*  1: Fish Diseases and Disorders: Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections

Fish Diseases and Disorders: Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections ... 1: Fish Diseases and Disorders: Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections, Comprar A Precio Barato!, #1: ... Fish Diseases and Disorders: Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections P. T. K. Woo (Redactor) Clasificación de ventas en ... 1: Fish Diseases and Disorders: Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections Feb 14th 2014, 02:04 ...

*  Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments

Tags: Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments, Breeding Marine Fish, Guide to a healthy Saltwater Aquarium, Marine Aquarium ... Tags: Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments, Breeding Cyprinids, Cyprinids Index, Guide to a Happy Healthy Freshwater Aquarium ... Tags: Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments, Aquarium Setup and Care, Breeding Freshwater Cichlids, Freshwater Aquarium Guide ... Tags: Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments, Aquarium Setup and Care, breeding cichlids, Freshwater Aquarium Guide ...

*  Fish Diseases and Parasites Items | Wildlife Resources Division

Often more information is desired by anglers in order to make decisions about keeping, cleaning, or cooking these fish. ... Anglers may occasionally encounter signs of disease or parasites in fish that they catch. ... Fish Diseases and Parasites Items. Anglers may occasionally encounter signs of disease or parasites in fish that they catch. ... Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) disease publications. Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Crustaceans ...

(1/2034) The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario.

The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed.  (+info)

(2/2034) Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations.

Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences.  (+info)

(3/2034) Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish.

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont.  (+info)

(4/2034) Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

(5/2034) Whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of Myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Scanning electron microscopic studies were conducted on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the first 60 min after their exposure to the triactinomyxon spores of Myxobolus cerebralis. The results demonstrated that as early as 1 min post exposure the whole process, from the attachment of the triactinomyxon spores to the complete penetration of their sporoplasm germs, had occurred. The triactinomyxon spores sought out the secretory openings of mucous cells of the epidermis, the respiratory epithelium and the buccal cavity of trout and used them as portals of entry. Exposure experiments of the triactinomyxon spores of M. cerebralis to non-salmonid fish, such as goldfish Carassius auratus, carp Cyprinus carpio, nose Chondrostoma nasus, medaka Oryzias latipes, guppy Poecilia reticulata and also the amphibian tadpole Rana pipiens as well as to rainbow trout fry indicated a specificity for salmonids. Attempts to activate the triactinomyxon spores by exposure to mucus prepared from cyprinid and salmonid fish showed no significant differences from those conducted in tap water. The results suggest that the simultaneous presence of both mechano- and chemotactic stimuli was required for finding the salmonid fish host.  (+info)

(6/2034) Rainbow trout leucocyte activity: influence on the ectoparasitic monogenean Gyrodactylus derjavini.

The ectoparasitic monogenean Gyrodactylus derjavini from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was exposed in vitro to macrophages isolated as peritoneal exudate cells or as pronephros cells from the host. Cells colonized the parasite especially in the mannose-rich regions in the cephalic ducts where ciliated structures were abundant. Opsonization with fresh serum, in contrast to heat-inactivated serum, enhanced colonization also on other body parts. The adverse effect of the activated macrophages towards G. derjavini was associated with a heat-labile component released from these cells to the culture medium. Analysis of substances released from the cells showed reactivity for a number of enzymes, complement factor C3, interleukin (Il-1) and reactive oxygen metabolites. Chemotaxis assays with pronephric leucocytes showed chemoattractants in G. derjavini, and the respiratory burst level of macrophages was slightly elevated due to parasite exposure. It is suggested that skin leucocytes contribute to an increased level of complement factors in the trout skin during the host response, whereby a hostile microenvironment for the parasites is created. In addition, the IL-1 production could affect mucous cell secretion and hyperplasia and add to the antiparasitic action of the epithelium. Likewise, reactive oxygen metabolites and various enzymes are likely to be involved in the skin response.  (+info)

(7/2034) Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring.

Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.  (+info)

(8/2034) Natural mass infection by heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel in Taiwan.

