Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Coprophagia: Eating of excrement by animal species.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Bacterial Shedding: The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Isospora: A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Desulfovibrionaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Bifidobacteriales Infections: Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Spirochaetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Lawsonia Bacteria: A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AnaerobicEimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Trichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.GeeseDefecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Paratuberculosis: A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Panthera: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of big felines including LIONS; TIGERS; jaguars; and the leopard.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Helicobacter: A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.Animals, ZooRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Housing, AnimalImmunomagnetic Separation: A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).DairyingCholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.ArtiodactylaParasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)SvalbardRuminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Brachyspira: A genus of spiral bacteria of the family Brachyspiraceae.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Haemonchiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Coproporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Stomach, RuminantStrongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Balantidium: A genus of protozoa parasitic in the digestive tract of vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Asexual multiplication is accomplished by transverse binary fission. Its organisms are ovoidal in shape and have a ciliated covering over the entire body.Veillonellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.

*  ATCC - 87712

The UCP isolate was propagated exclusively in calves for eight years by ImmunoCell Inc., and in 1998 purified from feces on ...
https://atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Molecular_Biology/Genomic_Libraries/87712.aspx

*  Stool Test: Ova and Parasites (O&P)

A stool (feces) sample can provide valuable information about problems in the stomach, intestines, rectum, or other parts of ...
kidshealth.org/en/parents/test-oandp.html?WT.ac=p-ra

*  AID 635683 - Drug excretion in bile-duct cannulated Sprague-Dawley rat feces assessed as unchanged drug at 1 mg/kg, iv measured...

Drug excretion in bile-duct cannulated Sprague-Dawley rat feces assessed as unchanged drug at 1 mg/kg, iv measured over 24 hrs. ...
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/635683

*  Medical Definition of Feces

... Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.. Quick GuideDigestive Disorders: Common ...
medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3400

*  Urban Dictionary: feces

The singular form of the word feces; that is to say, a single stool floating in the shitbowl or lying on the ground, waiting to ... Soon, the feces entered the rectum stage where the nutrients raped it until it was brown. ... Jim, look some druggie wrote on the wall in his own feces.. Pete, that's gross. ...
urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=feces&defid=1169690

*  The Feces Category | GenomeWeb

A trio of researchers argues that fecal microbiota transplantation should be regulated as a tissue product rather than as a biologic.
https://genomeweb.com/blog/feces-category

*  The Origin of the Feces - Wikipedia

EN) The Origin of the Feces, su Discogs, Zink Media. (EN) The Origin of the Feces, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation.. ... The Origin of the Feces, prodotto nel 1992 dalla Roadrunner Records, è il secondo album della band statunitense doom metal Type ... The Origin of the Feces, su AllMusic, All Media Network. ( ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Origin_of_the_Feces

*  blood in feces | Health24

blood in feces. My husband is now 42 and complained about blood in his stool. He says it has been a few months now. What could ...
health24.com/Experts/Question/blood-in-feces-20090628

*  Feces - definition of feces by The Free Dictionary

feces synonyms, feces pronunciation, feces translation, English dictionary definition of feces. n. Waste matter eliminated from ... feces. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. fe·ces. (fē′sēz). n. (used with a sing. or pl. verb). Waste ... fèces. faeces. (American) feces (ˈfiːsiːz) noun plural. solid waste matter passed out from the body. ontlasting, uitwerpsels, ... Feces removal from endorheic septic 372 pcs / about 1808 mA / a, feces removal of part small-scale biological treatment plants ...
thefreedictionary.com/feces

*  Feces Videos and Pictures - Featured | eBaum's World

Just let a crazy garbage feces hoarder rent your house, and you got it. ...
ebaumsworld.com/tags/feces/

*  NYPD: Suspect in Feces Attacks Taken Into Custody - WSJ

The New York Police Department says a man accused of stuffing a bag of feces down a woman's pants is in custody. ... NEW YORK-The New York Police Department says a man accused of stuffing a bag of feces down a woman's pants is in custody. ... NYPD: Suspect in Feces Attacks Taken Into Custody. Police say the disturbing incidents occurred hours apart Monday. ...
https://wsj.com/articles/nypd-suspect-in-feces-attacks-taken-into-custody-1467377059

