Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.United StatesPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Great BritainLobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Government PublicationsHealth Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Research Support, U.S. GovernmentIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.PakistanHealth Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.National Health Insurance, United StatesCenters for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)NepalCommunity Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.PhilippinesTechnology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Vietnam

*  Local Government Financing Tools

TxDOT is available as a resource to local governments to explore these available options. ... The State Legislature has helped to put in place financing tools both at the state and local levels to assist local governments ... Note: This site does not describe all financing options that may be available to local governments for transportation projects ... Fortunately, the state Legislature has helped establish state and local financing tools to assist local governments with ...
txdot.gov/government/programs/local-financing.html

*  Population aging and financing of government liabilities in New Zealand

... an aging population is expected to elevate government liabilities and weaken the government's fiscal position. To maintain ... indicate that the most effective way to contain the expected rise in government liabilities is to reform health care and ... fiscal balance, the government must either substantially pre-fund future increases in its liabilities or significantly raise ... "Ponzi Finance, Government Solvency and the Redundancy or Usefulness of Public Debt," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1070, ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/1703.html

*  To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide for the tax-exempt financing of certain government-owned buildings. (2016...

H.R. 5361 (114th): To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide for the tax-exempt financing of certain government- ... This page is sourced primarily from Congress.gov, the official portal of the United States Congress. Congress.gov is generally ... "H.R. 5361 - 114th Congress: To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide for the tax-exempt financing of ..." www. ... 2017). H.R. 5361 - 114th Congress: To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide for the tax-exempt financing of ... ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/114/hr5361

*  Govt mulls Rs10 trillion public financing for infrastructure projects - Livemint

Transport minister Nitin Gadkari says the government plans to raise the money in tranches of Rs10,000 crore by selling 10-year ... Govt mulls Rs10 trillion public financing for infrastructure projects. Transport minister Nitin Gadkari says the government ... The government is also working on raising capital by monetizing the operational road assets of National Highways Authority of ... In 2015, the government set up the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund to raise funds for the infrastructure sector ...
livemint.com/Home-Page/G63KRD11vfvag0lOWJtBIN/Govt-mulls-Rs10-trillion-public-financing-for-infrastructure.html

*  Israel Govt. Urged to Establish Who is Financing Eichmannis Defense | Jewish Telegraphic Agency

Israel Govt. Urged to Establish Who is Financing Eichmannis Defense. Download PDF for this date November 16, 1960. ... Replying for the Government, Justice Minister Pinhas Rosen said he had not investigated the matter, nor did he see any need for ... The question of who is financing the defense of Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi war criminal who directed the mass killing of ... He said the Government was satisfied with regard to Dr. Servatius' personal background as anti-Nazi. ...
jta.org/1960/11/16/archive/israel-govt-urged-to-establish-who-is-financing-eichmannis-defense

*  Financing options for your home based business | The U.S. Small Business Administration | SBA.gov

Financing options for your home based business. Lender Financing/Financing a Business ... "Financing options for your home based business" The presenter will review the following information for you to consider: ·How ... This workshop is designed for those small home based businesses in need of financing to move your business forward. ...
https://sba.gov/content/financing-options-your-home-based-business

*  Info Source - Bank of Canada

Foreign Financing - Government of Canada. Description:Legal documentation for Government of Canada foreign loans and standby ... Domestic Financing - General. Description: The release of general information outlining the terms and conditions of Government ... Domestic Financing - Matured Government of Canada Loans and Canada Savings Bonds. Description: Historical statistical ... Government Securities and Gold. Description: Information on the inventory and distribution of Government of Canada securities; ...
bankofcanada.ca/about/contact-information/atip/info-source/

*  Health care reform alternative

Financing the government subsidy. Require the same health insurer that operates in different states to offer the same premiums ... Since the proposals to date all assume that the federal government ultimately can take over the system and do a better job, ... To the extent that the premiums are elevated above standard levels, a government subsidy is to be made available to cover the ... For example, revenues for government support (Medicaid, Medicare, pools of high-risk populations, health insurance tax credits ...
savannahnow.com/column/2009-09-24/health-care-reform-alternative

*  Central-government finance and debt, August 2017

The statistics present a compilation of the central government's net and gross financing requirements, central-government ... Danmarks Nationalbank publishes monthly statistics for the central-government financing requirement and debt. ... receipts and disbursements, and how the net financing requirement is met. A compilation of the central-government debt broken ...
nationalbanken.dk/en/statistics/calendar/Pages/Central-government-finance-and-debt,-August-2017.aspx

