FinlandEstoniaScandinaviaBaltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)EuropeIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.LatviaLithuaniaFounder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.SwedenCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

*  Finnish Researchers Discovered A New Anticancer Compound Using Accelerated Drug Screening Process - Redorbit

A team of research scientists from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, the University of Turku and the University of ... Eastern Finland has discovered a previously unknown Cent-1 molecule that kills cancer cells. Their research also shows that new ...

*  Terkko @ CiteULike - Academic Medical Center Helsinki - Terkko Navigator

Education-related inequality in restorative dental treatment need over 11 years in two areas of Finland. ...

*  Pohjanmaa | plain, Finland |

Lowland plain in western Finland, along the Gulf of Bothnia. Pohjanmaa is about 60 miles (100 km) wide and 160 miles (257 km) ... Finland. country located in northern Europe. Finland is one of the world's most northern and geographically remote countries ... Nearly two-thirds of Finland is blanketed by thick woodlands, making it the most densely forested country in Europe. Finland ... city, western Finland, on the Gulf of Bothnia. Founded in 1606 by the Swedish king Charles IX, it was chartered in 1611 and ...

*  Organic Eprints - Items affiliated to " Finland"

Järvifisu - Finland. [Full case study report. Lake fish - Finland.] Luke Natural Rwsources Research Finland , Economy & Society ... PolarShiitake Finland. Natural Resources Institute Finland , Society & Economy. Risku-Norja, Helmi; Mikkola, Minna and Nuutila ... Kiuruvesi municipal catering - Finland. Luke Natural Resources Research Finland , Economy & Society. Risku-Norja, Helmi (2015) ... University of Eastern Finland, Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural ...

*  Books - Medicine - Terkko Navigator

Children's health, self-care and the use of self-medication : a population-based study in Finland ...

*  Medical Links : Databases, Blogs, News sites etc.

bibliometrics, Finland, researchers, scholars, Terkko Factor, hot research, Medical Faculty, Helsinki Turku Tampere Kuopio Oulu ...

*  Flights to Finland

Book flights to Finland with KLM and explore the Design District in Helsinki, ski in Lapland and dive into one of the many ... Flights to Finland for an active holiday. Looking for a cheap flight to Finland? With KLM, your holiday begins the moment you ... Finland: all destinations. Kuopio USD 1829. Rovaniemi USD 1829. Helsinki USD 1766. Vaasa USD 1829. Oulu USD 1829. Joensuu USD ... Did you know that Santa Claus hails from Finland? Send him a letter any time of the year and you will always receive a reply! ...

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Biometeorological Assessment of Mortality Related to Extreme Temperatures in Helsinki Region, Finland...

Thus, heat-related mortality is also remarkable in Finland, but the sensitivity to heat stress has decreased over the decades. ... mortality and temperature extremes in different age groups in the Helsinki-Uusimaa hospital district in Southern Finland, and ... Thus, heat-related mortality is also remarkable in Finland, but the sensitivity to heat stress has decreased over the decades. ... Biometeorological Assessment of Mortality Related to Extreme Temperatures in Helsinki Region, Finland, 1972-2014. Reija Ruuhela ...

*  Live in Finland - Wikipedia

The making of Live In Finland The making of Flag In The Ground Latin-American (Tour documentary) Made In Finland (Tour ... Live in Finland è il terzo album live del gruppo musicale finlandese Sonata Arctica, uscito l'11 novembre 2011. Il disco è ... EN) Live in Finland, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation.. ...

*  Information by Country: Finland

Finland, Country Profiles, Information by Country, Contact Information, WIPO office, Case studies, Outreach campaigns, ...

*  Finland

This photo belongs to Tanya - all rights reserved!. Nightwish on stage at Tavastia. Back to Finland photos. ...

*  Finland : NPR


*  Finland Overview

Finland supports international efforts to promote human and economic development, reduce poverty, and boost shared prosperity ... Today, Finland is a member of the five institutions that form the World Bank Group. Finland and the World Bank work together ... For information on Finland's aid flows as a donor, please visit the Aid Flows Finland donor page. ... The World Bank In Finland. Finland supports international efforts to promote human and economic development, reduce poverty, ...