*  Why does my dog eat feces? - Dogster

Barchas answers the question as to why dogs sometimes eat their own feces. It developed in their role as scavengers, as they ... Why does my dog eat feces? Dear Dr. Barchas, Within the past few months my dog has taken a liking to eating his feces. The vet ... If your dog eats other dogs' feces, keep him on leash when he is in areas where feces is present. And finally, if your dog eats ... Although feces is generally unhealthy when eaten, it does have very slight nutritional value. Therefore, dogs ate feces in ...
dogster.com/lifestyle/why-does-my-dog-eat-feces

*  Feces-flinging inmate gets 13-year sentence

... Marcus Crawford initially arrested after attempted break-in. Share ... When guards went in to see what he was doing, Crawford threw a milk carton of feces and urine on them. ...
kmbc.com/article/feces-flinging-inmate-gets-13-year-sentence/3678640

*  Homeowner charged over dog feces in yard

People in one northeast Albuquerque neighborhood said they've reported a backyard filled with dog feces to animal control ... Homeowner charged over dog feces in yard. Homeowner to appear in court later this month. Share ... People in one northeast Albuquerque neighborhood said they've reported a backyard filled with dog feces to animal control ...
koat.com/article/homeowner-charged-over-dog-feces-in-yard/5061883

*  Feces in termites' nests block biological pest control | Science News

Feces in termites' nests block biological pest control. Built-in poop nourishes bacteria that protect notorious Formosan ...
https://sciencenews.org/article/feces-termites-nests-block-biological-pest-control?mode=topic&context=76

*  Documents: No urine, feces seized at filibuster

Texas Department of Public Safety documents show troopers seized no jars of urine or feces from Capitol visitors the day of ... AUSTIN, Texas (AP) - Texas Department of Public Safety documents show troopers seized no jars of urine or feces from Capitol ... That night, the DPS statement said 18 bottles were seized that were "suspected" of containing feces, while another bottle was ...
kxii.com/home/headlines/Documents-No-urine-feces-seized-at-filibuster-221353571.html

*  DailyTech - Japanese Make "Delicious", Nourishing Steaks From Human Feces

Professor Mitsuyuki Ikeda inspects his feces "meat". (Source: TWO/YouTube). Fresh "steak" shoots out the exploder. (Source: TWO ... Ikeda cooked up an unusual solution -- make food [video] out of the feces.. The first step is to cook the bacteria, killing ... Ikeda claims that in initial testing people found the feces steak to taste somewhat like beef.. Mr. Ikeda is afraid the main ... Science Japanese Make "Delicious", Nourishing Steaks From Human Feces. Jason Mick (Blog) - June 17, 2011 10:51 AM. ...
dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=21932&commentid=690514&threshhold=1&red=588

*  My Bloody Poopentine - shit feces alcohol | Ask MetaFilter

Anal fissures are a likely cause if you are seeing bright red blood in small amounts (although a small amount of blood can look like a lot to the untrained eye); blood coming from much higher in the GI tract will be dark and tarry, to use the classic medical description. Of course, the best way to find out if it is something more serious is to see a doctor and of course you might want to examine your drinikg habits ...
ask.metafilter.com/49560/My-Bloody-Poopentine

*  Man burns feces behind Seattle police station - Sentinel & Enterprise

A man told officers he had just relieved himself and was burning the feces. He said he did not know starting a fire was illegal ...
sentinelandenterprise.com/entertainment/ci_25888172/man-burns-feces-behind-seattle-police-station

*  Police: Man threatens to throw feces at officers | KVAL

In an attempt to escape, the suspect threatened to throw feces at police. ... In an attempt to escape, the suspect threatened to throw feces at police, according to officers at the scene.. The incident on ... Before being captured, police said Hinton threated to throw his own feces at them. ...
kval.com/news/local/police-man-threatens-to-throw-feces-at-officers

*  Flinging feces at the Iowa State Fair - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel

Flingin' feces isn't weird for Steve Pope. He's the reigning champion four years in a row. ...
articles.orlandosentinel.com/2012-08-30/news/kiah-flinging-feces-at-the-iowa-state-fair-20120830_1_annual-cow-chip-iowa-state-fair-fingers