*  We Shall Impose Peace With Justice and Dignity in Chiapas

In several cases government financing of these paramilitary bodies has been documented. Their modus operandi include various ... The pieces for war have been put in place by the government. The offensive could be in a matter of months, weeks or simply days ... They receive training, financing and weaponry from Public Security and the Army. They have been linked with local drug ... In a talk they had with women from Patazpal, they explained to them that they did not understand why "the bad government is ...
struggle.ws/mexico/ezln/2000/fzln_report_may.html

*  Tunisia

Five of them received government subsidies under a law providing government financing to papers representing opposition parties ... Some NGOs loyal to the government received government funding. The government met with registered domestic human rights NGOs ... The government continued to block an EU grant to the LTDH, citing a law on NGO financing that includes broad prohibitions on ... The government required non-Muslim men to convert to Islam before marrying a Muslim woman. The government did not allow married ...
https://state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100607.htm

*  The Guardian | IslamicFinance.de

Government's move for Islamic financing reaches advanced stage. Tue, 2016-12-20 18:03 - newsdesk The #Nigerian government's ... Governments will team up with the IsDB, the Earth Institute, and its partner, Millennium Promise, to carry out the projects. ... The Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) is to provide $104m (£67.3m) in loans to African governments to fund an expansion of ... Muslims in Nigeria have canvassed a good government policy that would promote affordable housing for the citizenry.ome group of ...
islamicfinance.de/?q=taxonomy/term/83

*  ABLC NEXT 2016 agenda at a glance : Biofuels Digest

Government Funding and Financing Program Update. Taite McDonald, Sr. Policy Advisor, Holland & Knight LLP. 5:00PM - 6:00PM - ... What's Next in Government and Advanced Research? What are the major goals of government agencies and national labs, and how are ... Getting to Scale: Choosing the right financing tool, and the right location. Jeff Passmore, CEO, Passmore & Company. Going to ... www.jbei.org and www.abpdu.lbl.gov). To sign up for the tour, please contact Bill Lundberg, [email protected], 774-270-0358. ...
biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/ablc-next-2016-agenda-at-a-glance/

*  Search Results for '1950-1999'

Financing, Government. Training Support. United States. National Library of Medicine (U.S.). ... Washington [D.C.] : Government Printing Office, 1955. Subject(s):. Periodicals as Topic. ... United States Government Agencies. United States. Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications.. ... United States Government Agencies. United States. National Library of Medicine (U.S.). ...
https://collections.nlm.nih.gov/?f[example_query_facet_field][]=years_1950&per_page=100&sort=score desc

*  Public Administration and Development - Volume 4, Issue 2 - April/June 1984 - Wiley Online Library

Financing regional government: International practices and their relevance to the third world Kenneth Davey Wiley, Chichester, ... Local government in the third world, the experience of tropical Africa Edited by Philip Mawhood Wiley, Chichester, 1983, 261 pp ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pad.v4:2/issuetoc

*  Green to the Gills - The New York Times

... a Newfoundland-based fisheries scientist who recently had his government financing for wild-cod research slashed. Scientists ... The Tromoso-based seafood export council has started a "Cod TV" cable channel, and a network of government agencies, farmers ... This achievement deeply impressed Norwegian breeders, and in 1970 the Norwegian government created the Institute of Aquaculture ... financing surged, and researchers solved a variety of problems. They figured out how to trick cod with artificial light into ...
nytimes.com/2006/06/18/magazine/18fish.html?pagewanted=7&_r=1&ei=5090&en=0c8b60256bbe3b98&ex=1308283200&emc=rss

*  Cesarean Section - A Brief History: Part 3

So too did the involvement of state and federal governments in financing and overseeing maternal and fetal care. Accompanying ... These reformers worked with governments to improve many aspects of maternal and infant health. Yet while more and more women ...
https://nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/cesarean/part3.html

*  Government finance in the wake of currency crises

We then use our model in conjunction with fiscal data to interpret government financing in the wake of three recent currency ... how do governments actually pay for the fiscal costs associated with currency crises; and (ii) what are the implications of ... We study these questions using a general equilibrium model in which a currency crisis is triggered by prospective government ... different financing methods for post-crisis rates of inflation and depreciation? ...
https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/moneco/v53y2006i3p401-440.html

*  Human resources section 3b-textbook on public health and community me… - English

