Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.North SeaMarine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Atlantic OceanPerciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pacific OceanBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Mediterranean SeaCoral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Saint Lucia: An independent state in the West Indies. Its capital is Castries. It was probably discovered by Columbus in 1502 and first settled by the English in 1605. Contended for by the French and English in the 17th century, it was regarded as neutral in 1748 but changed hands many times in the wars of the 19th century. It became a self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967 and achieved independence in 1979. Columbus named it for the day on which he discovered it, the feast of St. Lucy, a Sicilian virgin martyr. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1051 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p477)Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Palinuridae: A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Phocoena: A genus of PORPOISES, in the family Phocoenidae, comprised of several species. They frequent coastal waters, bays, estuaries, and the mouths of large rivers.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Meramec Conservation AreaBaltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.EcosystemMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Middle North Sea Group: The Middle North Sea Group (abbreviation: NM) is a group of geologic formations in the Dutch subsurface, part of the North Sea Supergroup. The three formations of this group form a thick sequence of sediments in the Dutch subsurface, they crop out in parts of the southern Netherlands.Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Pink skunk clownfish: Amphiprion perideraion also known as the pink skunk clownfish or pink anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish from the skunk complex that is widespread from northern Australia through the Malay Archipelago and Melanesia. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone.Aquaculture of sea sponges: Sea sponge aquaculture is the process of farming sea sponges under controlled conditions. It has been conducted in the world's oceans for centuries using a number of aquaculture techniques.Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Pacific bluefin tunaSouth Brother (Chagos Bank): South Brother, also known as Île du Sud, is a 23 ha coral island on the Great Chagos Bank atoll of the Chagos Archipelago in the British Indian Ocean Territory. It is one of the three islands in the Three Brothers group on the western side of the atoll, and forms part of the Chagos Archipelago strict nature reserve.List of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.African coral reefs: African coral reefs are coral reefs mainly found along the south and east coasts of Africa. The east coast corals extend from the Red Sea to Madagascar in the south, and are an important resource for the fishersmen of Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Acoustical oceanography: Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Coryphaenoides: Late Oligocene to PresentShellfish Association of Great BritainThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Shark liver oil: Shark liver oil is an oil obtained from the livers of sharks. It has been used for centuries as a folk remedy to promote the healing of wounds and as a remedy for respiratory tract and digestive system problems.Artigas BaseList of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Tourism in Saint LuciaSpiny lobster culture in VietnamHudson Bay Mountain: Hudson Bay Mountain is an ultra prominent peak located above Smithers, British Columbia, Canada. It is the location of the Hudson Bay Mountain Resort (formerly Ski Smithers) ski resort.List of shipwrecks in March 1918: The list of shipwrecks in March 1918 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1918.Discoverer 23SeaChoice: SeaChoice is a program of Sustainable Seafood Canada that uses the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch recommendations to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. It is best known for publishing consumer guides for responsible seafood purchasing.Cetacean bycatchTadas Karosas: Tadas Karosas (born 1963 in Vilnius) is a businessman, serial entrepreneur, the founder and developer of e-commerce enterprises,the owner of holding company "LTk Capital", the founder and owner of restaurants chain "Čili Holdings".Little skate: The little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, is a species of skate in the family Rajidae, found from Nova Scotia to North Carolina on sand or gravel habitats. They are one of the dominant members of the demersal fish community in the northwestern Atlantic.Diseases and parasites in salmonIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.
(1/711) Different prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum detected by ELISA in Alaskan chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater.
Soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. The cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the Little Port Walter Hatchery on Baranof Island, Alaska, USA. Possible causes for this difference are discussed. Maturation of chinook salmon broodstock in seawater has become a practical strategy at this hatchery to reduce the prevalence of Rs-positive parent fish and the numbers of culled eggs. (+info)
(2/711) Relative virulence of three isolates of Piscirickettsia salmonis for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch.