*  IEA - Finland

This measure is still in force, please see the measure "Voluntary Energy Efficiency Agreements for 2008 - 2016".. In May 1999, the Ministry of Trade and industry and the Finnish Association of Building Owners (RAKLI )and Construction Clients signed an Energy Conservation Agreement relating to the real estate and construction business. The target was to have 10% less specific heat consumption in buildings in 2005 and 15% less in 2010 compared to 1998. There is also a target to stop the increase in electricity consumption and reverse the trend before 2005. Commercial sector enterprises, for example shops, banks, insurance companies and media, could join the energy conservation agreement and the activities subject to it. By the end of 2001, the coverage of the agreement was 73%. In 2002, the Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Federation of Housing Property Owners and Developers (ASRA) renewed this agreement and extended it to cover also public sector real estate. Unlike the other agreements, ...

*  Greenpeace Finland | Flickr

Explore Greenpeace Finland's 1,495 photos on Flickr! ...

*  Finland - Business Insider

Finland figured out the secrets to designing perfect schools - and the US can never replicate them *Chris Weller ... Finland just launched a radical experiment in giving people free money - here's how 5 residents are using their extra cash. * ... Finland is having so few kids, deaths just outnumbered births for the first time in 77 years. *Chris Weller ... Finland's basic income experiment is already lowering stress levels - and it's only 4 months old. *Chris Weller ...

*  Finland Purity

This is an fabulous arrangement of Oriental lilies, white roses, mini Gerberas and shamrock blooms are joined by a beautiful selection of seasonal foliage. Vase included.

*  Finland

... Heidi Era-Malik. Phone: +32 2 758 92 56. Fax: +32 2 758 90 67. E-mail: Inga Grauers. ... Service/EAME/Finland

*  Switches - Fujitsu Finland

Brocade switches help you make the most of ETERNUS Storage capability, delivering high reliability, high flexibility and high performance to Storage Area Networks (SAN).

*  Firedoom Finland | Credits | AllMusic

Find Firedoom Finland credit information on AllMusic ...

*  BBC - Travel - Finland

Embrace Finland's cool climate with its signature pastimes of ice hockey and skiing, or escape the cold in one of the nation's ... Mobiles take flight in Finland. As a way to work out the frustrations of modern life, the town of Savonlinna holds an annual ... After indulging in Finland and Sweden's bewitching scenery and culture by way of dogsled, retreat to your log cabin or ... Finland's capital is one of Northern Europe's most important economic centres, combining a key geographic position with a taste ...

*  DAC member profile: Finland - OECD

Finland provided USD 1.6 billion in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.60% of gross national income (GNI) and a ... Find out more about peer reviews of Finland. Access Finland's latest evaluation reports on the DAC Evaluation Resource Centre ( ... Finland is the 7th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) provider in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI, and the 17th ... In 2015, Finland provided USD 1.3 billion in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.56% of gross national income (GNI ...

*  Helsinki, Finland | Greenpeace International

Save the Amazon Forest Action in Helsinki

*  Finland and the IMF

The last Article IV Executive Board Consultation was on November 23, 2016. Listed below are items related to Finland.. ...

Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Estonia (race car)GuksiTadas Karosas: Tadas Karosas (born 1963 in Vilnius) is a businessman, serial entrepreneur, the founder and developer of e-commerce enterprises,the owner of holding company "LTk Capital", the founder and owner of restaurants chain "Čili Holdings".GA²LENIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Disease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.GaujaDrainage basins of Lithuania: There are six major drainage basins in Lithuania: the rivers Neman (Lithuanian:Nemunas), Lielupe, Venta, Daugava, Pregolya, and a strip along the Baltic where rivers flow directly into the sea.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

(1/3922) Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995.

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

(2/3922) Ethical issues among Finnish occupational physicians and nurses.

