Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Rheumatic Fever: A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES. It is characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, such as the heart, blood vessels, and joints (POLYARTHRITIS) and brain, and by the presence of ASCHOFF BODIES in the myocardium and skin.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Boutonneuse Fever: A febrile disease of the Mediterranean area, the Crimea, Africa, and India, caused by infection with RICKETTSIA CONORII.Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Rickettsia Infections: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Ephemeral Fever: An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE). It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.Rickettsia rickettsii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Antipyretics: Drugs that are used to reduce body temperature in fever.Trench Fever: An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse.Blackwater Fever: A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Phlebovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Coxiella: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.Marburg Virus Disease: An RNA virus infection of rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys transmissible to man.Ephemeral Fever Virus, Bovine: The type species of EPHEMEROVIRUS causing disease in cattle. Transmission is by hematophagous arthropods and the virus has been isolated from both culicoides and mosquitoes.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Rat-Bite Fever: A syndrome characterized by recurring fever, rash, and arthralgias occurring days to weeks after a rat bite. The causative agents are either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Malignant Catarrh: A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.Colorado Tick Fever: A febrile illness characterized by chills, aches, vomiting, leukopenia, and sometimes encephalitis. It is caused by the COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS, a reovirus transmitted by the tick Dermacentor andersoni.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.Bunyaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency: Autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the mevalonate kinase gene. Because of the mutations cholesterol biosynthesis is disrupted and MEVALONIC ACID accumulates. It is characterized by a range of symptoms, including dysmorphic FACIES, psychomotor retardation, CATARACT, hepatosplenomegaly, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, elevated IMMUNOGLOBULIN D, and recurrent febrile crises with FEVER; LYMPHADENOPATHY; ARTHRALGIA; EDEMA; and rash.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Rickettsiaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne: An infectious disease clinically similar to epidemic louse-borne typhus (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE), but caused by RICKETTSIA TYPHI, which is transmitted from rat to man by the rat flea, XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Purpura: Purplish or brownish red discoloration, easily visible through the epidermis, caused by hemorrhage into the tissues. When the size of the discolorization is >2-3 cm it is generally called Ecchymoses (ECCHYMOSIS).Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Rickettsia typhi: The etiologic agent of murine typhus (see TYPHUS, ENDEMIC FLEA-BORNE).Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Marburgvirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Streptobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that require SERUM; ASCITIC FLUID; or BLOOD for growth. Its organisms inhabit the THROAT; and NASOPHARYNX of wild and laboratory rats and cause one form of RAT-BITE FEVER in man.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Arenaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.Armenia: An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Scrub Typhus: An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases: Hereditary inflammation conditions, characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation. Common symptoms include recurrent fever, rash, arthritis, fatigue, and secondary AMYLOIDOSIS. Hereditary autoinflammatory diseases are associated with mutations in genes involved in regulation of normal inflammatory process and are not caused by AUTOANTIBODIES, or antigen specific T-LYMPHOCYTES.IndiaLivestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Pichinde virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Seizures, Febrile: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)VietnamAfricaOrthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.TurkeyPuumala virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS causing nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME. It is found in most of Europe and especially in Finland, along with its carrier rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).Filoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FILOVIRIDAE. The infections in humans consist of a variety of clinically similar viral hemorrhagic fevers but the natural reservoir host is unknown.BrazilParasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Hemorrhagic Fever, Omsk: Infection with the Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, a Flavivirus.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Comoros: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