A natural mass infection of heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Taiwan was observed. Of the 28,000 adult eels in 2 ponds, about 25,000 (90%) showed swollen, cloudy and white eyes. Although morbidity was about 90%, there was no mortality among the affected eels. Histopathological sections showed edema and hemorrhage of the eye. Numerous metacercariae were observed in the muscle tissues around the eyeball, the subcutaneous tissue and even in the cartilage. Of the 6 eels digested with artificial gastric juice, all were found to contain metacercariae in their muscle tissues. The average number of metacercariae recovered from the 6 eels was 1219, with a range of 50 to 3762. These metacercariae, when fed orally to immunodeficient (scid) mice, developed into adult worms which were identified as Procerovum cheni Hsu 1950. The naturally infected eels were transferred to a new pond without snails and their eye lesions were not apparent anymore after 2 wk. In a follow-up investigation, 19 of 20 apparently healthy eels in a nearby aquaculture farm were found to harbour metacercariae in their muscles. However, the number of the metacercariae ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 4.21. This is the first report of heterophyid metacercariae causing mass morbidity in aquacultured eels.  (+info)


  • The Vermiculated Angelfish Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus is a beautiful fish! (animal-world.com)
  • Angelfish are susceptible to the same diseases as other freshwater aquarium fish. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • For the best treatment outcome, you will need to positively identify the disease affecting your angelfish. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • It was caused by fish with the disease introduced from Southeast Asia and the first large outbreak has infamously become known as the angelfish plague of 1986. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • Symptoms of angelfish virus include lethargy, the fish tends to point his nose up and not move, swimming unnaturally with fins kept close to the body (clamped fins), and excessive slime that may drip off the body of the fish. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • Since that first outbreak, the virus seems to have weakened, or the angelfish population is more resistant to the more severe forms of the disease, or a new but similar virus has emerged. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • As with any fish viral disease, there is not a treatment for angelfish virus other than supportive care by keeping the tank clean and warm. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • However, many aquarists will cull angelfish showing symptoms of this freshwater angelfish disease so as not to spread the virus. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • If any angelfish survive the disease, they will be carriers and still able to pass the virus to other angelfish for up to six months. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • Cichlids, including angelfish, are particularly susceptible to hole-in-the-head disease. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • Whatever the cause, the consensus is that changes to improve the care of your angelfish or other fish will prevent hole-in-the-head disease. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • Regular water changes, a nutritional diet that includes plant matter, and proper filtration should mostly prevent hole-in-the-head disease for angelfish. (aboutangelfish.com)

infectious diseases

  • This category contains sites dealing with ailments and illnesses of fish, including parasites and infectious diseases. (dmoztools.net)
  • This article argues that a large number of farmed fish in a small area provides ideal conditions for parasites and infectious diseases which may then spread to adjacent farms and to wild fish. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides information on this serious infectious diseases of wild and farmed salmonids, its transmission, the external and internal signs, prevention and management. (dmoztools.net)

parasitic disease

  • Provides information on this parasitic disease which affects marine fish off the coast of Chile. (dmoztools.net)
  • Gives images, disease signs and possible treatment for each and outlines the factors that influence the severity of the parasitic disease. (dmoztools.net)


  • Anglers may occasionally encounter signs of disease or parasites in fish that they catch. (georgiawildlife.com)
  • Various types of information is available to help anglers and pond owners identify the types of diseases or parasites that may be involved. (georgiawildlife.com)
  • This category is for sites about the external and internal parasites that infect fish. (dmoztools.net)
  • Factsheet on pentastomes, a group of worm-like parasites that infect many different species of fish. (dmoztools.net)

chronic wasting

  • KDFWR is a member of the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study and has been performing surveillance for chronic wasting disease in deer and elk since 2002. (ky.gov)
  • What is chronic wasting disease? (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurological (brain and nervous system) disease found in deer, elk, caribou, and moose (cervids) populations in certain geographical locations in North America. (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • According to public health (Centers for Disease Control, World Health Organization) and animal health officials, data available to date indicate that chronic wasting disease is not currently known to be naturally transmitted to humans, or to animals other than the deer family. (vtfishandwildlife.com)


  • This parasitic fluke can be found infesting many different types of freshwater and marine fish. (dmoztools.net)