In the rest of the world, government spendingdescribe the financing of health care systems : is extremely low on healthcare and ... The cost of medical care government kitty. Governments of different countries haveis growing out of the reach of common man. ... from patients or stakeholders, government priority setting, or●● Influencing government policy, inter-sector collaboration, the ... Often the government ends while the residents of a country are insured by the state inup contributing on behalf of people who ...
https://slideshare.net/prabirkc/human-resources-section3btextbookonpublichealthandcommunitymedicine

*  Health Insurance Research Paper Starter - eNotes.com

It will provide an analysis of government and commercial health insurance plans... ... The federal government regulates and encourages certain sorts of employee benefit plan financing through tax exemptions and ... Variables that effect plan financing include government regulations, organizational resources, plan sponsor and plan members ... Issues addressed include benefit plans, government regulation, benefit financing, and member perception of benefits. ...
https://enotes.com/research-starters/health-insurance

*  Abortion legal definition of abortion

... including government financing of abortion procedures. Some anti-abortion groups have practiced civil disobedience, attempting ... He pointed out that the Due Process Clause generally confers no affirmative right to government aid. The government has no ... Federal Financing In 1976, Representative Henry J. Hyde (R-Ill.) sponsored an amendment to the Federal Budget appropriations ... The government and abortion rights groups have responded to the increased violence in two ways: reviewing existing laws to find ...
https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/abortion

*  Items where Year is 1992 - IRep - Nottingham Trent University

Financing local government. Research report for external body. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. ... Local government competition: meeting the challenges. ACCA Publications. Holdaway, S ORCID: 0000-0002-8547-8470, 1992. ...
irep.ntu.ac.uk/view/year/1992.html

*  How Drug Companies Keep Medicine Out of Reach - The Atlantic

On the calls, he asked whether the officials were prepared, at the November meeting, to commit their governments to financing ... "In the old days, the government would grant five year monopolies on government-funded inventions that were done by NIH or ... "When governments get serious about an issue, they agree to binding global norms and they agree to be held accountable. And ... "If you look at the licensing he does on his own government-funded research, he has experienced a little bit of frustration when ...
https://theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/05/how-drug-companies-keep-medicine-out-of-reach/275853/

*  Fukushima

... aided by favorable government-backed financing.,/p, ,p,However, with cost estimates rising, the government has ,a href='http:// ... Japan's government says a former worker at the Fukushima nuclear plant is the first person confirmed to have developed cancer ... Government policy calls for reprocessing spent fuel to recover its plutonium and uranium content. But the fuel storage pool at ... Mori is not a person who just acquiesces to what the national government says,' Ishiba said. 'He has courage and will stand up ...
businessinsider.com/category/fukushima.rss

*  TEXT - Fitch rates Guatemala's foreign currency bond issuance | Reuters

... finance social and investment programs and capital expenditures as part of the government's 2013 financing plan. ... FinancialGovernment SolutionsLegalReuters News AgencyRisk Management SolutionsTax & AccountingBlog: Answers OnInnovation @ ... FinancialGovernment SolutionsLegalReuters News AgencyRisk Management SolutionsTax & AccountingBlog: Answers OnInnovation @ ...
reuters.com/article/idUSWNB0030L20130206

Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.Companies OfficeFome Zero: Fome Zero (, Zero Hunger) is a Brazilian government program introduced by the then President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2003, with the goal to eradicate hunger and extreme poverty in Brazil.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Prison commissary: A prison commissary or canteen is a store within a correctional facility, from which inmates may purchase products such as hygiene items, snacks, writing instruments, etc. Spices, including those packaged with instant ramen noodles, are a popular item due to the often bland nature of prison food.Private healthcareRock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Friendship (NGO): Friendship is a French - Bangladeshi non-governmental organization that works with poor and marginalized communities in Bangladesh in remote chars and riverbanks in the North, poorer areas in Northeast, cyclone-prone areas in the South and most recently the hard-to-reach indigenous communities in the coastal belt of the country. It was established in Bangladesh in 2002 to provide basic services to the highly suffering inaccessible areas from climate changes impact.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Public opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Global Health Delivery ProjectTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}The Flash ChroniclesAustralian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.California Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)List of tobacco-related topics: Nicotiana is the genus of herbs and shrubs which is cultivated to produce tobacco products.Highway engineering: Highway engineering is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels to ensure safe and effective transportation of people and goods."Highway engineering.Howard Phillips (politician)Federal budget of Russia: The Federal budget of Russia () is the leading element of the Budget system of Russia. The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia.Privatization in criminal justice: Privatization in criminal justice refers to a shift to private ownership and control of criminal justice services.Drumcondra Hospital: Drumcondra Hospital (originally, the Whitworth Fever Hospital, and from 1852 to 1893 the Whitworth General Hospital) was a voluntary hospital on Whitworth Road in Dublin, Ireland, that became part of the Rotunda Hospital in 1970.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Hoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentSociety for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Venture capital in Israel: Venture capital in Israel refers to the financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies based in Israel. Israel's venture capital industry was born in the mid-1980s and has rapidly developed since.Australian National BL classStatute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.FlexirentSharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation: The Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation (formerly known as the KID Foundation) is a registered 501(c)3, nonprofit organization dedicated to research in 1979, education and advocacy for Sensory Processing Disorder. The Foundation was founded in 1979 by Dr.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Treaty of the Bogue: The Treaty of the Bogue () was an unequal treaty between China and the United Kingdom, concluded in October 1843 to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty's key provisions granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: The Civil Rights Restoration Act was a U.S.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Standard evaluation frameworkCanadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.List of companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange: The Oslo Stock Exchange (Norwegian: Oslo Børs) serves as the main market for trading in the shares of Norwegian companies. It opens at 9:00am and closes 4:30pm local time (CET).European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Mr. Bartender (It's So Easy): "Mr. Bartender (It's So Easy)" is a song by American rock band Sugar Ray.Maternal Health Task ForcePavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).France–Niger relations: France–Niger relations refer to foreign relations between France and the Niger. Their relations are based on a long shared history and the more than sixty year rule of Niger by French colonial empire beginning with the French conquest in 1898.Advertising Standards Canada: Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) is the advertising industry's non-profit self-regulating body created in 1957 to ensure the integrity and viability of advertising in Canada. The organization includes over 160 advertisers, advertising agencies, media organizations, and suppliers to the advertising sector.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchInjustice SocietyCriticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.For-profit hospital: For-profit hospitals, or alternatively investor-owned hospitals, are investor-owned chains of hospitals which have been established particularly in the United States during the late twentieth century. In contrast to the traditional and more common non-profit hospitals, they attempt to garner a profit for their shareholders.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Toyota NZ engine: The Toyota NZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The 1NZ series uses aluminum engine blocks and DOHC cylinder heads.

(1/951) Storage of cord blood attracts private-sector interest.

Storage of cord blood from their babies can cost parents several hundred dollars, and some private companies are already offering the service. Janis Hass reports that some Canadian specialists question the value of the banks.  (+info)

(2/951) Health expenditure and finance: who gets what?

The methods used in South Africa's first comprehensive review of health finance and expenditure are outlined. Special measures were adopted to make the process acceptable to all concerned during a period of profound political transition. The estimation of indicators of access to public sector resources for districts sorted by per capita income allowed the health care problems of disadvantaged communities to be highlighted.  (+info)

(3/951) Welfare gains from user charges for government health services.

The World Bank's Financing health services in developing countries emphasizes demand-side issues--highlighting user fees, insurance, and the private sector as tools for strengthening the health sector. That approach is a major departure from the focus on the supply side--public sector spending, costs, management, and efficiency--that has dominated the international health finance agenda for many years. An important set of empirical papers by Paul Gertler and his co-authors coincided with the release of the policy paper. Gertler's work has questioned a policy of greater dependence on user fees by emphasizing the potential welfare costs to consumers of higher fees for medical services. Many health professionals have adopted the jargon of this new approach without understanding the underlying analysis. This article attempts to demystify the debate that has ensued by illustrating economists' idiosyncratic approach to welfare, explaining how the policy paper and Gertler differ, and suggesting alternative approaches to testing the feasibility of the policy paper's prescriptions.  (+info)

(4/951) The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government.  (+info)

(5/951) Whose policy is it anyway? International and national influences on health policy development in Uganda.

As national resources for health decline, so dependence on international resources to finance the capital and recurrent costs is increasing. This dependence, combined with an increasing emphasis on policy-based, as opposed to project-based, lending and grant-making has been accompanied by greater involvement of international actors in the formation of national health policy. This paper explores the process of health policy development in Uganda and examines how major donors are influencing and conflicting with national policy-making bodies. Focusing on two examples of user fees and drugs policies, it argues that while the content of international prescriptions to strengthen the health system may not be bad in itself, the process by which they are applied potentially threatens national sovereignty and weakens mechanisms for ensuring accountability. It concludes by proposing that in order to increase the sustainability of policy reforms, much greater emphasis should be placed on strengthening national capacity for policy analysis and research, building up policy networks and enhancing the quality of information available to the public concerning key policy changes.  (+info)

(6/951) Introducing health insurance in Vietnam.