Rabbit feverHaemagogus: Haemagogus, is a genus of mosquitoes belonging to the family Culicidae. They mainly occur in Central America and northern South America (including Trinidad), although some species inhabit forested areas of Brazil, and range as far as northern Argentina.Widal test: The Widal test, developed in 1896 and named after Georges-Fernand Widal, who introduced it, is a presumptive serological test for enteric fever or undulant fever whereby bacteria causing typhoid fever are mixed with a serum containing specific antibodies obtained from an infected individual. In cases of Salmonella infection, it is a demonstration of the presence of O-soma false-positive result.Eggs and Marrowbone: "Eggs and Marrowbone" (Laws Q2, Roud183]) is a traditional folk song of unknown origins and multiple variations. The most well known variations are "The Old Woman From Boston" and "The Rich Old Lady".Group A streptococcal infectionMusbury Valley: The Musbury Valley is a small valley in the east Pennines, west of Helmshore and Haslingden in Rossendale, Lancashire. The valley is very picturesque and includes a variety of landscapes, mostly sheep pasture and moors but there are some patches of beautiful woodland here and there.Natural reservoir: A natural reservoir or nidus (the latter from the Latin word for "nest") is the long-term host of a pathogen of an infectious disease. Hosts often do not get the disease carried by the pathogen or it is carried as a subclinical infection and so asymptomatic and non-lethal.The Tyrant (House)Boutonneuse feverNephropathia epidemicaImmunoglobulin C2-set domain: A:317–388 B:317–388 B:317–388H. R. Cox: Herald Rea Cox (1907–1986) was an American bacteriologist. The bacterial family Coxiellaceae and the genus Coxiella, which include the organism that causes Q fever, are named after him.List of notifiable diseases: The following is a list of notifiable diseases arranged by country.Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic feverCoxiella burnetii: Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Q fever. The genus Coxiella is morphologically similar to Rickettsia, but with a variety of genetic and physiological differences.Argentine hemorrhagic feverLive vector vaccine: A live vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a chemically weakened virus to transport pieces of the pathogen in order to stimulate an immune response.GlossaryBundibugyo virus: Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Ebola virus (EBOV). BDBV causes severe disease in humans and (experimentally) in nonhuman primates, the Ebola hemorrhagic fever.Dengue fever outbreaksAfrican tick bite feverRickettsia sibirica: Rickettsia sibirica is a species of Rickettsia. This bacterium is the etiologic agent of North Asian tick typhus, which is also known as Siberian tick typhus.Depyrogenation: Depyrogenation refers to the removal of pyrogens from solution, most commonly from injectable pharmaceuticals.Josiah WarrenRickettsia rickettsii: Rickettsia rickettsii (abbreviated as R. rickettsii) is a gram negative, intracellular, coccobacillus bacteria, that is around 0.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Borrelia miyamotoi: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete bacterium in the genus Borrelia. A zoonotic bacterium, B.Antipyretic: Antipyretics (), from the Greek anti, against, and pyreticus, pertaining to fever, are substances that reduce fever. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature.Trench feverCinchonismAedes aegyptiSFTS virus: The SFTS virus is a phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae.Fever with thrombocytopenia asshociated with a novel Bunyavirus in China.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Priscilla MorrillMarburg virus: Marburg virus ( ) is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus. Marburg virus (MARV) causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever.Bovine ephemeral fever: Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) also known as Three Day Sickness is an arthropod vector-borne disease of cattle and is caused by the Ephemerovirus virus of the Rhabdoviridae family of virus. The Rhabdoviridae are a class V virus according to the Baltimore classification of viruses.Ornithodoros erraticusTicks of domestic animals: Ticks of domestic animals directly cause poor health and loss of production to their hosts by many parasitic mechanisms. Ticks also transmit numerous kinds of viruses, bacteria, and protozoa between domestic animals.Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2Colorado tick feverTyphoid vaccineTick-borne disease: Tick-borne diseases, which afflict humans and other animals, are caused by infectious agents transmitted by tick bites. Tick-borne illnesses are caused by infection with a variety of pathogens, including rickettsia and other types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.Toscana virus: Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) belonging to Bunyaviridae, a family of negative-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. The virus can be transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus.Distributed cache: In computing, a distributed cache is an extension of the traditional concept of cache used in a single locale. A distributed cache may span multiple servers so that it can grow in size and in transactional capacity.MyocarditisBacitracinHuman mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).Andes virusAllergic rhinitis: wide.Mevalonate kinase deficiency: Mevalonate kinase deficiency, also called mevalonic aciduria, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that disrupts the biosynthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids.Gross examinationEbola virus: Ebolavirus|other uses|Ebola (disambiguation)Ebola}}First Potomac Realty TrustMurine typhusTyphusRoll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius: Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) is a causative agent of acute and often purulent conjunctivitis, more commonly known as pink eye. It was discovered independently by Koch and Weeks in the 1880s.Belmont Park, Exeter: Belmont Park (also called Belmont Pleasure Grounds) is a public park in Exeter, England provided by Exeter City Council.Cyclic neutropeniaMegalocytivirus: Megalocytivirus is one of five genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae and one of three genera within this family which infect teleost fishes, along with Lymphocystivirus and Ranavirus. The megalocytiviruses are an emerging group of closely related dsDNA viruses which cause systemic infections in a wide variety of wild and cultured fresh and saltwater fishes.Streptococcal pharyngitisDowner (animal): A downer is an animal, usually livestock, that cannot stand on its own and therefore is to be killed. A downed animal, one that is unable to stand, is not necessarily a downer.SeroconversionMarburg marburgvirus: The species Marburg marburgvirus is the taxonomic home of two related viruses that form filamentous virions, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). Both viruses cause Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever, and both are Select Agents, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogens, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agents, and are listed as a Biological Agents for Export Control by the Australia Group.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Streptobacillus: Streptobacillus is a genus of aerobic, gram-negative facultative anaerobe bacteria, which grow in culture as rods in chains.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Infective endocarditisCopper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Psorophora howardiiCandy thermometer: A candy thermometer, also known as a sugar thermometer, is a cooking thermometer used to measure the temperature and therefore the stage of a cooking sugar solution. (See Candy making for a description of sugar stages.Arenavirus: An arenavirus is a virus which is a member of the family Arenaviridae. These viruses infect rodents and occasionally humans; arenaviruses have also been discovered which infect snakes.Coles PhillipsFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying
(1/3622) Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia.
Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case. (+info)
(2/3622) Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protects postimplantation murine embryos from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia.
Previous work has shown that there is a positive correlation between the induction of Hsp70 and its transient nuclear localization and the acquisition and loss of induced thermotolerance in postimplantation rat embryos. To determine whether Hsp70 is sufficient to induce thermotolerance in postimplantation mammalian embryos, we used a transgenic mouse in which the normally strictly inducible Hsp70 is constitutively expressed in the embryo under the control of a beta-actin promoter. Day 8.0 mouse embryos heterozygous for the Hsp70 transgene were not protected from the embryotoxic effects of hyperthermia (43 degrees C); however, homozygous embryos, expressing approximately twice as much Hsp70 as heterozygous embryos, were partially protected (increased embryo viability) from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. Although the viability of transgenic embryos was significantly increased compared with that of nontransgenic embryos, this protection did not extend to embryo growth and development. To determine whether the failure to achieve a more robust protection was related to the expression of insufficient Hsp70 in transgenic embryos, we undertook experiments to determine whether the level of Hsp70 correlated with the level of thermotolerance induced by various lengths of a 41 degrees C heat shock. A 41 degrees C, 5-minute heat shock failed to induce Hsp70 or thermotolerance, a 41 degrees C, 15-minute heat shock induced Hsp70 and a significant level of thermotolerance, while a 41 degrees C, 60-minute heat shock induced an even higher level of Hsp70 as well as a higher level of thermotolerance. Quantitation of Hsp70 levels indicated that thermotolerance was associated with levels of Hsp70 of 820 pg/microg embryo protein or greater. Subsequent quantitation of the amount of Hsp70 expressed in homozygous transgenic embryos indicated a level of 577 pg/microg embryo protein, that is, a level below that associated with induced thermotolerance. Overall, results presented indicate that Hsp70 does play a direct role in the induction of thermotolerance in postimplantation mouse embryos; however, the level of thermotolerance is dependent on the level of Hsp70 expressed. (+info)
(3/3622) Modulation of the thermoregulatory sweating response to mild hyperthermia during activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.