*  Coprophagia - Dog Eating Feces | Dog and Puppy Training

... especially puppies to eat feces. However, there are ways to train them to stop this behavior. ... Feces found in kitty's litter box is an especially favorite treat.) Fresh feces closely resemble the first solid food the puppy ... Coprophagia - Dog Eating Feces. Recommend this webpage... share with friends !. These articles may also be of interest.... ... Coprophagia - Dog Eating Feces. Why Is My Dog Eating Poop ?. Although most people find it repulsive, it is quite natural for ...
perfectpaws.com/copro.html

*  whats this 'sooper ****************rubuttor' equine feces? | Harmony Central

whats this 'sooper ****************rubuttor' equine feces? 02-05-2013, 08:21 PM. ...
harmonycentral.com/forum/forum/Off-Topic/acapella-12/701169-

*  Man Kills Neighbors in Fight Over Dog Feces: Police - NBC4 Washington

A couple was shot and killed Monday morning in an argument with their neighbor over dog feces, Dallas police say. When officers ... Man Kills Neighbors in Fight Over Dog Feces: Police. Infant not harmed in fatal double shooting. By Frank Heinz. ... Investigators said the couple had been dumping dog feces on the patio and at the front door of Kim's apartment. During the ... A couple was shot and killed Monday morning in an argument with their neighbor over dog feces, Dallas police say. ...
nbcwashington.com/news/national-international/Two-Shot-Killed-in-Argument-Over-Dog-Feces-Police-189797081.html

*  sinus draineage smells and taste like 'feces' - Ear, Nose & Throat - MedHelp

sinus draineage smells and taste like 'feces'. I had a real bad cold and was in bed sick for 3 days and was taking OTC meds for ... feel like i wanna stick my head in a blender.i cant get rid of that smell and taste.food and drinks taste like feces.both the ... feel like i wanna stick my head in a blender.i cant get rid of that smell and taste.food and drinks taste like feces.both the ...
medhelp.org/posts/Ear--Nose--Throat/sinus-draineage-smells-and-taste-like-feces/show/1167536

Bifidobacterium longum: Bifidobacterium longum is a gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacterium. It is a micro-aerotolerant anaerobe and considered to be one of the earliest colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract of infants.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Haustrum (anatomy): The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the large intestine.Bile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).Thermal cyclerCampylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis: Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly L. sanfrancisco) is a species of lactic acid bacteria that helps give sourdough bread its characteristic taste.CecectomyBiotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Eubacterium oxidoreducens: Eubacterium oxidoreducens is a Gram positive bacterium species in the genus Eubacterium.Escherichia coli O121: Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals.http://www.Short-chain fatty acid: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs),"Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth" at asm.org are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail of less than six carbon atoms.Lactic acid fermentationCryptosporidiosisGiardia: Giardia ( or ) is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between an actively swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst.Bismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Clostridium phytofermentans: Clostridium phytofermentans is an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium. It forms spherical spores.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Atoxoplasma: Atoxoplasma is a genus of parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. The species in this genus infect birds.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Alpha SerpentisBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.Porcine intestinal spirochaetosis: Porcine intestinal spirochaetosis is a notifiable pig disease caused by the bacterium Brachyspira pilosicoli. Infection causes mild gastrointestinal signs in young pigs and intestinal spirochetosis in humans, as it is a zoonosis.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Jet aeratorsCarbon-12: Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Bile acid malabsorptionUnited States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Nitrogen deficiencyKennel clubColt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Depth Charge (horse): Depth Charge (1941–1965) was a Thoroughbred son of Bold Venture who went on to become an outstanding sire of American Quarter Horse racehorses.Simmons Legends: Outstanding Quarter Horse Stallions and Mares p.Mutaflor: Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacteria strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.Mutaflor Information page "The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917-designated DSM 6601 in the German Collection for Microorganisms in Braunschweig is one of the best-examined and therapeutically relevant bacterial strains worldwide" as claimed by the manufacturerManufacturers WebsiteReplica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Eimeria acervulina: Eimeria acervulina is a species of Eimeria that causes coccidiosis in older poultry. Lesions are limited to the anterior or first third of the small intestine.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.CampylobacteriosisColes PhillipsHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Goose egg addling: Goose egg “addling” is a wildlife management method of population control for Canada geese and other bird species. The process of addling involves temporarily removing fertilized eggs from the nest, testing for embryo development, terminating embryo development, and placing the egg back in the nest.Obstructed defecation: Obstructed defecation (also known as rectal outlet obstruction, evacuatory dysfunction, obstructed defecation syndrome, outlet constipation, and pelvic outlet obstruction), is "difficulty in evacuation or emptying the rectum [which] may occur even with frequent visits to the toilet and even with passing soft motions". The conditions that can create the symptom are sometimes grouped together as defecation disorders.Cryptosporidium parvum: Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several protozoal species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.Viral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Angang Sewage Disposal Plant: The Angang Sewage Disposal Plant is a sewage treatment plant located in the city of Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It began operating in April, 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install the facilities to prevent the pollution of Hyeongsan River which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Ariostralis nebulosa: Ariostralis nebulosa is a species of air-breathing land slug, a terrestrial, pulmonate, gastropod mollusk in the family Oopeltidae.EnteritisMcIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Coccidiosis: Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from one animal to another by contact with infected feces or ingestion of infected tissue.Clostridium perfringens beta toxin: Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is one of the four major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens Type B and Type C strains. It is a necrotizing agent and it induces hypertension by release of catecholamine.Old German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.Intestinal parasite