Like many other countries Vietnam is trying to reform its health care system through the introduction of social insurance. The small size of the formal sector means that the scope for compulsory payroll insurance is limited and provinces are beginning to experiment with ways of encouraging people to buy voluntary insurance. Methods of contracting between hospitals and insurance centres are being devised. These vary in complexity and there is a danger that those based on fee for service will encourage excessive treatment for those insured. It is important that the national and provincial government continue to maintain firm control over funding while also ensuring that a substantial and targeted general budget subsidy is provided for those unable to make contributions.  (+info)

(7/951) User charges in government health facilities in Kenya: effect on attendance and revenue.

In this paper we study demand effects of user charges in a district health care system using cross-sectional data from household and facility surveys. The effects are examined in public as well as in private health facilities. We also look briefly at the impact of fees on revenue and service quality in government facilities. During the period of cost-sharing in public clinics, attendance dropped by about 50%. This drop prompted the government to suspend the fees for approximately 20 months. Over the 7 months after suspension of fees, attendance at government health centres increased by 41%. The suspension further caused a notable movement of patients from the private sector to government health facilities. The revenue generated by user fees covered 2.4% of the recurrent health budget. Some 40% of the facilities did not spend the fee revenue they collected, mainly due to cumbersome procedures of expenditure approvals. The paper concludes with lessons from Kenya's experience with user charges.  (+info)

(8/951) Quality of primary outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam: a comparison of government and voluntary providers.

This study aimed to test whether voluntary agencies provide care of better quality than that provided by government with respect to primary curative outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam. All non-government primary services were included, and government primary facilities were randomly sampled within the three districts of the city. Details of consultations were recorded and assessed by a panel who classed consultations as adequate, inadequate but serious consequences unlikely, and consultations where deficiencies in the care could have serious consequences. Interpersonal conduct was assessed and exit interviews were conducted. The study found that government registers of non-government 'voluntary' providers actually contained a high proportion of for-profit private providers. Comparisons between facilities showed that care was better overall at voluntary providers, but that there was a high level of inadequate care at both government and non-government providers.  (+info)



government's


  • In New Zealand in the next 50 years, an aging population is expected to elevate government liabilities and weaken the government's fiscal position. (repec.org)
  • The statistics present a compilation of the central government's net and gross financing requirements, central-government receipts and disbursements, and how the net financing requirement is met. (nationalbanken.dk)
  • It has reached such a point that it would appear that the government has decided, owing to the combination of factors being presented by the current political, economic and social climate, that this is the moment for doing away with the indigenous insurgence, whether in order to encourage the fear vote in the coming elections, or to smooth the future government's path regarding the Chiapas conflict. (struggle.ws)

Officials


  • Have the private sector assess this means test, not elected or appointed government officials. (savannahnow.com)

legislation


  • The Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act assign overall responsibility to the President of Treasury Board (as the designated Minister) for the government-wide administration of the legislation. (bankofcanada.ca)

fiscal


  • To maintain fiscal balance, the government must either substantially pre-fund future increases in its liabilities or significantly raise taxes in the 2030's-40's, following few small possible tax cuts in the next 10 to 15 years. (repec.org)
  • Long-term fiscal projections for the country, and literature on the problem, indicate that the most effective way to contain the expected rise in government liabilities is to reform health care and pension policies. (repec.org)
  • We then use our model in conjunction with fiscal data to interpret government financing in the wake of three recent currency crises: Korea (1997), Mexico (1994) and Turkey (2001). (repec.org)

agencies


  • This U.S. Department of Transportation program provides an opportunity for state and local governments, metropolitan planning organizations, transit agencies and port authorities to invest in road, rail, transit and port projects that promise to achieve critical national objectives. (txdot.gov)

Funds


  • In 2015, the government set up the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund to raise funds for the infrastructure sector with an initial targeted corpus of Rs40,000 crore, of which Rs20,000 crore was to be invested by the government. (livemint.com)
  • Replying for the Government, Justice Minister Pinhas Rosen said he had not investigated the matter, nor did he see any need for investigating the source of the funds. (jta.org)