A postal survey was conducted among 200 Finnish occupational physicians and nurses on their ethical values and problems. Both groups considered 'expertise' and 'confidentiality' as the most important core values of occupational health services (OHS) corresponding with newly published national ethical guidelines for occupational physicians and nurses in Finland. Nearly all respondents had encountered ethically problematic situations in their work, but ethical problems with gene testing in the near future were not considered likely to occur. Only 41% of the nurses and 36% of the physicians had received some training in the ethics of OHS, and 76% of all respondents never used available ethical guidelines. According to the results, even if ethics play a vital role in OHS, the ability to critically evaluate one's own performance seems quite limited. This creates a need for further training and more practicable national guidelines.  (+info)

(3/3922) Increase in paediatric acute otitis media diagnosed by primary care in two Finnish municipalities--1994-5 versus 1978-9.

In recent decades, several epidemiological studies have been published on acute otitis media (AOM), indicating that the occurrence of AOM is increasing. However, the comparison between the surveys is complicated and biased by several factors, e.g. variable study demography and design and dissimilar diagnostic criteria. The present study was performed with an identical set-up in 1978-9 and 1994-5 to find out potential changes in the occurrence of AOM. All the attacks of AOM among children under 10 years diagnosed by a physician during the 12-month periods 1 June, 1978 to 31 May 1979 and 1 June 1994 to 31 May 1995 were registered retrospectively in two Finnish municipalities. The incidence rate (total number of AOM attacks per 100 child years) was 19 (95% CI 18-21) in 1978-9 and 32 (95% CI 30-34) in 1994-5. The increase in the occurrence of AOM was 68% (95% CI 53-79%, P < 0001).  (+info)

(4/3922) Type 2 diabetes: evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs.

We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score (MLS) was 3.08 on 20p (location, chi = 19.5 cM) under an additive model, whereas the weighted MLS was 2.06 on 20q (chi = 57 cM, recurrence risk,lambda(s) = 1. 25, P = 0.009). Weighted logarithm of odds scores of 2.00 (chi = 69.5 cM, P = 0.010) and 1.92 (chi = 18.5 cM, P = 0.013) were also observed. Ordered subset analyses based on sibships with extreme mean values of diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded sets of families who contributed disproportionately to the peaks. Two-hour glucose levels in offspring of diabetic individuals gave a MLS of 2. 12 (P = 0.0018) at 9.5 cM. Evidence from this and other studies suggests at least two diabetes-susceptibility genes on chromosome 20. We have also screened the gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4-a (HNF-4alpha) in 64 affected sibships with evidence for high chromosomal sharing at its location on chromosome 20q. We found no evidence that sequence changes in this gene accounted for the linkage results we observed.  (+info)

(5/3922) Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children.

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

(6/3922) An epidemiological study of lung cancer: history and histological types in a general population in northern Finland.

A prospective epidemiological study was conducted to assess the incidence, diagnosis, histology and surgical treatment of lung cancer in northern Finland. The results were compared with those obtained in a similar survey 20 yrs earlier. Most of the patients with a suspected lung tumour were interviewed (72%) and the information was combined with that obtained from the national cancer registry. All pathological specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist. A total of 602 new lung cancer cases (85% male, 15% female) were diagnosed during the years 1990-1992, the annual incidence per 100,000 being 63 for males and 9.5 for females. The number not reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry was low (<1%). Lung cancer was confirmed histologically in 381 cases (63%) and in addition cytologically in 135 cases (23%). Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type (40%), the proportion of adenocarcinoma being 26%, small cell carcinoma 24% and large cell carcinoma 4%. The incidence of lung cancer had decreased significantly among males (from 87 to 63 per 100,000) compared with 20 yrs earlier but had increased among females (from 4.1 to 9.5), chiefly on account of adenocarcinoma. The findings of this prospective study show an increase in the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma among females, a histological type which is less closely related to smoking than the other cancers. This suggests that other risk factors may play an increasing role in the aetiology of lung cancer.  (+info)

(7/3922) Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland.

