sea sole and the Pacific Peacock sole that is used as a shark repellent. It causes lysis of mammalian and bacterial cells, similar to melittin.Lollipop darter: The lollipop darter (Etheostoma neopterum) is a species of darter endemic to the eastern United States. Lollipop darters are approximately long.Bithynia fuchsiana: Bithynia fuchsiana is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Bithyniidae.Philophthalmus gralliThomas Dover: Thomas Dover, M.D.Pacific bluefin tunaBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Edna's Goldfish: Edna's Goldfish was an American ska punk band from Long Island, New York.SAFE FOODSVortex ring toyIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Cobitis: Cobitis is a palearctic genus of ray-finned fish in the family Cobitidae. It contains the typical spiny loaches, including the well-known spined loach (C.Ultra-conserved element: An ultra-conserved element (UCE) is a region of DNA that is identical in at least two different species. One of the first studies of UCEs showed that human DNA sequences of length 200 nucleotides or greater were entirely conserved (identical nucleic acid sequence) in both rats and mice.Seahorse: Lower Miocene to presentBosseopentaenoic acidMaresin: Maresins are newly described macrophage-derived mediators of inflammation resolution. The term Maresins is coined from Macrophage mediator in resolving inflammation (maresin), they were found to possess potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties similar to Resolvin E1.African coral reefs: African coral reefs are coral reefs mainly found along the south and east coasts of Africa. The east coast corals extend from the Red Sea to Madagascar in the south, and are an important resource for the fishersmen of Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar.Poecilia sphenops: Poecilia sphenops is a species of fish, of the genus Poecilia, known under the common name molly; to distinguish it from its congeners, it is sometimes called short-finned molly or common molly. They inhabit fresh water streams and coastal brackish and marine waters of Mexico.Kudoa thyrsites: Kudoa thyrsites is a myxosporean parasite of marine fishes. It has a worldwide distribution, and infects a wide range of host species.EcosystemCoryphaenoides: Late Oligocene to PresentMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Blackfin flounder: The blackfin flounder, Glyptocephalus stelleri, is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives in temperate waters at depths of between , though it is most commonly found between .Coles PhillipsRed Sea species hazardous to humans: Although most species in the Red Sea pose no threat to humans, there are a few notable exceptions.Epiboly: Epiboly is a cell movement that occurs in the early embryo, at the same time as gastrulation. It is one of many movements in the early embryo that allow for dramatic physical restructuring (see morphogenesis).Fin rotMethylmercuryChannel catfish virus: Channel Catfish virus (Ictalurid herpesvirus 1) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae family that causes disease in catfish. Infection with Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD) can cause significant economic loss in channel catfish farms.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Great Lakes BasinMercury(II) reductase: Mercury(II) reductase (), commonly known as MerA, is an oxidoreductase enzyme and flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0. Mercury(II) reductase is found in the cytoplasm of many eubacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic environments and the serves the purpose of converting toxic mercury ions into its relatively inert elemental form.Midshipman fishColdwater River (Branch County): Coldwater River is a U.S.Rice bran oilEctoparasitic infestationShark liver oil: Shark liver oil is an oil obtained from the livers of sharks. It has been used for centuries as a folk remedy to promote the healing of wounds and as a remedy for respiratory tract and digestive system problems.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Chaenocephalus aceratus: Chaenocephalus aceratus, the blackfin icefish, is a species of crocodile icefish known from around Bouvet Island and the northern Antarctic Peninsula where it occurs at depths of . This species grows to a length of TL.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Hoplias malabaricusEastern shovelnose ray: The eastern shovelnose ray (Aptychotrema rostrata) is a species of guitarfish, family Rhinobatidae.http://www.Salt lake: Salt Lake (Disambiguation)}}Fundulus olivaceus: Fundulus olivaceus is a species of fish in the family Fundulidae, the topminnows and North American killifishes. It is known by the common name blackspotted topminnow.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Blind electric rayMeramec Conservation AreaSigma viruses: Sigma viruses are a clade of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae that naturally infect dipterans, and have recently been proposed to represent a new genus of rhabdoviruses.Longdon B and Walker PJ (2011) Sigma virus genus proposal for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.Andesobia jelskiiMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.
(1/5700) Mercury and mink. I. The use of mercury contaminated fish as a food for ranch mink.