Piscirickettsia salmonis was first recognized as the cause of mortality among pen-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. Since the initial isolation of this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium in 1989, similar organisms have been described from several areas of the world, but the associated outbreaks were not reported to be as serious as those that occurred in Chile. To determine if this was due to differences in virulence among isolates of P. salmonis, we conducted an experiment comparing isolates from Chile, British Columbia, Canada, and Norway (LF-89, ATL-4-91 and NOR-92, respectively). For each of the isolates, 3 replicates of 30 coho salmon were injected intraperitoneally with each of 3 concentrations of the bacterium. Negative control fish were injected with MEM-10. Mortalities were collected daily for 41 d post-injection. Piscirickettsiosis was observed in fish injected with each of the 3 isolates, and for each isolate, cumulative mortality was directly related to the concentration of bacterial cells administered. The LF-89 isolate was the most virulent, with losses reaching 97% in the 3 replicates injected with 10(5.0) TCID50, 91% in the replicates injected with 10(4.0) TCID50, and 57% in the fish injected with 10(3.0) TCID50. The ATL-4-91 isolate caused losses of 92% in the 3 replicates injected with 10(5.0) TCID50, 76% in the fish injected with 10(4.0) TCID50, and 32% in those injected with 10(3.0) TCID50. The NOR-92 isolate was the least virulent, causing 41% mortality in the replicates injected with 10(4.6) TCID50. At 41 d post-injection, 6% of the fish injected with 10(3.6) TCID50 NOR-92 had died. Mortality was only 2% in the fish injected with 10(2.6) TCID50 NOR-92, which was the same as the negative control group. Because the group injected with the highest concentration (10(4.6) TCID50) of NOR-92 was still experiencing mortality at 41 d, it was held for an additional 46 d. At 87 d post-injection, the cumulative mortality in this group had reached 70%. These differences in virulence among the isolates were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), and are important for the management of affected stocks of fish. (+info)
(3/711) Further observations on the epidemiology and spread of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in southeastern Australia and a recommended sampling strategy for surveillance.
Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) is an iridovirus confined to Australia and is known only from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and redfin perch Perca fluviatilis. Outbreaks of disease caused by EHNV in trout populations have invariably been of low severity, affecting only 0+ post-hatchery phase fingerlings < 125 mm in length. To date the virus has been demonstrated in very few live in-contact fish, and anti-EHNV antibodies have not been found in survivors of outbreaks, suggesting low infectivity but high case fatality rates in trout. During an on-going study on an endemically infected farm (Farm A) in the Murrumbidgee River catchment of southeastern New South Wales, EHNV infection was demonstrated in 4 to 6 wk old trout fingerlings in the hatchery as well as in 1+ to 2+ grower fish. During a separate investigation of mortalities in 1+ to 2+ trout on Farm B in the Shoalhaven River catchment in southeastern New South Wales, EHNV infection was demonstrated in both fingerlings and adult fish in association with nocardiosis. A 0.7% prevalence of antibodies against EHNV was detected by ELISA in the serum of grower fish at this time, providing the first evidence that EHNV might not kill all infected trout. EHNV infection on Farm B occurred after transfer of fingerlings from Farm C in the Murrumbidgee river catchment. When investigated, there were no obvious signs of diseases on Farm C. 'Routine' mortalities were collected over 10 d on Farm C and EHNV was detected in 2.1% of 190 fish. Tracing investigations of sources of supply of fingerlings to Farm B also led to investigation of Farm D in Victoria, where the prevalence of anti-EHNV antibodies in 3+ to 4+ fish was 1.3%. The results of this study indicate that EHNV may be found in trout in all age classes, need not be associated with clinically detectable disease in the population, can be transferred with shipments of live fish, can be detected in a small proportion of 'routine' mortalities and may be associated with specific antibodies in a small proportion of older fish. Sampling to detect EHNV for certification purposes should be based on examination of 'routine' mortalities rather than random samples of live fish. Antigen-capture ELISA can be used as a cost effective screening test to detect EHNV on a farm provided that sampling rates conform with statistical principles. (+info)
(4/711) Molecular characterization of the myxosporean associated with parasitic encephalitis of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Ireland.