(1/13394) Strongyle infections in ponies. I. Response to intermittent thiabendazole treatments.

A group of seven ponies naturally infected with large numbers of small strongyles and raised under conditions to minimize reinfection were treated periodically over a three year span with thiabendazole at the rate of 44 mg/kg body weight. Based on the absence of worm eggs in the feces following each treatment, thiabendazole removed the adult strongyles present with a new population subsequently developing by maturation of inhibited larvae. It took as many as four or five treatments to eliminate or reduce significantly the worm burdens present in the ponies under the conditions of this study. Strongyle eggs started to reappear in the feces about six weeks after treatment and following the first treatment the mean egg counts rose to the pretreatment level. On successive treatments the interval for worm eggs to appear in the feces lengthened and mean egg counts never rose quite as high as immediate pretreatment levels. Hematological changes were not marked, although a small steady increase in the mean hemoglobin values and an equivalent small decrease in the mean eosinophil counts occurred in all ponies following each successive treatment. The study supports the rationale of regular anthelmintic treatment of horses in that even in the absence of reinfection, new burdens of adult worms develop following treatment.  (+info)

(2/13394) Strongyle infections in ponies. II. Reinfection of treated animals.

Five of seven ponies whose strongyle worm burdens had previously been removed or markedly reduced by repeated thiabendazole treatments were reinfected with doses ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 small strongyle infective larvae. Reinfection of ponies resulted in the development of clinical signs characterized by abnormal feces, marked loss of weight and delayed shedding of winter hair coats. An abrupt increase in circulating eosinophils occurred during the first three weeks following reinfection. Patent infections developed in all ponies with worm eggs appearing in the feces from 12 to 15 weeks after receiving infective larvae. Worm egg outputs followed a cyclic pattern with approximately four to five peaks in egg output per year. There was an abrupt drop in the high worm egg counts in two untreated ponies approximately two and a half years after reinfection. No worms were recovered in the feces of these animals when they were subsequently treated, suggesting that a depletion in the number of inhibited larvae present in these ponies might have occurred.  (+info)

(3/13394) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(4/13394) Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis.

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

(5/13394) Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients.

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

(6/13394) Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective.

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

(7/13394) Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration.

The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations +info)

(8/13394) Serotypes and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats.

E. coli strains isolated from urine of dogs and cats with urinary tract infections (UTI) and from feces of healthy one's were serotyped, and the serotypes were correlated with uropathogenic virulence factors. The most prevalent O-serotypes, O4 and O6, were isolated from dogs and cats with UTI. In contrast, O11 and O102 strains were the most frequently found from feces of healthy dogs and cats. Most of type O4 and O6 strains possessed such virulence factors as pil, pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1, while most type O11 and O102 strains pil only or pil and aer. All strains of type O75 possessed afaI and aer. K1 antigen was negative in all strains obtained from UTI.  (+info)