Adult female and juvenile ranch mink were fed rations containing 50 and 75% of fish containing 0.44 ppm total mercury over a 145 day period. There was no clinical or pathological evidence of intoxication in these animals and mercury concentrations in tissue appeared to be at a level below that associated with toxicity. (+info)
(2/5700) Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes.
Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species. (+info)
(3/5700) Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins.
The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride indicated that there are changes in both the absolute rates and the proportions of the fast and slow components, which along with other factors complicated the analysis of the data in terms of dissociation constants. Measurements were also made in solutions containing urea to promote dissociation, but with this agent very high concentrations (about 6 M) were required to give measureable dissociation and the fish hemoglobins were unstable under these conditions, with appreciable loss of absorbance spectra in both the sedimentation and kinetic experiments. (+info)
(4/5700) Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes.
In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed. (+info)
(5/5700) Importance of air and water breathing in relation to size of the African lungfish Protopterus amphibius Peters.
1. Oxygen uptakes from air and water have been measured in relation to weight of the African lungfish Protopterus amphibius Peters. 2. Combined O2 uptake from air and water ranged from 60 ml O2 kg-1 h-1 STPD, in a 3-7 g specimen, to 30 ml O2kg-1 h-1, in a 255 g specimen. 3. While the combined O2 uptake changed by a factor of 2, within the weight range under study, the aquatic O2 uptake changed 8-fold within the same range. The smaller fish satisfy 70% of their O2 requirement by aquatic breathing compared to 10-15% in the grown specimens. 4. The pattern of bimodal breathing in P. amphibius is discussed in relation to the natural habitat of the species. (+info)
(6/5700) Midbrain combinatorial code for temporal and spectral information in concurrent acoustic signals.
All vocal species, including humans, often encounter simultaneous (concurrent) vocal signals from conspecifics. To segregate concurrent signals, the auditory system must extract information regarding the individual signals from their summed waveforms. During the breeding season, nesting male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) congregate in localized regions of the intertidal zone and produce long-duration (>1 min), multi-harmonic signals ("hums") during courtship of females. The hums of neighboring males often overlap, resulting in acoustic beats with amplitude and phase modulations at the difference frequencies (dFs) between their fundamental frequencies (F0s) and harmonic components. Behavioral studies also show that midshipman can localize a single hum-like tone when presented with a choice between two concurrent tones that originate from separate speakers. A previous study of the neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent signals demonstrated that midbrain neurons temporally encode a beat's dF through spike synchronization; however, spectral information about at least one of the beat's components is also required for signal segregation. Here we examine the encoding of spectral differences in beat signals by midbrain neurons. The results show that, although the spike rate responses of many neurons are sensitive to the spectral composition of a beat, virtually all midbrain units can encode information about differences in the spectral composition of beat stimuli via their interspike intervals (ISIs) with an equal distribution of ISI spectral sensitivity across the behaviorally relevant dFs. Together, temporal encoding in the midbrain of dF information through spike synchronization and of spectral information through ISI could permit the segregation of concurrent vocal signals. (+info)
(7/5700) Characterization of K+ currents underlying pacemaker potentials of fish gonadotropin-releasing hormone cells.
Endogenous pacemaker activities are important for the putative neuromodulator functions of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive terminal nerve (TN) cells. We analyzed several types of voltage-dependent K+ currents to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells by using the whole brain in vitro preparation of fish (dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia). TN-GnRH cells have at least four types of voltage-dependent K+ currents: 1) 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-sensitive K+ current, 2) tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current, and 3) and 4) two types of TEA- and 4AP-resistant K+ currents. A transient, low-threshold K+ current, which was 4AP sensitive and showed significant steady-state inactivation in the physiological membrane potential range (-40 to -60 mV), was evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV. This current thus cannot contribute to the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. TEA-sensitive K+ current evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV was slowly activating, long lasting, and showed comparatively low threshold of activation. This current was only partially inactivated at steady state of -60 to -40 mV, which is equivalent to the resting membrane potential. TEA- and 4AP-resistant sustained K+ currents were evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV and were suggested to consist of two types, based on the analysis of activation curves. From the inactivation and activation curves, it was suggested that one of them with low threshold of activation may be partly involved in the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. Bath application of TEA together with tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked the pacemaker potentials in current-clamp recordings. We conclude that the TEA-sensitive K+ current is the most likely candidate that contributes to the repolarizing phase of the pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells. (+info)
(8/5700) Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates.
1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate. (+info)