  • The study has been published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. (thaindian.com)
  • Washington, Dec 26 (ANI): Scientists at the University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) have made advancement in the fight against Alzheimer's, by identifying the reasons why fish oil is a deterrent against the disease. (thaindian.com)
  • Researchers reported that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil increases the production of LR11, a protein that is found at reduced levels in Alzheimer's patients and which is known to destroy the protein that forms the plaques linked to the disease. (thaindian.com)
  • We found that even low doses of DHA increased the levels of LR11 in rat neurons, while dietary DHA increased LR11 in brains of rats or older mice that had been genetically altered to develop Alzheimer's disease," Cole said. (thaindian.com)
  • As a result of the study, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is presently conducting a large-scale clinical trial with DHA in patients with established Alzheimer's disease. (thaindian.com)


  • The Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resource's Wildlife Health Program is a new branch of the department. (ky.gov)
  • It includes the state wildlife veterinarian and support staff in our new Wildlife Health Annex, a laboratory and diagnostic center for diseases and other health issues that affect Kentucky's fish and wildlife. (ky.gov)
  • Although the formal development of the Wildlife Health Program is new, Kentucky has been managing wildlife health and disease issues for a long time. (ky.gov)
  • With the expansion of our department, we hope to better protect Kentucky's resources by analyzing the health of our populations of fish and wildlife species. (ky.gov)
  • and 3) eradication of disease from a wildlife population in the state. (ky.gov)
  • What is the Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department doing to protect the deer herd from CWD? (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • The Fish and Wildlife Board adopted a carcass importation rule for hunter-harvested cervids taken outside Vermont's borders. (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • Captive deer hunting facilities are under the jurisdiction of the Fish & Wildlife Department with greater enforcement capability to see that such facilities follow disease prevention and testing regulations. (vtfishandwildlife.com)


  • This article explains that most species of Gyrodactylus are of little concern to fish farmers but Gyrodactylus salaris is a threat to native fish populations in Scandinavia. (dmoztools.net)


  • Part 7 Acid-fast fish pathogens: mycobacteriosis - nocardiosis. (nhbs.com)


  • However, he is hopeful that the NIH will conduct a large-scale prevention clinical trial using fish oil at the earliest stages of the disease, particularly because it is unlikely that a pharmaceutical company will do so, since fish oil in pill form is readily available and inexpensive. (thaindian.com)
  • 2008-498 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Respiratory Health Division, Morgantown, WV. (cdc.gov)
  • And prevention and treatment for these diseases are similar to any other fish species. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • Provides information on this disease, also called Hitra disease, its transmission, the external and internal signs, prevention and management. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides information on this bacterial infection of warm-water fish, its transmission, signs and prevention. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides information on this important disease of European farmed Atlantic salmon, its transmission, the external and internal signs, prevention and management. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides information on this disease, sometimes known as Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome, its transmission, external and internal signs, management and prevention. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides information on this serious disease of shrimps caused by bacterial pathogens belonging to the genus Vibrio, its transmission and epidemiology, external and internal signs and prevention. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides information on this disease, the species affected, its transmission, prevention and research findings. (dmoztools.net)

species of fish

  • In addition to this information, anglers may wish to consult the annual guidelines for eating fish from Georgia waters for further information to help guide decisions about consuming various species of fish. (georgiawildlife.com)

bacterial infection

  • If you suspect a bacterial infection, remove the sick fish and treat it in a separate isolation tank. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • It's believed that the virus weakens the fish and allows secondary infections to quickly set in. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • The disease was then detected in wild deer in adjacent southeastern Wyoming and Nebraska, and in captive deer and elk in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Saskatchewan, and South Dakota. (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • The disease was discovered in Oneida County, New York, in 2005 in a captive deer herd and two free-ranging deer nearby. (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • Biologists and wardens respond to several calls about sick deer every year, and these calls make an important contribution to disease monitoring efforts. (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • The Board adopted a rule that bans baiting and feeding of deer - practices that could expose more deer to the disease. (vtfishandwildlife.com)
  • Having relatively low deer densities (compared to other southern and mid-western states) may prevent the disease from spreading rapidly if it gets here. (vtfishandwildlife.com)


  • Questioning the safety of eating farmed fish, Dr. Robert P. Friedland, a neurologist at University of Louisville, has urged government regulators to ban feeding cow meat or bone meal to fish until the safety of this common practice can be confirmed. (thaindian.com)
  • Still, we believe that out of reasonable caution for public health, the practice of feeding rendered cows to fish should be prohibited. (thaindian.com)