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is markedly more common in men than in women. In both sexes, CHD risk increases with age, but the increase is sharper in women. We analyzed the extent to which major cardiovascular risk factors can explain the sex difference and the age-related increase in CHD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study cohort consists of 14 786 Finnish men and women 25 to 64 years old at baseline. The following cardiovascular risk factors were determined: smoking, serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index, and diabetes. Risk factor measurements were done in 1982 or 1987, and the cohorts were followed up until the end of 1994. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relation between risk factors and CHD risk. CHD incidence in men compared with women was approximately 3 times higher and mortality was approximately 5 times higher. Most of the risk factors were more favorable in women, but the sex difference in risk factor levels diminished with increasing age. Differences in risk factors between sexes, particularly in HDL cholesterol and smoking, explained nearly half of the difference in CHD risk between men and women. Differences in serum total cholesterol level, blood pressure, body mass index, and diabetes prevalence explained about one-third of the age-related increase in CHD risk among men and 50% to 60% among women. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in major cardiovascular risk factors explained a substantial part of the sex difference in CHD risk. An increase in risk factor levels was associated with the age-related increase in CHD incidence and mortality in both sexes but to a larger extent in women.  (+info)

(8/3922) Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

BACKGROUND: Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat diet recommended for hypercholesterolemic subjects. DESIGN: In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester-containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester-containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). The groups consumed the margarines for 8 wk as part of a diet resembling that of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Step II diet. The daily mean total stanol intake was 2.31 and 2.16 g in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. RESULTS: During the experimental period, the reduction in serum total cholesterol was 10.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.1% (P < 0.05) greater and in LDL cholesterol was 13.7% (P < 0.01) and 8.6% (P = 0.072) greater in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively, than in the control group. Serum campesterol concentrations decreased 34.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001) in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone.  (+info)


  • Finland is a popular winter destination, especially the country's northern region of Lapland. (


  • Valdemar had gained Turku and Häme castles, with a lion's share of Finland , the castle of Stockholm , most of Uppland , Borgholm castle, and the island of Öland . (


  • Valdemar Magnusson ( c. after 1282 - 1318) was a Swedish prince, heir to the throne of Sweden, and Duke of Finland . (


  • And when in Finland, the sauna is a must do. (


  • No matter what time of year, the lights of Finland are magical. (
  • After indulging in Finland and Sweden's bewitching scenery and culture by way of dogsled, retreat to your log cabin or treehouse to scan the skies for the northern lights. (


  • Sus Ulbæk (Denmark) is the ED representing Finland and the Nordic-Baltic constituency on the 25-member World Bank Board of Executive Directors, and Martin Põder (Estonia) is the alternate executive director. (


  • Finland supports international efforts to promote human and economic development, reduce poverty, and boost shared prosperity around the world. (


  • Finland is made of magnetic opposites. (


  • For information on Finland's aid flows as a donor, please visit the Aid Flows Finland donor page. (



  • The largest lake in Finland is Lake Saimaa, where you can find the rare fresh water Saimaa seal. (
  • Finland is the 7th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) provider in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI, and the 17th in terms of volume. (


  • At the same time, Finland, like other EU member countries, committed in 2015 to provide 0.7% of GNI as ODA by 2030. (


  • Book flights to Finland and attend the traditional lumberjack games in Simo or visit the medieval Olavinlinna Castle. (
  • Expect to be surprised: book a flight to Finland now! (


  • Finland and the World Bank work together with other member governments to finance projects, design policies, and deliver programs to eradicate poverty in the developing world. (
  • It also seeks to increase opportunities for collaboration between Finland and the World Bank Group through co-financing, trust funds, and joint analytical work in sectors and regions of mutual interest. (


  • To make these efforts effective, says the OECD's Review of the Development Co-operation Policies and Programmes of Finland , the government should honour its commitment to increase funding, focus on areas and countries where it can have the most impact, and improve the way it manages development co-operation. (


  • Finland became a member of the five institutions that form the World Bank Group on January 14, 1948. (
  • Today, Finland is a member of the five institutions that form the World Bank Group. (
  • Finland's desk at the World Bank Paris office works to promote consensus around the international development agenda and build a platform for collaboration between the World Bank Group and Finland. (
  • The desk serves as an entry point for groups in Finland wishing to contact World Bank staff across the world or access the plethora of information the Bank publishes, and it responds to media queries. (
  • Petteri Orpo, Minister of Finance, represents Finland on the World Bank Board of Governors , the Bank's senior decision-making body. (


  • Find out what the Bank Group's branches are doing in Finland. (


  • Add in our many handy extra services (some available for a supplement) and you'll be in Finland before you know it. (