urine


  • Actor and comedian Drew Carey offered a $ 10,000 reward to anyone who would help police find the teenagers who pranked a boy with autism by pouring urine and feces over his head in mockery of the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Requests for more information about the alleged discovery by Capitol law enforcement of visitors toting feces and urine produced little new evidence that could confirm or refute the Texas Department of Public Safety's reports that protesters brought the items to the Senate gallery in preparation for the contentious abortion debate on July 12. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When guards went in to see what he was doing, Crawford threw a milk carton of feces and urine on them. (kmbc.com)
  • AUSTIN, Texas (AP) - Texas Department of Public Safety documents show troopers seized no jars of urine or feces from Capitol visitors the day of debate of controversial abortion bill. (kxii.com)
  • That night, the DPS statement said 18 bottles were seized that were "suspected" of containing feces, while another bottle was confiscated that was "suspected" of containing urine. (kxii.com)

rectum


  • Soon , the feces entered the rectum stage where the nutrients raped it until it was brown . (urbandictionary.com)

leash


  • If your dog eats his own feces, keep him on leash while he defecates and clean up immediately after he is done. (dogster.com)
  • If your dog eats other dogs' feces, keep him on leash when he is in areas where feces is present. (dogster.com)
  • Put your dog on leash and walk him by some feces. (perfectpaws.com)

Suspect


  • In an attempt to escape, the suspect threatened to throw feces at police, according to officers at the scene. (kval.com)

defecates


  • Be sure to clean up your dog's feces immediately after he defecates so as to prevent the problem in the first place. (perfectpaws.com)

biological


  • Feces removal from endorheic septic 372 pcs / about 1808 mA / a, feces removal of part small-scale biological treatment plants 1 587 pcs / approximately 3790 mA / a and fully biological small sewage treatment plants 956 pcs / about 1066 mA / a, central delivery of all types of disposal on the sewage treatment plant chub (data base stand 2013). (thefreedictionary.com)

sauce


  • Some people recommend pouring hot sauce onto feces and allowing dogs to eat it. (dogster.com)
  • The pain from the hot sauce, in theory, will create an aversion to feces. (dogster.com)
  • It is also possible to make the feces unappetizing by sprinkling them with hot sauce, lemon juice or anything the dog finds distasteful. (perfectpaws.com)

reward


  • Whenever he shows no interest in the feces, be sure to tell him how happy you are through praise and reward. (perfectpaws.com)

make


  • For dogs who eat their own feces, products are available that can be added to food and which claim to make the feces unpalatable. (dogster.com)
  • So Mr. Ikeda cooked up an unusual solution -- make food [video] out of the feces. (dailytech.com)

people


  • The idea of pumping one person's feces into another person's intestines makes many people squeamish. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clearly, people want to know why dogs eat feces, and what can be done about it. (dogster.com)
  • People in one northeast Albuquerque neighborhood said they've reported a backyard filled with dog feces to animal control several times this past month. (koat.com)
  • Mr. Ikeda claims that in initial testing people found the feces steak to taste somewhat like beef. (dailytech.com)
  • Although most people find it repulsive, it is quite natural for dogs, especially puppies to eat feces. (perfectpaws.com)

found


  • Feces found in kitty's litter box is an especially favorite treat. (perfectpaws.com)

present


  • Furthermore, a blood parasite would not be expected to be present in feces at detectable amounts (12). (thefreedictionary.com)

dogs


  • First, to answer the question of why dogs eat feces. (dogster.com)
  • The simple answer is that dogs eat feces because they are dogs. (dogster.com)
  • Therefore, dogs ate feces in their role as scavenger. (dogster.com)
  • That said, for well-fed modern dogs, the health risks from eating feces are much greater than the benefits offered by its very slight nutritional value. (dogster.com)

Fresh


  • Fresh feces closely resemble the first solid food the puppy ate: warm, semi-solid, semi-digested food that mom regurgitated for her pups to eat. (perfectpaws.com)

Soon


throw


  • Before being captured, police said Hinton threated to throw his own feces at them. (kval.com)

makes


  • The small fat content, in particular makes the feces steaks healthier than their animal counterpart. (dailytech.com)

keep


  • Continue walking and keep returning to different piles of feces over and over, repeating the off procedure until he gets the idea that you disapprove of his dietary interests. (perfectpaws.com)

prevent


  • In the end, there is only one method that consistently works: physically prevent access to feces. (dogster.com)

past


  • Dear Dr. Barchas, Within the past few months my dog has taken a liking to eating his feces. (dogster.com)