  • A bacterial disease of salt-water and migratory fish, and the severity of vibriosis has increased proportionately with the development and expansion of fish farming world-wide. (dmoztools.net)


  • This article provides information on the clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnostic methods, control and treatment of the disease. (dmoztools.net)


  • Creutzfeldt Jakob disease is an untreatable, universally fatal disease that can be contracted by eating parts of an animal infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease). (thaindian.com)



  • The Daffodil Cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher (previously Lamprologus pulcher) has many good qualities that people look for when keeping fish. (animal-world.com)


  • This report summarises the conclusions of research into these diseases and the varying degrees of success in achieving certain milestones. (dmoztools.net)


  • But the researchers have said that it is possible for a disease to be spread by eating a carrier that is not infected itself. (thaindian.com)
  • For the study, researchers examined the effects of fish oil, or its component DHA, in multiple biological systems and administered the oil or fatty acid by diet and by adding it directly to mice neurons grown in the laboratory. (thaindian.com)


  • This category is for sites about the disease of fish Furunculosis caused by the pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. (dmoztools.net)


  • It is safe and effective to use on fish at a low dose, breaks down rapidly into harmless residues, and does not leave an environmental footprint like other chemicals. (thefishsite.com)


  • ANALYSIS - The shrimp disease, Running Mortality Syndrome (RMS), has recently been detected on shrimp farms in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, India, reported the Economic Times. (thefishsite.com)


  • In the US , scientists from the University of Idaho and Washington State University have found a simple and effective method to combat Coldwater Disease in rainbow trout using some of the trout's own intestinal bacteria as health-giving probiotics. (thefishsite.com)
  • Coldwater Disease is the number one bacterial illness affecting US trout aquaculture and to a lesser extent Coho salmon," said Douglas Call, professor in the WSU School for Global Animal Health. (thefishsite.com)

prevent the debilit

  • Greg Cole, professor of medicine and neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and associate director of UCLA's Alzheimer Disease Research Center, and his colleagues, have confirmed that fish oil, containing omega-3 fatty acids, can prevent the debilitating disease. (thaindian.com)


  • Diseases & Treatment What is wrong with my fish? (captivereefs.com)
  • The bacterium has to be identified for best treatment, and antibiotics for fish tanks also kill the good bacteria. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • The best recommendation is to use a general fungal treatment available from the local fish store. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • If only one fish is affected, isolate that fish in a quarantine tank for treatment. (aboutangelfish.com)
  • To treat severe cases of the disease, the most recommended medical treatment to add is a metronidazole fish medication. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • Washington, June 17 (ANI): Farmed fish, if fed by-products rendered from cows, could transmit Creutzfeldt Jakob disease-commonly known as mad cow disease. (thaindian.com)
  • The details of the disease are not yet known. (thefishsite.com)


  • However, CWD continues to spread to new locations as well as to areas around established disease areas. (vtfishandwildlife.com)


  • It will also allow the department to eradicate the disease when it is initially found and before it becomes well established. (vtfishandwildlife.com)


  • It is also possible that eating diseased cow parts could cause fish to experience a pathological change that allows the infection to be passed between the two species. (thaindian.com)
  • Although the disease is not as devastating as EMS , it is expected to cause a shortfall next year. (thefishsite.com)
  • The cause of hole-in-the-head disease is still under speculation. (aboutangelfish.com)



  • Bacterial diseases are among the most important causes of losses among fish stocks. (nhbs.com)


  • In the beginning of this disease, small wounds or enlargements of the pores on the head and along the lateral line appear. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • Please someone help me by telling me what it is so the fish doesn't die. (captivereefs.com)
  • When in doubt, take your fish and a water sample to your local fish store for help. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • The fact that no cases of Creutzfeldt Jakob disease have been linked to eating farmed fish does not assure that feeding rendered cow parts to fish is safe. (thaindian.com)


  • Vitamin C rich foods, such as spinach, can sometimes cure mild forms of this disease. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • The risk of transmission of BSE to humans who eat farmed fish would appear to be low because of perceived barriers between species. (thaindian.com)


  • Poor water quality gives the fungus the opportunity to attack a fish. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • They may become a problem to the fish if the tank is overcrowded, needs a water change, or if the fish have reduced resistance. (aboutangelfish.com)


  • We have not proven that it's possible for fish to transmit the disease to humans. (thaindian.com)