1. To investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on the thermoregulatory sweating response in humans, eight healthy male subjects performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise in an environmental chamber (35 C and 50 % relative humidity) at 30 or 45 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), at the end of which the blood circulation to the forearm was occluded for 120 s. The environmental conditions were such as to produce sweating by increase in skin temperature without a marked change in oesophageal temperature. 2. During circulatory occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 120 s or at 45 % MVC for 60 s, the sweating rate (SR) on the chest and forearm (hairy regions), and the mean arterial blood pressure were significantly above baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no changes from baseline values in the oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, or SR on the palm (hairless regions). 3. During the occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 60 s and during the occlusion alone, none of the measured parameters differed from baseline values. 4. It is concluded that, under mildly hyperthermic conditions, the thermoregulatory sweating response on the hairy regions is modulated by afferent signals from muscle metaboreceptors. (+info)
(4/3622) Effects of targeted disruption of the mouse angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene on stress-induced hyperthermia.
1. We have previously reported that brain angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2) contribute to immunological stress-induced hyperthermia (fever) in rats. Now, in mice, we report the effect of AT2 gene disruption on the hyperthermia induced by immunological (interleukin-1 (IL-1) injection) and non-immunological (saline injection or cage switch) stress. 2. AT2-deficient and control mice both showed typical circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and physical activity. During the latter half of the dark period, AT2-deficient mice exhibited a lower body temperature than the controls. 3. By comparison with the controls, AT2-deficient mice exhibited: (i) a significantly smaller hyperthermia after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of IL-1beta; (ii) significantly greater increases in body temperature and physical activity after i. p. saline; and (iii) a significantly greater hyperthermia (but a similar increase in activity) during cage-switch stress. 4. These results suggest that AT2, presumably in the brain, plays important roles in stress-induced hyperthermia in mice. (+info)
(5/3622) Familial Mediterranean fever--renal involvement by diseases other than amyloid.
BACKGROUND: In patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) renal involvement is usually in the form of AA amyloidosis. There is increasing evidence that renal involvement may be due to diseases other than amyloid as well. METHODS: Amongst 302 children with FMF we observed and followed 28 with typical clinical and laboratory features of vasculitis. The diagnosis of FMF was established according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. RESULTS: Polyarteritis nodosa, protracted febrile attacks and Henoch-Schonlein purpura were diagnosed in 4, 13, and 11 patients, respectively. The presentation was often difficult to distinguish from FMF attacks, but protracted febrile attacks lasting several weeks, hypertension, thrombocytosis, and dramatic responses to corticosteroid therapy that were observed in many cases were different from what is observed in classical FMF. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that FMF, perhaps as a consequence of impaired control of inflammatory responses, predisposes to vasculitis with renal involvement. (+info)
(6/3622) Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist.
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels. (+info)
(7/3622) Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats.
Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta. (+info)
(8/3622) Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group.
BACKGROUND: In patients with persistent fever and neutropenia, amphotericin B is administered empirically for the early treatment and prevention of clinically occult invasive fungal infections. However, breakthrough fungal infections can develop despite treatment, and amphotericin B has substantial toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing liposomal amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy. RESULTS: The mean duration of therapy was 10.8 days for liposomal amphotericin B (343 patients) and 10.3 days for conventional amphotericin B (344 patients). The composite rates of successful treatment were similar (50 percent for liposomal amphotericin B and 49 percent for conventional amphotericin B) and were independent of the use of antifungal prophylaxis or colony-stimulating factors. The outcomes were similar with liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B with respect to survival (93 percent and 90 percent, respectively), resolution of fever (58 percent and 58 percent), and discontinuation of the study drug because of toxic effects or lack of efficacy (14 percent and 19 percent). There were fewer proved breakthrough fungal infections among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (11 patients [3.2 percent]) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (27 patients [7.8 percent], P=0.009). With the liposomal preparation significantly fewer patients had infusion-related fever (17 percent vs. 44 percent), chills or rigors (18 percent vs. 54 percent), and other reactions, including hypotension, hypertension, and hypoxia. Nephrotoxic effects (defined by a serum creatinine level two times the upper limit of normal) were significantly less frequent among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (19 percent) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (34 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal amphotericin B is as effective as conventional amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with fever and neutropenia, and it is associated with fewer breakthrough fungal infections, less infusion-related toxicity, and less nephrotoxicity. (+info)