bank


  • With bank credit drying up for large infrastructure projects, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government is exploring a plan to raise Rs10 trillion from retirees and provident fund beneficiaries, said transport minister Nitin Gadkari. (livemint.com)
  • In 1938, the Bank became a Crown corporation belonging to the federal government. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • The Bank is not a government department and conducts its activities with considerable independence compared with most other federal institutions. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • The Government of Canada and the Bank of Canada have a joint agreement to keep inflation at an annual rate of 2 per cent-the midpoint of a 1 to 3 per cent target range-over the medium term. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • Meanwhile, the African Development Bank Group (AfDB) has approved the $250 million loan for the Federal Government for the development of a youth-oriented initiative called ENABLE Youth Nigeria. (islamicfinance.de)

federal


  • The Introduction to Info Source: Sources of Federal Government and Employee Information and an index of institutions subject to the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act are available centrally. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • Since the proposals to date all assume that the federal government ultimately can take over the system and do a better job, this column offers a basic alternative approach to health reform, one that can meet these two goals without fundamentally changing our way of life or bankrupting the U.S. Treasury. (savannahnow.com)
  • First, the federal government must enact serious tort reform. (savannahnow.com)
  • Over the last few weeks the federal government has continued positioning its pieces on its macabre game board of total war against the zapatista indigenous communities. (struggle.ws)

public


  • The government remained intolerant of public criticism and used intimidation, criminal investigations, the court system, arbitrary arrests, residential restrictions, and travel controls to discourage criticism by human rights and opposition activists. (state.gov)

local


  • Fortunately, the state Legislature has helped establish state and local financing tools to assist local governments with transportation projects. (txdot.gov)
  • TxDOT is a resource for local governments to explore these and other available options. (txdot.gov)
  • Local governments collect various fees and taxes to generate revenue for transportation projects. (txdot.gov)
  • Note: This site does not describe all financing options that may be available to local governments for transportation projects, and not all options described are applicable to all projects or all local governments. (txdot.gov)
  • Local governments are encouraged to discuss options with local counsel. (txdot.gov)

available


  • To the extent that the premiums are elevated above standard levels, a government subsidy is to be made available to cover the premium difference between a regular risk and a high-risk/pre-existing condition patient for those households that cannot afford it. (savannahnow.com)

Options


  • Financing options for your home based business" The presenter will review the following information for you to consider: ·How Lenders View your Business (Understanding what lenders look for in your business) · Understanding Credit · Securing Loans for Home Based Businesses This workshop is designed for those small home based businesses in need of financing to move your business forward. (sba.gov)

finance


  • A transportation reinvestment zone (TRZ) is an innovative financing mechanism in which captured ad valorem tax increments are set aside to finance transportation projects. (txdot.gov)
  • Government Finance in the Wake of Currency Crises ," CEPR Discussion Papers 3939, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. (repec.org)
  • Government Finance in the Wake of Currency Crises ," RCER Working Papers 501, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER). (repec.org)
  • Government Finance in the Wake of Currency Crises ," NBER Working Papers 9786, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • Government Finance in the Wake of Currency Crises ," 2005 Meeting Papers 429, Society for Economic Dynamics. (repec.org)

subject


  • It provides individuals and employees of the government (current and former) with relevant information to access personal information about themselves held by government institutions subject to the Privacy Act and to exercise their rights under the Privacy Act . (bankofcanada.ca)

website


Projects


  • These are agreements with private entities that allow for greater private sector participation in the delivery and financing of transportation projects. (txdot.gov)
  • Gadkari, who also holds the charge of the ministry of water resources, river development and Ganga rejuvenation, said that the government was exploring alternative mechanisms for funding large infrastructure projects. (livemint.com)
  • The government is also working on raising capital by monetizing the operational road assets of National Highways Authority of India, which has drawn up a list of 105 projects to be monetized over a period of time. (livemint.com)

different


  • and (ii) what are the implications of different financing methods for post-crisis rates of inflation and depreciation? (repec.org)

resources


  • The government has been trying to raise resources to boost its ambitious infrastructure programme through multiple ways. (livemint.com)

currency


  • A compilation of the central-government debt broken down by interest terms, maturity and currency is also included. (nationalbanken.dk)
  • We study these questions using a general equilibrium model in which a currency crisis is triggered by prospective government deficits. (repec.org)

sector


  • Mint reported on 11 August that the government is considering setting up an independent financial institution to cater exclusively to the roads and highways sector along the lines of PFC. (livemint.com)

personal


  • He said the Government was satisfied with regard to Dr. Servatius' personal background as anti-Nazi. (jta.org)

criminal


  • The question of who is financing the defense of Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi war criminal who directed the mass killing of 6,000,000 Jews in Europe, was raised today in the Knesset, Israel's parliament, by Israel Bar-Yehuda, Ahdut Avoda deputy. (jta.org)