During seasonal epizootics of neurologic disease and mass mortality in the summers of 1992, 1993 and 1994 on a sea-farm in Ireland, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts suffered from encephalitis associated with infection by a neurotropic parasite. Based on ultrastructural studies, this neurotropic parasite was identified as an intercellular presporogonic multicellular developmental stage of a histozoic myxosporean, possibly a Myxobolus species. In order to generate sequence data for phylogenetic comparisons to substantiate the present morphological identification of this myxosporean in the absence of detectable sporogony, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot hybridization, dideoxynucleotide chain-termination DNA sequencing, and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used in concert to characterize segments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Oligonucleotide primers were created from sequences of the SSU rRNA gene of M. cerebralis and were employed in PCR experiments using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of brains from Atlantic salmon smolts in which the myxosporean had been detected by light microscopy. Five segments of the SSU rRNA gene of the myxosporean, ranging in length from 187 to 287 base pairs, were amplified, detected by hybridization with sequence-specific probes, and sequenced. Consensus sequences from these segments were aligned to create a partial sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of the myxosporean. Assessments of sequence identity were made between this partial sequence and sequences of SSU rRNA genes from 7 myxosporeans, including Ceratomyxa shasta, Henneguya doori, M. arcticus, M. cerebralis, M. insidiosus, M. neurobius, and M. squamalis. The partial SSU rRNA gene sequence from the myxosporean had more sequence identity with SSU rRNA gene sequences from neurotropic and myotropic species of Myxobolus than to those from epitheliotropic species of Myxobolus or Henneguya, or the enterotropic species of Ceratomyxa, and was identical to regions of the SSU rRNA gene of M. cerebralis. Digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide DNA probes complementary to multiple segments of the SSU rRNA gene of M. cerebralis hybridized with DNA of the parasite in histologic sections of brain in ISH experiments, demonstrating definitively that the segments of genome amplified were from the organisms identified by histology and ultrastructural analysis. Based on sequence data derived entirely from genetic material of extrasporogonic stages, the SSU rDNA sequence identity discovered in this study supports the hypothesis that the myxosporean associated with encephalitis of farmed Atlantic salmon smolts is a neurotropic species of the genus Myxobolus, with sequences identical to those of M. cerebralis. (+info)
(5/711) Aspects of the epizootiology of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Ireland.
A computerised database containing information on over 17.8 million salmon contained within 49 separate marine populations was used to study the epidemiology of pancreas disease (PD) in Ireland. Of the 43 recorded PD outbreaks, 57% occurred in the 3 mo period August to October inclusive (17 to 32 wk post-transfer). Analysis of variance of mortality rates during PD outbreaks occurring on 6 marine sites over a 5 yr period showed that mortality rates vary significantly between sites (p < 0.001) but not between years over this time period. The mortality rate during PD outbreaks ranged from 0.1 to 63%. Mortality rates were significantly higher when PD outbreaks occurred earlier in the year (y = -1.28x + 59, SE of b 0.33). The mean length of a PD outbreak was 112 d (SE = 7.7, n = 37). There was no correlation between PD mortality rate and smolt input weight, initial stocking density and transfer mortality. (+info)
(6/711) Streptococcus iniae, a bacterial infection in barramundi Lates calcarifer.
The cause of ongoing mortality in barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in seawater culture was identified as Streptococcus iniae by biochemical and physiological tests. This is the first published record of this bacterial species in Australia and the first confirmed report of S. iniae causing mortality in barramundi. The bacterium was highly pathogenic for barramundi when challenged by bath exposure. The pathogen was found to have a LD50 of 2.5 x 10(5) and 3.2 x 10(4) colony-forming units at 48 h and 10 d respectively. Experimental challenge of barramundi resulted in high levels of mortality (> 40%) within a 48 h period. Ten days after the challenge, S. iniae could not be isolated from kidney, spleen, liver or eye of surviving fish. However, the organism was easily isolated from the brain of both moribund and healthy fish, indicating that barramundi can carry the bacterium asymptomatically. (+info)
(7/711) Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host.
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis exposed to naturally immunised carp established short-term infections, the majority of parasites actively emerging within 2 h of entering the epidermis. A small, but significant, number of these expelled parasites were shown to retain theront-like properties with the capacity to directly re-invade a further fish host. Infectivity fell rapidly with time in the host and was comparable to that of trophonts of a similar age artificially induced to emerge from non-immune hosts with the aid of MEM (minimal essential medium). Trophonts recovered with MEM from immune carp 2 to 8 h post infection rarely established infections upon exposure to susceptible new hosts and no infections resulted from older trophonts recovered after 8 to 24 h exposure; older trophonts, however, represented only a small percentage of the original parasite population. A low level of infectivity was recorded in trophonts collected with the aid of MEM from non-immune carp after up to 24 h of infection. The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response. (+info)
(8/711) Molecular evidence that the proliferative kidney disease organism unknown (PKX) is a myxosporean.
The proliferative kidney organism unknown (PKX), a serious salmonid fish pathogen, is considered to be a myxosporean on the basis of ultrastructural studies, but its real taxonomic position has never been confirmed. In order to ascertain its position, genomic DNA was extracted from PKX and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. A phylogenetical analysis on SSU rDNA from 76 or 128 eucaryotic species was carried out. Whatever the tree reconstruction methods used, PKX was found to be a sister group of the Myxozoa phylum, providing the first molecular evidence for its membership in this phylum. (+info)